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TKANsHUl'ltvnoN <>K CHIilST. Ur KAI'HAM.. 











KnN-rwi according to Act of C-mgrew, In the year 1873, bj 

in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 





I Srfctcate tljtsf Boatt, 





WHEN I regard a favorite shelf in my library, and consider 
how exhaustively the subjects of this volume have been treated, 
I feel inclined to hide it away ; but when I think how many 
there are in our land who are as much interested in art and 
artists as I am, and have not the means to furnish such a shelf, 
I hope that this book may do something for them. I have also 
endeavored to make it a book of reference which can be easily 
consulted and used to advantage in connection with more exten- 
sive works. Much time and study have been given to its prep- 
aration, and I have aimed to be conscientiously correct as well 
as unprejudiced in my decisions between conflicting authorities. 
The books consulted are too numerous to be named except in 
part, which will be done at the end of this preface. The book 
is not necessarily connected with my work on " Legendary and 
Mythological Art," but the two are so related to each other as 
to be profitably used together. 

The arrangement of engraving lists is, so far as I know, 
unique, and will render it a useful handbook for connoisseurs 
and buyers. 

The illustrations are representations of standard works of 
art, most of which are seen in European galleries and churches. 
A good number of monograms of painters and engravers are 
also given. 

I have endeavored in a small space to speak not only of 
artists as such, but by various facts and anecdotes to convey 
an idea of what they were in character and life. 

Three comprehensive indexes are added, which will increase 
the convenience and usefulness of the book, and in short, in its 
entire plan I have adopted the motto of Jan van Eyck, " Als 

BOSTON, October 14, 1873. 


D'ARGENVILLE. " Abre'ge de la Vic de plus fameux Pcintres." 

D'AGINCOURT. " Histoire de 1'Art par les Monuments." 


BKRMUDEZ. "Diccionario Historico dc los mas Illustrcs Profesorcs de 
las Bellas Artes en Espana." 

BLANC, CHARLES. The Works of. 

CARPENTER. " Memoir of Sir Anthony Vandyck." 

CUNNINGHAM. " Lives of the most Eminent British Painters." 

CROWE AND CAVALCASELLE. " Early Flemish Painters," etc., etc. 

CARTON, L'ABBE. " Lcs Trois Freres Van Eyck." 

EASTLAKE. "Materials for a History of Oil Painting." 

DIDRON. " Manuel d'Iconographie Chre'tienne." 

DAVIES. " Life of Muril'.o." 

FORD. " Handbook of Spain." 

FELIBIEN. " Entrctiens sur les Vies et sur les Ouvrages de plus excel- 
lens Peintres." 

GAYE. " Carteggio Incdits d'Artisti." 

GRIMM. "Life of Michael Angelo." 

HELLER. "Das Leben nnd die Werkc Albrecht Diirers." 

JA.MESON, MRS. " Italian Painters." 

KUGLER. Handbooks of Italian, German, Dutch, and Flemish Paint- 

LANZI. " Storia Pittorica dell' Italia." 


LUBKE. Histories of Painting and Sculpture. 

MICHIEL. " Rubens et 1'Ecole d'Anvcrs." 

MICHIEL. " La Pcintro Flamande." 

MASCHINI " Guida di Venczia." 

MILANESI. " Documcnti per la Storia dell 'Artc Scncse." 

MERRIFIELD, MRS. Translation of "Ccnnino Cennini's Treatise on 

NORTHCOTE. " Life of Sir Joshua Reynolds " 

PASSAVANT. " Rafael von Urbino," etc. 

RACZYNSKF. " Lcs Arts en Portugal." 

RUMOUR. "Italienische Forschungcn." 

RAMBOUX. " Umrisse ztir veranschaulichung alt Christlichen Kunst in 

SCIIAFER. Translation, " Das Handbuch der Malerei vom Borgc 


SHAW. " Illuminated Omaments sketched from MSS., etc." 
STIRLING. " Annals of the Artists of Spain." 
VOSMAER. " Rembrandt Harmens van Rijn." 
VILLOT. " Notice des Tableaux du Louvre." 
VASARI. " Lives of Painters, Sculptors, Architects," etc. 
VERMIGLIOLI. Memoir, etc., of Pinturicchio and Perugino. 
WALPOLE. " Anecdotes of Painting." 
WORNUM. " Epochs of Painting." 

Dictionaries and Catalogues : Bartsch, Bryan, Elmes, Heineken, Nag- 
ler, Pilkington, Rigollot, Seguicr, Smith, etc. 


Card. Cardinal. 
Cath. Cathedral. 
Ch. Church. 
Coll. Collection. 

Gall. Gallery. 
Gio. Giovanni. 
A/MS. Museum. 
S. Saint. 


TRANSFIGURATION OF CHRIST. Raphael. Vatican . Frontispiece. 


LAOCOON. Vatican 7 

CUPIDS. Francisco Albani 14 

MAGDALENE. Correggio. Dresden Gall 26 

SPALATRO. Washington Allston 31 

THE FALSE PLAYERS. Caravaggio 39 

DIRCE. Naples 49 

HEAD OF ROXANA. Farncsina, Rome ....... 81 


CHRIST. Gio. Bellini 94 

RELIEF. From Pulpit, in Sta. Croce, Florence 97 

MILKING A GOAT. Nicolas Berchem 100 

APOLLO AND DAPHNE. Villa Borghese, Rome 105 


S. JUSTINA AND ALPHONSO I. OF FERRARA. Belvedere, Vienna . . 122 

CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN. S. Simpliciano, Milan .... 123 

ISAIAH. M. Angelo. Sistine Chapel, Rome 150 

MOSES. M. Angelo. S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome 157 

ADORATION OK THE MAGI. Paul Veronese. Dresden Gall. . . . 168 

VENUS AND MARS. A. Carracci. Farnese Pal., Rome .... 194 

S. JOHN. Cimabue. S. Maria Novella, Florence 209 

DEATH OF S. MARY OF EGYPT. Pietro da Cortona 225 

GROUP. From a painting by Lucas Cranach ...... 230 

S. LUCIA. Crivdli 234 

COMMUNION OF S. JEROME. Domenichino. Vatican .... 247 

PICTURE BY G. Dow. Vienna Gall 252 


Siena 255 

S. CHRISTOPHER. Albert Diirer 258 

THE ANCHORITES. Hubert van Eyck. From the Ghent Painting . . 267 

ANNUNCIATION. J. van Eyck 268 

THE ECSTASY OF S. CATHERINE. Gaudenzio Ferrari .... 273 

CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN. Fra Angelico. Acad. of Florence . 276 

MADONNA. Fr. Francia. Dresden 284 

RELIEF. From Ghiberti's Gate to the Baptistery at Florence . . 296 

Maria Novella, Florence 29V 

THE CONCERT. Giorgione. Pitti Gall 305 

FIGURE OF S. JOHN. Giotto. From Painting in S. Maria dell' Arena, 

Padua . 307 

FROM THE HISTORY OF NOAH. Benozzo Gozzoli. Campo Santo, Pisa 313 

S. PETRONILLA. Guercino. Capitol, Rome 319 



MARRIAGE A LA MODE. Hogarth. National Gall. .... :}:;-2 

THE HURGOMASTEU MEIER MADONNA. Holbein. Dresden Gall. . 3:i7 

CATHEDRAL OK S. MARK. Venice. Byzantine Architecture . . :!44 

STILL LIFE. Kalf 35.3 

TEMPTATION OF CHRIST. Lucas van Leyden .... .366 

Brancacci Chapel :j~2 

S. URSULA. Cath. of Cologne. Stephan Lothener 379 

CHRISTMOUKNEDBYA.M.II.-. Mantegiia. Berlin Mus. . . . 388 

PETER BAPTIZING. Masaccio. S. Maria del Carmine, Florence . . i'.i'i 

THE MISERS. Q. Massys. Windsor Castle :i!t7 

S. URSULA LANDING AT COLOGNE. Hans Memling. Shrine of S. Ursula 40:2 

A SPORTSMAN. Metsu. At the Hague 4<W 

S. JOHN. Murillo. Madrid Mus 418 


Rome 4-_'.t 

SAMSON OVERCOMING THE LION. Master Nicolau*. Kli)>ter-N T euber^ 4-JS 
uted to Orcagna. Campo Santo, Pisa 432 

CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN. Imhoff Altar-piece, Nuremberg . . 4-18 

THE THREE GRACES. Palma Vecchio, Dresden Gall. . . . 441 
RELIEF ON A BAPTISMAL BASIN. Lambert Patras. S. Bartln'-K-my, 

Liege "440 

MADONNA. Perugino. Pitti Gall., Florence 4.".0 

RAISING OF LAZARUS. Sebastian del Piombo. National Gall. . . 4:>7 
A DONATION OF THE KINGS. Nicoolo Pisano. Pulpit in Baptistery ;it 

Pisa 4.")!) 

HKAD OF JUNO. Ludovisi Villa. Rome 463 

THE DESCENT FROM THE CROSS. Fra Bartolommeo. Pitti Gall. . . 41;:, 

MOSES AT THE SPUING. N. Poussin 467 

A SATYR. After Praxiteles. Capitol, Rome 40!) 

RAPE OF GANYMEDE, Rembrandt. Dresden Gall 489 

THE AURORA. Guido Reni. Rospigliosi Pal., Rome .... 497 

LEAR, A STUDY. Sir Joshua Reynolds 502 

MADONNA IN TmtRA-OoTTA. Luca della Robbia 510 

CHILDREN. Rubens. Berlin Gall. -VJ4 

THK F.XTOMBMENT OF CHRIST. Jacopo Sansavino. From the Bronze 

Gate of the Sacristy of S. Mark, Venice .Vi.S 

MADONNA. Andrea del Sarto Mo 

FROM THK L\ST .Irix.MKvr. Siirnorelli. Cath. of On-ieto . . "'M' 
PHTI-I:E. By TVniers. Madrid Gall. . . .... 

AI.I.E(.OI:U AI, PICTI KK. Tintoretto. Dop>'s Pal., Venice . . . :<'> 

8. SEBASTIAN. Titian. Vatican 

THE CHILDIJES OF CHARLES I. Vandyck. Dresden Gall. - . 587 

Por.ritAiT Velasquez 

JOHN. Pi. in:. AM> JUDAS. Da Vinci. Milan 608 

TOMB OK S. SKIIALD. P. Vischer. Nuremberg 613 

I'.Ki.n r i KOM THE To MH OF S. SKI-.AI.D. P. Vischcr. Nurcnibi TLT . 014 

Mu?. . 020 

SHED WITH HORSES. Philip Wonvennaus 02- r > 



Aalst or Aelst, Evert or Everhard Van, born at Delft (1602- 
1658). Painted dead birds, game, instruments of the chase, armor, 
vases, etc., with great exactness in detail. He sometimes used a 
clear or white ground, which is very effective. His characteristics 
were truthfulness and heaviness of tone. Dresden Gall., Nos. 1126, 
1127; Berlin Mas., 921, 936. 

Aalst or Aelst, Wilhelm or "William Van, born at Delft, 1620 ; 
died at Amsterdam, 1679. The nephew and pupil of Everhard, 
whom he much excelled. He also painted still life, dead birds, oys- 
ters, herrings, etc. His favorite subjects were fruit and other eat- 
ables, with accessories of glass and rich vessels of gold and silver. 
He spent some years in France and Italy. Was employed by the 
Grand Duke of Tuscany, who presented him with a gold medal and 
chain. lie returned to Holland in 1656, where his works were in 
great demand. They are of exquisite polish and finish. Dresden 
Gall., Nos. 1128, 1129, 1130 ; Berlin Mus., 975. 

Abate, Andrea, called Belvedere. Said to have died in 1 732 ; 
but there are reasons for believing that he died several years earlier 
than that time. He was a Neapolitan, and excelled in painting 
(lowers, fruit, etc. He was employed by Charles II. of Spain, and 
together with Luca Giordano, who painted figures, executed a part 
of the ornamentation of the Escurial. 

Abbate, or dell' Abate, Niccolo. Called also Niccolo da Modena. 
Born at Modena, 1509 ; died at Paris, 1571. He was a pupil of Bega- 
relli, and, it is supposed, of Correggio, which opinion is confirmed 
by his knowledge of foreshortening. Algarotti enumerated him 
" among the first that had adorned the world." His frescoes in Bo- 
logna were models for the Cai'acci ; and Agostino Caracci said in a 
sonnet, that in Niccolo were united the symmetry of Raphael, the 
terror of Michael Angelo, the truth of Titian, the dignity of Cor- 
reggio, the composition of Tibaldi, and the grace of Parmigianino. 


At the Castle of Scandiano he executed twelve scenes from the 
/Eneid, which are now in the Florence Gallery. He painted his fres- 
coes so correctly that he seldom retouched them ; this \v;is the secret 
of his beautiful coloring. At Bologna he painted a beautiful " Na- 
tivity " in the portico of the Lions, and in a frieze in the hall of the 
Institute his celebrated " Conversazione/' of ladies and youths. In 
l.Wj he accompanied Primaticcio to Fontaineblean, and painted 
thirty-eight scenes from the history of Ulysses, from the designs of 
that master. After Primaticcio died, Niccolo was employed by the 
French court during his life. His "Ik-heading of S. Paul " i- at 
Dresden ; and ' The Rape of Proserpine," with a "rich, fantastically 
lighted landscape," is at Stafford House Gall. 

Abbiati, Filippo, born at Milan (16-10-1715). Pupil of " il Pan- 
filo." A man of great talent and powers of invention; well fitted 
for colossal labors. He competed with FederigO Bianchi. at Milan, 
in painting the ceiling of S. Alessandro Martire. One of his best 
works was the " Preaching of S. John the Baptist," at Sarono. 

Abbot, Lemuel, born at Leicestershire, England ; died 1803. Pupil 
of Francis Hayman. Truthfulness was his characteristic, and por- 
traits of men his best works. Those of " Cowper " and "Lord 
Nelson " were especially fine. 

Abel do Pujol, Alexander Denis, born at Valenciennes (1787- 
1861). Succeeded Gros, and became a member of the Institute in 
1835. He painted " The History of Joseph" on the ceiling of the 
Antique Museum of the Louvre. In Notre Dame an altar-piece. 
"The Burial of the Virgin," and "The Preaching of S. Stephen," 
in S. Hhienne du Mont, are by this master. 

Abel, Joseph, died at Vienna (17G8-1818). Pupil of Fiiger. He 
was employed by the Czartorysky family. II- passed six years in 
Rome, and gained a reputation by his pictures illustrative of ancient 
history and Greek poetry. At Vienna he. painted large historical 
subjects and decorated the theatre. 

Abildgaard, Nikolai, born at Copenhagen (1744-1800). He has 
been called the best painter of Denmark. His principal pictures 
were subjects taken from the ancient poets. When the palace of 
Christianliori: was burned in 1794. some of his best works were de- 
stroyed. Fiissli relates that this so affect cd his mind that he painted 
but little afterwards. 

Abshoven, or Apshoven (1648-1690). Kugler calls him Mi- 
chael; he i-: also called Theodore van Abshoven. and F. van Ap- 
shoven. He was a favorite scholar and successful imitator of David 
Teniers the younger. His pictures, like those; of his master, repre- 
sent village festivals, scenes from peasant life, etc. They are fre- 
quently seen in Flanders, where they are placed in the best collec- 
tions. Dealers in pictures have, been in the, habit of taking his 
name from his works and substituting that of Teniers. 


Acevedo, Cristobal, born at Murcia. Pupil of Bartolome Cardu- 
cho at Madrid in 1 585. He painted at Murcia for the chapel of the 
college of S. Fulgencio a picture of that saint adoring the Virgin, 
and some other works for convents, which prove him to have been a 
good artist. 

Achen or Ach, Hans Van, born at Cologne 

y\ 1552; died at Prague 1615. A pupil of Jer- 
righ, afterwards an imitator of Bartholomew 
Spranger. He passed some time in Italy, and after his return was 
employed by the courts of Cologne and Prague. Specimens of his 
ecclesiastical pictures are to be seen in the ch. of Our Lady, and 
in the Jesuit ch. at Munich, where he painted the "Resurrection 
of Christ," and the ' Finding of the True Cross by S. Helena." Three 
of his pictures are in the Vienna Gall.: " Bathsheba Bathing," 
after the style of Tintoretto ; ' Bacchus with Venus ; " and " Jupiter 
and Antiope." 

Achtschelling, Lucas, born at Brussels (about 1570-1631). Pupil 
of Louis de Vadder. Painted landscapes, which are highly esteemed 
in the Low Countries. Three large works of his are in the collegiate 
ch. of S. Gudula at Brussels. 

Acosta, Cayetano, born in Portugal (1710-1 780). It is not known 
under what master he studied, if at all, but he settled in Seville, 
calling himself a sculptor. He made a high altar for the collegi- 
ate ch. of San Salvador, in which he disregarded all architectural 
rules. Here, as in other places, a more beautiful structure was re- 
moved to make way for his. The barefooted friars of Mercy em- 
ployed him to carve three figures to replace those of Montanes ; and 
CVan Bermudez asserts that even the inestimable works of Alonso 
Cano were put aside to be replaced by the deformities of Acosta. He 
left a son and nephew, also wood-carvers, and no better than himself. 

Adda, Conte Francesco d', born at Milan, died 1550. An ama- 
teur painter of small pictures on panels and slate, for private cabinets. 
He imitated Leonardo da Vinci. An altar-piece in the ch. of S. 
Maria delle Gra/ie at Milan, is attributed to him. 

Adolfi, Giacomo, born at Bergamo (1682-1741). In the ch. 
of the monastery Del Paradiso, at Bergamo, is his picture of the 
" Crowning of the Virgin," which is considered one of his best ; that 
of the " Adoration of the Magi " is in the ch. of S. Alessandro della 

Adolfi, Giro, born at Bergamo (1683-1758). Brother of Giacomo. 
Distinguished himself in fresco painting in the edifices of Bergamo. 
The "Four Evangelists" in the ch. of S. Alessandro della Croce, 
and the "Deposition from the Cross " in S. Maria delle Grazie, are. 
his principal works. The " Decollation of S. John," by this master, 
in the ch irch at Colognola is a'so admired. 

Adriano. A barefooted Carmelite of Cordova. Pupil of Paul 


de Cespedes. His convent had for a long time a Mairdelene by 
Adriano, which was considered a Titian. He was in tin- haliit of 
destroying his works because they seemed to him so interior. But 
his brethren have preserved a few by interceding in the name- i 
souls in purgatory, a fraud easily forgiven by the lover of art. He 
left a great name; " great in art. and still greater in piety." 

Adrianssen, Alexander, born at Antwerp (1625-1685). An ex- 
cellent painter of still-life. He painted fish remarkably well. Berlin 
Mus., Nos. 922, 952, and 240. 

Aelst, Everhard Van. See Aalst. 

Aelst, Wilhelm Van. See Aalst. 

Aerts, Richard, born at Wyck 1482; died at Antwerp 1.177. 
Son of a poor fisherman. When a boy his leg was so badly burned, 
as to necessitate amputation. During his confinement he manifested 
such a talent for sketching, that he was placed with an artist to 
study, John Moestaert, the elder, of Haerlem. He became one of 
the ablest artists of his time. His first works after leaving school, 
were two scenes from the life of Joseph, painted on the folding 
panels of an altar-piece in the great ch. at Haerlem. He removed 
to Antwerp, and was admitted to the Academy there in l.~>2<>. 

Aertszen, Pieter, called Lange Peer, born at Amsterdam. 
Writers differ as to the year of his birth, 1.107-17, and 19, are all 
given. Died at Amsterdam in 1573. He was a pupil of Allard 
Claessen. When quite young he painted genre pictures, whieh were 
spirited and well colored. He then applied himself to Scriptural 
subjects. He painted numerous large altar-pieces in Amsterdam, 
Delft, Louvain, etc. These were destroyed by the Iconocla>ts in 
1566. One of his most celebrated works was an altar-piece for the 
ch. of Our Lady at Amsterdam. It was a triptych, the centre 
compartment represented the " Death of the Virgin Mary," with the 
Nativity and the Adoration of the Magi upon the folding panels. 
For this he is said to have received two thousand crowns. Michael 
Coxie of Mechlin, a great artist, was asked to paint an altar-piece 
for a new church in Amsterdam, but when he saw the works of 
Aertszen he refused, saying that they had no need of him while they 
had such an arti.-t in their own city. He sometimes painted market 
M't-ncs, one of which is in the Vienna Gall., Antwerp Mus.. No. l.V.t; 
Berlin Mus.. No. 726. His three sons, Peter, Arnold, and Theodore, 
were all painters. 

Action. A Greek painter, sometimes said to have lived in the time 
of Alexander ; but Lucian, in his account of him, distinctly savs that 
he did not live in ancient times, and it is generally believed that he 
was of the time of Hadrian and the Antonines. ll\< great work 
described by Lucian, reproented the " Nuptials of Alexander and 
Roxane," with Erotes busy about them, and the armor of the kin-j. 
This picture excited so much admiration when exhibited at the 


Olympic games, that Proxenidas, one of the judges, exclaimed, 
" I reserve crowns for the heads of the Athletic, but I give my 
daughter in marriage to the painter Action, as a recompense for his 
inimitable picture." This painting was carried to Rome, where 
Lucian saw it. Aetion seems to have excelled in the art of mixing 
and laying on his colors. 

Afesa, Pietro. Flourished about 1650. Was called della Basili- 
cata, because a native of the province of that name, a part of the 
kingdom of Naples. His works are in many churches and convents 
of Naples. One much esteemed is in the chapel of the monastery at 
Marsico Xuovo, and represents the " Assumption of the Virgin 
Mary." Domiuici mentions Afesa very favorably. 

Agabiti, Pietro Paolo, born at Sassoferrato. Some of his works 
are in that place, in the ch. of S. Agostino, and are dated 1514. 

Agaptos. Spooner says that " According to Pausanias, Agaptos, 
a Grecian architect, invented the porticoes around the square attached 
to the Greek stadii, or racecourses of the gymnasiums, which gained 
him so much reputation, that they were called the Porticoes of Agap- 
tos, and were adopted in every stadium." 

Agar, Jacques d', born at Paris 1640; died at Copenhagen 1716. 
He was a scholar of Simon Vouet, but became a portrait painter. 
He went to England and painted many of the nobility of the reign of 
Queen Anne. He was afterwards invited to the Danish court, where 
he was much patronized. His portrait, painted by himself, is in the 
Florentine Gall, of Artists. 

Agasias. Sculptor of Ephesus. Three Ephesians of this name 
are mentioned. Agasias, son of Dositheus, whose name is on the 
Borghese " Gladiator ; " Agasias, son of Menophilus, a sculptor in the 
island of Delos when it was tinder Roman sway, about 100 B. c.; and 
Agasias, father of Heraclides, on a statue in the Louvre, 411. This 
was probably the name of an Ephesian family of artists, or had been 
made famous by one great master. The Borghese " Gladiator," Louvre, 
304, and the " Apollo Belvedere" were discovered among the ruins of a 
palace of the Roman Emperors at Antium. From the attitude of the 
so-called " Gladiator," it is plain that it represents a warrior contend- 
ing with a horseman. Miiller thinks it may have been taken from a 
large battle group, in order to finish it with greater refinement of art. 
Thiersch thinks it may be Achilles contending with Penthesilea. 
This Agasias probably lived about 400 B. c. The sculptor of the 
Apollo Belvedere is not known. Until recently it has been thought 
that the god held a bow ; but the discovery of a statuette, which 
agrees with it in all essential points, has afforded a much more 
satisfactory explanation of the action represented. It is that he 
held the JEgis with the Gorgoneia, which had a paralyzing effect, and 
was lent to Apollo by Jupiter, according to Homer (" Iliad," xv. 318, 
el seq,). Ludwig Preller believes that this statue represents Apollo in 


the battles with the Gauls before Delphi. Liihke says : " Not till 
now have we understood the Apollo Belvedere Ardently ex- 
cited, and filled with divine anger, with which is mingled a touch <>t 
triumphant scorn, the intellectual head is turned sidewards " (sec 
figure), "while the figure with elastic step is hastening forwards. 
The eye seems to shoot forth lightning; there is an expression of con- 
tempt in the corners of the mouth ; and the distended nostrils seern 
to breathe forth divine anger." 



Agatharcus, an Athenian painter. Vitruvius says he was the in- 
vent.or of scene-painting, and painted a scene for a tragedy which 
/Ksehylus exhibited. This contradicts Aristotle, who says that 
Sophocles introduced this art. Dr. Smith thinks that pnihably 
scene-painting was introduced towards the close of the career of 
.I'^ehvlus, but was not in general use until the time of Sophocles. 
There wa< another Greek painter named Agatharcus, of the time ot 
Alcibiadcs, who had no great merit, and prided himself chiefly on 
the rapidity with which he worked. 


Ageladas, native of Argos. Distinguished as a sculptor, and 
the instructor of the three great masters, Phidias, Myron, and Poly- 
cletus. The contradictory statements of the writers who mention this 
name, have given rise to much discussion as to when he lived, all of 
which has resulted in the opinion that there were two sculptors of 
this name. The instructor of Phidias, the Argive, was most eminent, 
and was born about 540 u. c. The other a native of Sicyon, who 
flourished in the 87th Ol. as mentioned by Pliny, or about 432 B. c. 

Agesander, native of the island of Rhodes. Pliny is the only 
writer who speaks of him, and but one work of his is known, the 
' Laocob'n " of the Vatican. In this he was assisted by Polydorus and 
Athenodorus. Another statue, found at Antium, shows that Atheno- 
dorus was the son of Agesander. It is thought not unlikely that 
Polydorus was also his son, and that the figure of Laocoon was exe- 
cuted by the father, and the remaining figures by the sons. This 
group was found near the baths of Titus, on the Esquiline Hill, in 
1506. It is considered a most perfect work by all competent judges, 
and is very wonderful from the fact, that while it portrays the most 
intense suffering in every feature, limb, and muscle, it still has the 
sublime repose of true Grecian art. Laocoon was a priest of Apollo, 


and had committed some crime against that god. who sent two im- 
mense serpents from the island Tenedos to kill him just as he was 
ottering a sacrifice, assisted by his two sons. Laocob'n had opposed 
the reception into Troy of the horse left by the Greeks; and his 
death was believed by the Trojans to be a divine punishment for 
this; therefore a was made in the walls and the horse admit- 
ted ; thus the death of the priest decided the ruin of Troy. 

Agi, Andrea Cardelle. The Berlin Museum has a marriage of 
S. Catherine which is attributed to this painter. The expre.->ion is 
good. A small " Madonna " by him which was in the Beckford Coll., 
was remarkable for its fused execution. 

Aglaophon. Greek artist, native of the island of Thasos. The 
father and teacher of Polygnotus. He had another son. Aristophon. 
He probably lived about Ol. 70 (B. c. 500). Quintilian prai.-ed 
his coloring. Pliny speaks of a younger Aglaophon, contemjMira- 
neous with Alcibiades. He was probably the son of Aristophon, .-is 
the Greeks bore the name of the grandfather rather than the father. 
In one picture this artist represented the presiding geniuses of the 
Olympic and Pythian games, Olympias and Pythia. as crowning 
Alcibiades, and in another, the genius of the Xemean games held 
Alcibiades in her lap. Alcibiades could not have won am victories 
which merited these honors before Ol. 91 (B. c. 416). It is said 
that this Aglaophon is the first artist who represented Victory with 

Aglio, Andrea-Salvatore di Antonio di Arzo, l>orn at Lugano 
(173G-1786). Said to have discovered the method of fixing colors 
on marble. 

Agnolo, Sienese sculptor. See Agostino and Agnolo. 

Agnolo, Baccio d 1 (1460-1543). In his youth he was an ex- 
cellent artist in inlaid works. lie executed some fine things in wood 
for the churches of S. Maria Novella, and the Xunziata at Flor- 
ence. These last were removed when the Xunziata was re-adorned. 
After studying zealously at Home, he returned to Florence, where he 
became a great architect. He erected several arches of triumph 
when Pope Leo visited that city. His work-shop, which he seldom 
left, became the rendezvous of artists and the young men of Florence, 
as well as strangers there, and in it many discus>ions were held. At 
length after he had proved his ability, the most magnificent buildings 
were committed to his care. lie assisted with other architects to 
construct the Great Hall of the Palace, and carved with his own hand 
the frame-work for the large picture sketched by Fra Bartolomeo. 
lie also took part in the erection of the steps leading to the Hall 
now called that of the D.igento. and also the marble doors to the 
same. On the Piazza di Santa Trinitii he constructed a palace for 
Gio. Bartolini. This was ridiculed in sonnets, and every way. be- 
cause of its unusual style, and festoons of foliage hung on it as on 


a church during a festival. This drove Baccio almost insane, but he 
knew the work was good, and he had his revenge by carving this 
inscription above the door, Carpere prompdus quam imitari. He then 
built many other beautiful palaces ; and for Giovan-Maria Benintendi 
made a frame-work for certain pictures which was esteemed ex- 
traordinarily beautiful. He made the model for the ch. of S. Giu- 
seppe at S. Onofrio, and erected its portal. This was his last 
work. He directed the work of the Campanile of Santo Spirito of 
Florence, but he did not finish it He also built the bell-tower of 
S. Miniato-in-Monte. lie was at length appointed architect of 
S. Maria del Fiore, and made a model for the gallery encirclino- 
the cupola, but Michael Angelo so criticised it, that a discussion was 
held before competent judges, and in the end neither plan was 
adopted. Baccio then attended to the pavement of S. Maria del 
Fiore and to the care of many other buildings that were trusted to 
him. He was eighty-two years old when he died. He was buried 
in S. Lorenzo. His three sons, Giuliano, Filippo, and Domenico 
were all artists. 

Agnolo, Giuliano, son of the preceding, gave much of his atten- 
tion to architecture, and by the favor of the Duke Cosimo he suc- 
ceeded to his father's office at S. Maria del Fiore, and finished what 
he had there commenced, as well as in many other buildings which 
Baccio had left unfinished. He made at Pescia a beautiful tomb, 
which was surrounded by a chapel, for Messer Baldassare, and also 
restored his house and furnished it. He built a house at Montughi, 
a short distance from Florence, for Messer Francisco Campana, and 
at Colle another house for the same Campana. and a most magnifi- 
cent palace al Tedesco for Messer Ugolino Grivoni, Signer of Alto- 
pascio. But space would not allow the enumeration of all his works. 
He was associated also with Baccio Bandinelli in various affairs, one 
of which was the reconstruction of the great hall in the ducal palace. 
which was a failure, according to Vasari ; another was the choir in 
S. Maria del Fiore, etc., etc. He also made couches, picture-frames, 
and various wood carvings Died 1555. 

Agnolo, Domenico. He excelled Giuliano in wood-carving, and 
was a reputable architect. He completed the terrace for the house 
of the Xasi family, which his father had commenced, and executed 
several good architectural works. He promised to excel both his 
father and brother, but died before he reached his prime. 

Agoracritus, born in the island of Faros. Scholar of Phidias. 
Brass-caster and sculptor. He was so much the favorite of Phidias, 
that the master is even said to have put the name of this disciple 
upon some of his own works. Four of the works of Agoracritus are 
mentioned by different authors : namely a statue of Zeus ; a statue of 
the Ionian Athene, in the temple dedicated to her at Athens ; a statue 
in the temple of the great goddess at Athens, probably a Cybele ; 


and the Rhamnusian Nemesis. It is said of this last that it was 
originally a Venus, for Agoraeritus and Alcamenes contended with 
each other in making a statue of that goddess, and when the Athe- 
nians gave the preference to the statue of Alcamenes, Agoraeritus 
changed his to a Nemesis, and sold it to the people of Rhamnus. 
making the condition that it should not be set up in Athens. Al- 
though this story is often repeated, it is not known to he true, and 
Pausanias says that this same Nemesis was the work of Phidias ; hut 
be that as it may, there is no doubt that Agoraeritus was a great 
sculptor from 440 to 428 u. C. and the other works attributed to him 
were undoubtedly his own. 

Agostino and Agnolo, Sienese sculptors, died l.'US and 1350. 
In 1284 Giovanni Pisano visited Siena to prepare designs for the 
Cathedral. Agostino, said to have been at this time about fifteen 
years old, became his pupil. So great was his talent, and his appli- 
cation to study, that he soon surpassed his co-diseiples. Meantime 
his young brother, Agnolo, had made some secret attempts at sculp- 
ture, and from constant intercourse with Agostino and other artists 
had acquired a love for their art. At length Agostino prevailed 
upon Giovanni to employ Agnolo, together with himself, in executing 
a marble altar for Arezzo. Agnolo so acquitted himself, that Gio- 
vanni continued to employ the two at Pistoja. Pisa. etc. They ;dso 
studied architecture, and in 1308 were employed by the Nine, who 
ruled Siena, to make designs for a palace. When Giovanni died they 
were appointed architects to the State, and in 1317 directed the 
building of the north front of the Cathedral. After desi'_riiini_ r the 
Porta Romana and other ^ales, a church, convent, etc.. they were 
invited to Orvieto by the Tolomei family, and there executed sculp- 
tures for the ch. of S. Maria. In 132G Giotto visited Orvieto, 
and pronouncing the Sienese brothers the best sculptors who had 
worked there, recommended them to Piero Saccone da Pietramala, 
:\s the best persons he could employ to construct the tomb of Guido, 
bishop and lord of Arezzo. This work they did after the plan of 
Giotto, which occupied them three years. The tomb was very beau- 
tiful, and was adorned with sixteen relievi. representing the principal 
events in the life of Guido. They then executed an altar for the 
ch. of S. Francisco at P>olo_rna. and when '.he I 'ope promi-ed to 
remove to that city, tlioe >culp;ors were employed to make designs 
for the eastle fortress to be built for his reception. AYhile they 
were at Bolo_nia the Po burst its banks and caused great destruction 
of life and property. Tins,' brothers found means to rccondnet it to 
its channel, and for this were honorably rewarded by the lords of 
Mantua, and the house of Kste. In 1338 they returned to Siena. 
where a new church wa- erected after their designs, and they were 
employed to construct a fountain on the principal piazza of the city. 
This was successfully done, and the water let on June 1, 1343, greatly 


to the joy of the Sienese, and the glory of the artists. After several 
other works in Siena, Agnolo went to Assisi to build a tomb, while 
Agostino remained at Siena in the service of the state, where he 
soon after died. It is not known where Agnolo died. 

Agresti, Livio, called also Livio da Forli, from the place of his 
birth, the date of which is not known, died about 1585. He was 
a fellow-student with Luca da Ravenna under Pierino del Vaga at 
Rome. Vasari calls him the rival of Luca. There are works of 
Agresti in many churches and public buildings at Rome. In S. 
Caterina de Funari he painted an " Annunciation" and " SS. Peter 
and Paul." In a chapel of S. Spirito in Sassia, the " Assumption of 
the Virgin." Pope Gregory XIII. employed him to assist in the great 
works at the Vatican, where he painted a fresco in the grand stair- 
case, representing the submission of Philip of Arragon to Pope 
Eugenius III. But his best works arc in Forli. In a chapel of the 
Cathedral he painted the " Last Supper," and in the vault some fine 
figures of the prophets. He also painted seven pictures on cloth of 
silver, to be used as hangings for the Card, of Augusta, who sent 
them as a present to the King of Spain, in which country they were 
thought, very beautiful. lie also painted a picture on cloth of silver 
for the ch. of the Theatines in Forli. 

Agricola, Christopher Ludwig, born at Regensburg (1GG7-1 719). 
Portrait and landscape painter. He studied principally from nature 
when travelling, and his pictures resemble those of Poussin. He 
lived some time at Naples, and some of the pictures he painted there 
were carried to England. In the Dresden Gall, there are two works 
of his, Nos. 1784 and 1785. The Vienna Gall, has one of his finest 
landscapes, representing the ruins of a monument and the pillars of 
a temple, seen between the trees. 

Agua, Bernardino del, a Venetian painter. He executed frescoes 
in the cloister of the court of the Evangelists at the Escurial. These 
he did under the direction of Tibaldi, and after the sketches of that 
master, who attributed the defects in them to the haste with which 
Philip II. would have them done, rather than to any fault of Agua. 

Agiiero, Benito Manuel de, born at Madrid (1G26-1670), pupil 
of Martinez. When Philip IV. visited the studio of that master he 
was attracted by Aguero's wit as much as by his artistic powers. 
He painted a " S. Ildefonso " for the nuns of S. Isabel, which was 
like Titian in color. His usual subjects and those in which he ex- 
celled were battle-scenes and views of cities. 

Aguiar, Tomas de, a gentleman of Madrid, flourished about 
1660. He acquired considerable reputation for small pictures in oil. 
He painted the portrait of Antonio de Solis, who in return wrote an 
extravagant sonnet in praise of Aguiar. 

Aguirre, Francisco de, a pupil of Caxes. He was a portrait- 
painter and restorer of pictures, to which last profession he espe- 


cially devoted himself. He commenced at Toledo in 1641], and was 
employed to restore the pictures in the Cathedral. Like manv 
others who have done like work, he did not adhere to the original. 
but introduced his own ideas, thus destroying the true value of the 

Ainemolo, Vincenzo, born at Palermo, died 1540. The most 
important Sicilian artist of the sixteenth century. It is believed 
that he went to Naples, where he studied the style of Perugino. He 
went at length to Koine, and became famous as an imitator of Raphael. 
His works are mostly in Palermo, and the best one represents the 
"Virgin and Child" between four saints. It is in the ch. of 8. 
Pietro Martire. At S. Domenico there is a " Descent from the 
Cross," which is. in some of its figures, almost a copy of Raphael's 
' Spasimo di Siciiia." In several other churches of Palermo, and in 
its gallery, there are works of this artist. 

Aikman, William, born in Aberdeenshire (1682-1731). lie 
studied law, but in 1707 left Scotland, and travelled extensively on 
the Continent, and in the East. He next spent some years in Rome, 
and studied painting under Sir John Medina, and then established 
himself as a portrait-painter in Edinburgh. lie had no success. ;;nd 
in 1723 removed to London, where he became the friend of Sir (', 1- 
frey Kneller, whom he imitated. His career was short. There is 
a head of Gay by Aikman, which is good. lie bad <_ r ood literary 
parts, and was the friend of Allan Ramsay, and of Thomson, who 
wrote his elegy. He was taken to Scotland for burial. 

Aken, Joseph van, died in London 1749. A Flemish artist, he 
]>a--ril most of his life in England, and painted on velvet and satin 
with great success. He was often employed by other artists to paint 
figures in landscapes, in which he was very .skilful. 

Akerboom. Dutch painter of interiors, who flourished about the 
middle of the seventeenth century. His pictures are very highly 

Akers, Benjamin, called also Paul, born at Saccarappa, Maine, 
1825, died at Philadelphia, 18ol. His father owned a saw-mill, in 
which as a boy he spent much time. His most striking characteris- 
tics were intense attachments to persons and places, and extreme 
love of adventure and travel. When at work in the saw-mill, by 
means of a turning lathe, he made beautiful toys, and specimens i-f 
ornamental wo. id-work, from original designs, lit- invented a -liiu- 
gle machine, which is now in use. He went to Portland and tried to 
be a printer. He also attempted to paint, but it was not until his 
attention was attracted to a plaster cast that his true vocation was 
revealed to him. He went in 1<SC) to Boston and was instructed in 
plaster-casting by Joseph C'arew. He returned home, and after a 
few attempts at moulding, in a good degree successful, he opened a 
studio in Portland wish Tilton, the landscape-painter. During the 


two following years he made several portrait busts, so excellent as to 
establish his reputation. In 1852 he went to Florence, where he 
passed a year in study and labor. Returning home he made his 
" Benjamin in Egypt," which was burned in the Portland Ex- 
change. He passed a winter in Washington, where he made models 
for portrait busts of many eminent men. Some medallions also, 
which were much admired, especially that of Samuel Houston. He 
modelled a head of " Peace," and visited Providence, R. I., to 
execute commissions in portrait busts. In 1854 he went to Rome, 
and finished in marble the heads modelled in America. He copied 
works in the Vatican to fill American commissions, and also executed 
several original designs; " Una and the Lion," "Diana and En- 
dymion," " Girl pressing Grapes," " Isaiah," " Schiller's Diver," 
and the ' Reindeer," being those most admired. He then went to 
Venice, Switzerland. Paris, and England, and again to Rome, where 
he made a colossal head of Milton, the "Lost Pearl Diver," and 
" Saint Elizabeth of Hungary," which last was often repeated for 
hi* American admirers and patrons. He was never strong, and his 
health now failed. He came to America, but was obliged soon to 
seek a milder climate. He returned to Rome, and the last work he 
did there was a medallion likeness of his wife. In 1860 he came 
a^ain to America, and went to pass the winter in Philadelphia. He 
devoted himself to his loved art as much as his failing strength 
would allow, and left the head of a cherub still unfinished when he 
died. His religious and sensitive character acquired for him from 
his young companions the nickname of S. Paul. By this name 
he " became endeared to his friends and known to fame." His love 
of Nature and of children was intense. " It makes no difference," 
he would say, " what happens to me, so long as I can hear sparrows 
sing and see children roll on the grass." His literary attainments 
were fine, as is proved by his paper on " Art-expression " and 
" The Artist Prisoner." Many of his writings have never been 
given to the public. 

Alba, Macrino d' or Giangiacomo Pava. Lived mostly at 
Turin, and flourished about 1.300. In the Stadel Institute at Frank- 
fort, there is a picture of the "Madonna," with the histories of 
Joachim and Anna on folding side panels, by this master. It is 
" dignified and full of character." 

Albani, Francisco, born at Bologna (1578-1660). Son of a silk 
merchant. His father desired to bring him up to his own profession, 
but his decided art -genius so asserted itself that he was placed in the 
academy of Denys Calvert, where Guido Reni was a pupil. Albani 
and Guido became friends, and when the latter went to Rome and 
entered the school of the Caracci, Albani quickly followed. Here 
his talent soon brought him to notice, and there are many of his 
works in Rome. When Annibale Caracci was employed on the 


frescoes of S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli, he fell sick, anil by his 
recommendation Albani was selected to linish them. He also painted 
the mythological frescoes in the Verospi (now Torlonia), palace. 
In the Borghese Gall., and at Turin, are his famous pictures of the 
"Four Elements." He also painted for the Duke of Mantua the 
stories of " Diana and Actaeon," and Venus and Cupid." Returning 
to Rome, he painted the large pictures in the Tribune of the Ma- 
donna della Pace and the "[Martyrdom of 8. Sebastian" in the 
church of the same name. His best religious works at Bologna an- the 1 
" Baptism of Christ " in S. Giorgio, the " Annunciation " in S. Barti*- 
lomeo, and the " Resurrection " in S. Maria de Galeria. But his best 
pictures are those of mythological and fanciful subjects, in which both 
figures and landscapes were well done. Beauty was his characteristic 
rather than power. Lanzi calls him the Anacreon of painting, and 
says, " Like that poet with his short odes, so Albani from his small 
pictures acquired great reputation, and as the one sings of Venus 
and the Loves, and maids and boys, so does the artist hold up to the 
eye the same delicate and graceful subjects." He had every advan- 
tage in his own home for the perfection of such pictures. His villa 
was well situated, and afforded him lovely views of nature. His wife 
was beautiful, and bore him twelve children, so lovely that not only 
he. but the sculptors Algardi and Fiammingo are said to have used 
them as models. The works of Albani are in almost every lai . 

rrrins. nv AI.BANI. 

lery, for he either painted duplicates, or caused his scholars to paint 
those to which he put the finishing touches. The " Toilet of Venus," 


at the Louvre, and the " Landing of Venus at Cytherea," in the 
Chigi Palace at Rome, are among his finest works. One of his oft- 
repeated and pleasing subjects is the " Infant Christ " asleep on 
the cross. 


Engraver, AGUILA. Francisco Faraone. The Last Supper. 

Engraver, ATDRAX, John. Infant Saviour regarding the Cross 
presented by Angels. 

Engraver, AVELINE, Peter. The Wrath of Neptune. Inscribed, 
Quo* ego. 

Engraver, Avail., Joan Jacques. Diana and Actaeon ; The Bath- 
ers surprised. 

Engraver, BAKTOLI, Pietro Santi. The Birth of the Virgin. 

Engraver, BAUDET, Stephen. The Virgin teaching the Infant 
Jesus to read ; The Woman of Samaria ; Four plates of the Loves 
of Venus and Adonis ; Four circular prints of the Four Elements. 

Engraver, BOXAVEUA, Domenico Maria. The Baptism of our 
Saviour by S. John. 

Engraver, CAN ALE, Giuseppe. Adam and Eve driven from Par- 

Engraver, CHATEAU or CHASTEAU, William. The Baptism of 
Christ by S. John. 

Engraver, CREPY or CKESPY, John and Louis. The Nativity. 

Engraver, DAULI.E, John. A Charity with Three Children. 

Engraver, DUFI.OS, Claude. The Annunciation. 

Engraver, FARIAT or FARJAT, Benoit. The Holy Family with S. 

Engraver, FREY, James. A Charity with Three Children ; The 
Rape of Europa. 

Engraver, FKE/ZA, Giovanni Girolamo. The Gallery of the 
Verospi Palace. Seventeen plates. 

Engraver, HAINZELMANX, Elias. Christ appearing to Magda- 

Engr<ircr, LAXDR Y, Peter. Christ and the Woman of Samaria. 

Engraver, LASXE, Michael. The Virgin in the Clouds, with a 
crescent; oval. 

Engraver, MOLA, Pietro Francisco. Holy Family with Angels 
presenting Flowers to the Infant Jesus. 

Engraver, MOLA, John Baptist. Cupid in a Car, drawn by 

Engraver, PICART, Stephen. The Ecce Homo, with Three 

Engraver, VALET or VALLET, William. The Holy Family, 
called La Laveuse. 

Engraver, VOTILLEMONT, Sebastian. Marriage of S. Catherine. 


Albaui or Albano, Gio. Baptiste, died 1MN. Broth.-r of Fran- 
cisco, whom he imitated so closely that his pictures were sometimes 
mistaken for his. 

Alberelli, Giacomo, born at Venice (1GOO-1650). Pupil of Ja- 
coj>o Palma, the younger, with whom he painted thirty-four years. 
Several pictures by Alberelli are in his native city, the most esteemed 
being the "Baptism of Christ " in the ch. of the OgnissantL 

Alberici, Enrico, born at Vilminore in Bergamo (1 714-1 77;>). 
Pupil of Ferdinando Cairo of Brescia. He had a good reputation. 
and painted his principal pictures for the ch. Dei Miracoli. at 

Albertinelli, Mariotto, born at Florence (1474-1515). His 
father placed him with a goldsmith, but he determined to be a 
painter, and entered the school of Cosimo Rosselli, where he was the 
intimate friend of Baccio della Porta, called Fra Bartolommeo. 
Mariotto imitate:! Baccio so closely as to render it difficult to distin- 
guish between the two, especially in some works which they did in 
company, and he was called a second Bartolommeo. After they left 
Rosselli they dwelt together. Mariotto became the protege of the 
wife of Pietro dei Mediei, and painted for her several pictures, 
besides her own portrait. When Pietro was banished, Mariotto 
returned to the house of Baccio. When the latter became a monk, 
Mariotto was almost insane with grief, and could interest himself in 
nothing. Baccio had left unfinished the " Last Judgment " for the 
Cemetery of S. .Maria Xuova, and as he had received p ; irt pay- 
ment for it he desired Mariotto to complete it. He did this with 
great care. He could not equal Baccio, because not ecjnallv uifted 
by nature; but the pictures of both had the same life in action, 
elegance in proportion, and sharpness and careful minutenos in 
finish. His earlier works were lost. One of the oldest known is 
No. 25 Louvre, " Christ appearing to the Magdalene." In 1503 he 
executed " The Salutation," now in the Uffizi, and generallv consid- 
ered his master-piece, lie next painted the fine "Nativity." No. 365 
Pitti Gall. Soon after this Fra Bartolommeo resumed his brush 
and became the head of the work-shop of S. Marco. Mariotto 
painted "The Crucifixion," No. -24 Louvre, and received many pupils, 
lie spent much time attempting to improve oil mediums. hcin espe- 
cially dissatisfied with the white, but his experiments amounted to 
little. He could not endure criticism, and became so disgusted with 
it that he forsook painting and kept a tavern. lie declared himself 
then "where there was no embarrassment with perspective, fore- 
shortenings, or muscles, and no criticism or censure to dread ; " and 
that his former calling "was to imitate flesh and blood, whereas 
that lie had adopted made both llesh and blood." But he soon hated 
this more than painting, which he resumed. Late in life lie went to 
Rome, where he became ill. He was taken to Florence on a litter, 


and died. The following are some of his works not yet mentioned : 
A "Trinity," No. 73. Florence Acad. of Arts; an "Annunciation" at 
Munich, Pinacothek, Saal. No. 545 ; "Marriage of S.Catherine," 
on wood. Hermitage, St. Petersburg, No. 21; an " Assumption " 
in Berlin Mus., painted by Mariotto and Baccio ; National Gall., 
London, No. 645, and many others in the Prince Gortschakoff' Gall.. 
St. Petersburg ; the Ex-Pourtales Gall., Paris, etc. 

Alberti, Leon Battista, born at Venice (1404-1472). The name 
of Alberti is distinguished in all branches of Art. Leon was :;n 
architect and of a noble family of Florence ; at the time of his 
birth his parents were in Venice, in order to escape persecution at 
home. He was a man of superior literary talents and cultivation, a 
fine mathematician and geometrician. He wrote ten books upon 
architecture in Latin, three books on painting, and other smaller 
works. Under Nicholas V. and in connection with Bernardo Ros- 
sellino, he superintended numerous public works at Rome. At 
Rimini, for Sigismondo Malatesta, he made a model for the ch. of 
S. Francisco. He was next employed by Gio. di Paolo Rueellai, 
who had determined to adorn the principal facade of S. Maria Novel- 
la at his own cost. This work was completed in 1477, and was much 
admired. For the Rueellai family he also designed palaces, and a 
chapel in the ch. of S Pancrazio. For Ludovico Gonzaga, Mar- 
quis of Mantua, he modelled the chapel which he built in the Nun- 
ziata at Florence. He went afterwards to Mantua in the service 
of the same nobleman, and made designs for the ch. of S. An- 
drea, and other works. Leon painted a few pictures, which have 
been destroyed ; they had no great merit, but served to show that he 
could express himself with brush or pencil. All writers who men- 
tion him agree that as a refined, elegant, and scholarly gentleman he 
had few equals. 

Alberti, Michele, born at Borgo S. Sepolcro, 1527. Pupil of 
Daniello Ricciarelli, called da Volterra. His principal work was a 
picture of the " Murder of the Innocents " in the church of Trinita- 
di-Monti at Rome. 

G Q Alberti, Cherubino, born at Borgo S. Sepolcro 

/ 13 '/V, (1552-1615). Son of the preceding, by whom 

JL J_) / _/ V3 he was instructed in painting. His principal 
pictures were in the church of S. Maria in Via at Rome. He 
is chiefly distinguished as an engraver. It is not known with whom 
he studied this art, but his plates are remarkable for his time. They 
seem to have been executed entirely with the graver, the point not 
being used. His figures were better than his draperies. His prints 
have preserved some of the friezes of Polidoro da Caravag<rio, which 
were upon the facades of public edifices, and have been destroyed. 
His plates number about 180, of which 75 are from his own designs. 
The following are some of the best designed by himself : 


Portrait of Pope Gregory XIII; oval, with ornaments. 

Portrait of Pope Urban VII. ; oval, with ornaments. 

Portrait of Henry IV., of France ; oval, 1595. 

Portrait of Pietro Angelo Bargeo. 

Judith, with the head of Holofernes. 

The Nativity; inscribed. Di-ns <>iiutij>i>'<>i- . 

The Flight into Kgypt, 1574. 

Another Holy Family : S. Joseph seated, with a Book. 

The 1 Body of Christ supported in the Clouds by an Anirel. in- 
M-ribed, Maynum jiictatlx opus, etc. 

The Virgin Mary and Infant in the. Clouds; inscribed. Hfyiiiu 

Mi-.ry Magdalene Penitent, 1582. 

S. Catherine receiving the Stigmata. l.~>74. 

S. Christian drawn out of the Sea. 

S. Francis receiving the Stigmata, 1599. 

S. Charles of Borromeo, kneeling before the Virgin and Infant, 

Six of Children, for ceilings ; dedicated to Card. Viseonti, KiuT. 

Albert!, Giovanni, born at Bov_o S. Sepolcro (1558-1601). 
Brother of Cherubtno, an I instructe.l by their father. He excelled 
in landscapes and perspective, and the figures in his pictures were 
often done by Cherubiuo. Po]ie (Jregory XIII. employed him in the 
Vatican, and Clement VIII. in the Lateran. His portrait is in 
S. Luke's Acad. 

Alberti, Durante, born at Borgo S. Sepolero 1538. died at Rome 
1613. Went to Rome when very young, (ire-ory XIII. was then 
Pope. He soon distinguished himself, and his pictures are in scMTal 
places in Rome. He was buried with great distinction in the Chi sa 
del Popolo. and his portrait is in ihe Acad. of S. Luke. In the 
eh. of S. Maria de Monti he painted " The Annunciation." and in 
S. Girolamo della Carita. an enthv chapel in fresco, and the altar- 
piece in oil, which last represented the Virgin and infant Saviour 
with SS. Barfolomeo and Alessandro. 

Alberti. There were other artists of this name, whose works 
are not well denned. Antonio of Ferrara lived in M'-o. and had a 
son of the same name. Pietro Franei>co ( l.~>M-li;;>*) was a son of 
Durante. and was a painter and enirraver. 

Albertoni, Paolo, died about 1695. This artist was a follower 
of Carlo Maratti. and painted in his style. Sonic of bis pictures are in 
the churches of S. Carlo. S. Marin. and other churches in Rome. 

Albertus, H. C., born in Saxony: died Itiso. Hi< portrait of 
John SeckendorfF, rector and professor of Xwickau. is a fine work of 

Albini, Alessandro. Zani says be was born in 1")^6 and died in 
1C46. Malvasia calls him a Bolognese, and a disciple of the school 


of the Caracci. He made designs for the funeral ceremonies of 
Agostino Caracci, which greatly added to his reputation. At Bo- 
logna there is a picture by this master in the ch. of S. Michele in 
Bosco, representing the " Sepulture of SS. Valerian and Tiburtius," 
and another in S. Pietro Martire, representing SS. Peter, Cather- 
ine, and Cecilia. 

Alcamenes, born at Athens, scholar of Phidias, perhaps of 
Critias also. Brass-caster, sculptor, toreutes, and cleruchos in Lem- 
nos. He flourished from 444 to 400 B. c. His chief productions 
were images of the gods. Among these were two statues of Athene, 
one of which, after the expulsion of the thirty tyrants by Thrasybu- 
lus, was placed in the temple of Hercules at Thebes, together with 
a colossal statue of Hercules by the same sculptor (403 B. c.) ; a 
three-formed Hecate (the first of its kind), and a Procne in the 
Acropolis at Athens ; a statue of Mars in the temple of that god at 
Athens ; the Battle of the Centaurs and Lapithae upon the western 
pediment of the temple at Olympia ; an JEsculapius at Mantineia ; a 
bronze statue of the victor in the Pentathlon ; and a statue of 
Hephaestus which represented his lame-ness without making it a 
deformity. But the most renowned of all his works was his " Venus," 
called from where it was set up, 'HtV K^TTOH 'A^poSir-rj. The breasts, 
hands, and cheeks were particularly admired ; and it was said that 
Phidias put the finishing touches to this work. Some suppose that 
this was the statue which took the prize from that of Agoracritus. 
There is also a story that Alcamenes and Phidias contended in mak- 
ing a statue of Athene, and that before they were set up that of the 
pupil was most admired for its beautiful finish, but when they were 
in place the strong lines of that of the master were so effective that 
the Athenians gave him the preference. 

/ f Aldegrever, Heinrich, born at Soest in Westphalia, 
ff\ (1502-1562). As a painter he is less important than as an 
** ' engraver. His style so closely resembles that of Albert 
Durer that he has been called Albert of Westphalia. His works show 
untiring labor, but his figures are often deformed and even hideous. 
In the Berlin Gall., a picture by him of the "Last Judgment" is 
very peculiar, especially in the upper part where Christ, the Virgin, 
and John the Baptist, are represented ; the trumpet-angels and the 
demons among the damned are worthy of notice, and in fact the 
whole picture is very striking. In the National GalK, London, there 
is a " Crucifixion " by Aldegrever. In the Berlin Mus. there is a por- 
trait of an old man, and in the Lichtenstein Gall, at Vienna one of 
a youth, which is clever. His prints are numerous. Among the por- 
traits, those of Luther, Melanchthon, John of Leyden, and Bernard 
Knipperdolling, deserve notice. Of historical and religious subjects 
there are no less than one hundred and thirty-nine well-known 
plates. In one of Titus Manlius, ordering the execution of his son, 


the instrument of death resembles the French guillotine ; this is dated 
1533. Thirteen plates of the " Labors of Hercules " are fine and rare. 
and the etching of " Orpheus and Eurydice," the only one of this 
master, is very rare. 

Aldighiero, 01 Altichiero da Zevio, a native of Zevio, near 
Verona, was a painter of the early Paduan School. He decorated 
the chapel of S. Felice in S. Antonio at Padua with wall paintings. 
about 1370. Liibke says he displayed in his works a lively concep- 
tion and richly finished coloring. The pictures in this chapel repre- 
sent scenes from the legend of S. James Major. That of the land- 
ing of the body of the saint on the coast of Spain, is especially fine. 
He was associated with D'Avanzo Veronese, who was one of the 
worthiest of the followers of Giotto, and their pictures wen 1 equal 
to anv of the school of that master. Aldighiero was so much asso- 
ciated with other artists that there have arisen never-ending disputes 
as to what he did or did not do, but the records show that he 
painted the chapel of S. Felice. In the work of Crowe and Caval- 
caselle, it is said to be no exaggeration to call this chape! the noblest 
monument of the pictorial art of the fourteenth century, and that 
none but the greatest Florentines had done better. 

" Aldobrandini Marriage." This is one of the most valuable 
relics of ancient painting. It was discovered on the Ksquilinc Hill, 
near the arch of Gallienus, in the early part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, during the time of Clement VIII. It was taken from the wall, 
and became the. possession of Cardinal Aldobrandini, who after hav- 
ing it restored by Domenico del Frate. placed it in his villa on the 
Quirinal ; hence its name. It is a composition of ten figures, and 
rcprc>cnts three scenes arranged like an ordinary bas-relief. In tin- 
centre the bride is seated on a bed, while another female speaks to 
her; the bridegroom is crowned with ivy, and seated on a stool at 
the end of the bed with his face turned to the bride. On one side 
the attendants make ready a bath; on the other musicians sing the 
" Epithalainium " or wedding song. In 1818 Pius VII. paid 10,000 
8cudi, or about 2,000 guineas for this fresco, and placed it in the col- 
lection of the Vatican. 

Aldrovandini, Mauro, born at Bologna (1G49-1680). An eminent 
architect. As a painter he belonged to the School of Cignani, with 
whom he painted in the Pala/./o Publico at Forli. 

Aldrovandini, Tommaso, l>orn at Bologna (1653-1736). Nephew 
of Mauro, by whom he was instructed. He excelled in perspective 
and architectural views, and worked much with Carlo Cignani and 
Antonio Franceschini, who executed figures. In conjunction with 
the latter. Tommaso painted the ' Council Chamber of Genoa," his 
greatest work. 

Aldrovandini, Pompeo Agostino (1677-1739). Cousin and 
pupil of Tommaso. One of the most celebrated Italian painters of 


his time. He worked in oil, fresco, and distemper, and was much 
employed on the public buildings of Vienna, Dresden, and Prague. 

Aleman, Cristobal, introduced the art of glass-painting in Se- 
ville and painted a window for the Cath. in 1504. 

Alen or Olen, Jan van, born at Amsterdam (1G51-1698). A 
painter of landscapes and still-life. A good imitator of Melchior 

Aleni, Tommaso, born at Cremona (1500-1560). Scholar of 
Galeazzo Campi. His works were so much like those of his master 
as to be distinguished with difficulty, as may be seen in the ch. of 
S. Domenico at Cremona. 

Alesio, Mateo Perez de, born at Rome. Flourished about 1585 ; 
died 1600. He went to Spain, attracted by the generous love of art 
of King Philip IT. His chief works were fresco-paintings in the 
churches of Seville. Grandeur of design was his chief characteris- 
tic. In the Cath. of Seville he painted a S. Christopher, which is 
still preserved. The figure of the saint is thirty-three feet high, and 
his leg is three feet across the calf. This was done in 1584. He 
also painted in the ch. of S. Miguel, and other public edifices. Ale- 
sio was almost the first to acknowledge the superiority of Luis de 
Vargas, but it is said that he returned to Rome, because the pictures 
of Vargas were preferred to his own. 

Alexander, Francis, born in Windham County, Conn., in 1800. 
At eighteen he was a school-teacher. He commenced his painting 
by attempting to reproduce in water-colors the beauties of some fish 
he had caught. His success was a surprise, both to himself and his 
mother, who encouraged his further use of the brush. In spite of 
scanty means he went to New York, and studied with the Scotchman, 
Alexander Robertson. He made friends, and received some com- 
missions in Providence. From there he went to Boston, and soon 
made a good reputation as a portrait painter. In 1831 he went to 
Italy, where he resided for many years. In 1833, together with 
Harding, Fisher, and others, he exhibited a number of his pictures 
in Boston. 

Alfani, Domenico di Paris, born at Perugia 1483, living, 1553 ; 
time of death not known. Scholar of Perugino. He was an ardent 
admirer of Raphael, whose style he imitated ; had little originality. 
In middle life he caused his family of natural children to be legiti- 
mized and made his son Orazio his partner. He was a registered 
master in Perugia in 1510. The earliest known picture of his is a 
'' Madonna and Child with SS. Gregory and Nicholas " in the Collegio 
Gregoriano at Perugia. It is on wood, in oil, figures life-size, dated 
1518. A fine picture, full of the beauties of Raphael. In the 
ch. of S. Francisco at IJettona is ? fine fresco of the " Virgin and 
Child " with four saints, which reminds one of the " Madonna di 
Foligno." At Diruta in the ch. of S. Antonio Abbate, there rre 


four pictures representing scones in the life of S. Anthony ; much 
injured.' In the Cath. of ('ink della Pieve is an altar-piece V>\ 
Doraenico : wood, oil, figures life size, dated 1521. In the gallery 
at Perugia a " Virgin and Child " with saints and angels : wood, oil. 


figures life size. In 1527 Rosso was at Perugia with Alfani, and fron: 
that time his style seems changed, which may lie seen in the pictures 
at S. Giuliana at Perugia. In 1553 the father and son together 
painted a ' Crucifixion " for S. Francesco at Perugia, and as tlie\ 
painted much in conjunction, there are various pictures which cannot 
be assigned to either one. One of these is a graceful ' Holy Family '' 
in the tribune of the Uffizi. In 1525 he painted frescoes at the 
villa of Prepo near Perugia. In 1527 he was commissioned to paint 
an altar-piece for Castel Rigone. In 1535 he painted the arms of 
Paul III. on the Pal. of Perugia; in 1536 a " S. Louis " in S. Fran- 
cesco, and in this same year married the mother of his children. 
His will was made in 1549, and as before said, he was living in 

Alfani, Orazio di Paris, born at Perugia 1510, died at Rome 
1583. Also a pupil of Perugino and an admiring imitator of Ra- 
phael. His reputation more than equalled that of his father. In 
the transept of S. Francesco at Perugia is a " Nativity " by this an 1st. 
singular for the introduction of " S. Anna " who has a basin of water: 
said to have been dated 15:><J. Perugia Gall., No. 59, formerly in 
the Carmine, is a work of Orazio's, as are also Nos. 140, 142. 15H. 
132, 163, 144, 145, and 146, in the same gallery. There are .-e\erai 
of his works in S. Francesco and S. Pietro at Perugia. A: tin- 
Louvre "The Marriage of S. Catherine," No. 2(5. dated 1548, i-; by 
this master. There are many more of his pictures, in Perugia men- 
tioned in the Guides. ()r;:xio was registered in the guil 1 of lYrugia 
in 1545; elected architect of ihe town in 1576, but retaine 1 the 
office a very short time. He was first president of the Aca.l. of 
Perugia, founded in 157:). 

Alfaro y Gamon, Don Juan de, born at Cordoba 1<!10, died 
at Madrid 1680. He studied fir:-; wuh Antonio tie (.'asiile, and then 
with Velasquez. His pictures imiiatc the latter, and also remind one 
of Vandyck in color. He is said to have been very vain, and to 
have copied some prints, and put on each of them, Alfiiro /-//(..-//. 
To punish him, Castillo pain i'-d one. and subscribed it Non jiin.ri't 
Alfaro, which passed into a proverb. He was also a poet, and 
had good literary attainments, but his memory is staimvl bv in- 
gratitude The Admiral of Castille was his patron : >till whin be 
was banished Alfaro forsook him. and yet did not hesitate to solicit 
his patronage when recalled. The rebuff' he received is said to have 
brought on melancholy and caused his death. In the ch. of the 
Carmelites is his " Incarnation," and at Madrid, in the ch. of the 
Imperial College his celebrat.-l Guardian Angel." 


Alfon, Juan, born at Toledo. In 1418 he painted several reliqua- 
ries lor the Cathedral which are still preserved. 

Algardi, Alessandro, born at Bologna 1598. He was 
an architect, sculptor, and engraver. A pupil of Giulio 
Cesare Convent!. His plates which remain are few ; they 
are executed with a graver, in the free bold manner of Agostino 
Caracci, and are as follows : 

A large, upright plate of The Crucifixion. 

The Souls delivered from Purgatory ; oval. 

The Blind Beggar and his Dog ; after Caracci. 

Eighty plates of the Cries of Bologna ; after Caracci. 

These were executed in conjunction with Simon Guillain. He is 
best known as a sculptor by a large rilievo in marble, over an altar 
in S. Peter's at Rome. It represents the appearance of SS. Peter 
and Paul to Attila and his hosts. While this work has some merit, 
it has great faults, especially those of confusion and want of 

Aliamet, Jacques, born at Abbeville 1728, died in Paris 1788. 
An engraver who excelled in landscapes and sea-pieces. 

Aliamet, Francois Germain, younger brother of Jacques. Born 
at Abbeville 1 734. After studying engraving in Paris, he went to 
London, where he was under Sir Robert Strange. His works were 
inferior to his brother's, and consisted of portraits and historical 

Aliberti, G-io. Carlo, born at Asti (1680-1740). His prin- 
cipal works were frescoes in his native city. He painted the cupola 
of S. Agostino, and other pictures for the same church. Bryan 
says, " His style consists of a mixture of Maratta, of Gio. da S. 
Giovanni, and of Correggio ; heads and feet that might be attrib- 
uted to Guido or Domenichino ; forms peculiar to the Caracci ; dra- 
pery of Paolo, and colors of Guercino." 

Alibrandi, Girolamo, born at Messina (1470-1524). Pupil of 
Gio. Bellini, and a friend of Giorgione at Venice, where he spent 
many years. He then entered the school of Leonardo at Milan, 
lie has been called the Raphael of Messina. The chef-rV (Kucre of 
Messinian pictures is his " Purification " in the ch. of Candelora. 
It has perspective, grace, and pleasing color. Polidoro admired it so 
much that he painted a " Deposition from the Cross " in distemper, 
to serve as a cover and protection to it. 

Aliense. See Vassilacchi. 

Allan, David, born at Alloa, Scotland (1744-1796). After 
studying in the Academy at Glasgow, he went to Italy, and took the 
prize medal at the Acad. of S. Luke, for the best historical com- 
position. It is difficult to understand how he could have excelled, 
judging from his etchings, or the engravings from his pictures. 

Allan, Sir William, born at Edinburgh (1782-1850). Studied 


at the same time as Wilkie in the Trustees' Acad. in his native 
city. He went to London, where he met with no success, and in 1805 
went to St. Petersburg, where he made a good name, as a portrait 
painter. He visited the interior of Russia, Tartary, and Turkey. 
He afterwards painted pictures illustrative of the scenes of those 
countries, such as the " Circassian Captives," M Prisoners conveved 
by Cossacks to Siberia," etc. He returned to England in 1814. In 
1830 visited the continent; in 1834 went to Spain; in 1838 became 
president of the Royal Academy of Scotland, was the successor of 
Sir David Wilkie, as Limner to the Queen in Scotland, and wns 
knighted in 1842. In 1843 he exhibited the " Battle of Waterloo," 
now in the Coll. of the Duke of Wellington. In 1844 he went 
again to Russia, and after his return, painted the picture now in the 
winter palace of the Emperor, representing " Peter the Great teach- 
ing the Art of Ship-building to his Subjects." He died in his studio 
at Edinburgh, before an unfinished picture of the " Battle of Ban- 

Allegri, Antonio da Correggio, or Antonio lueto da Correggio. 
Allegri and Lieto are synonymous, and have the same meaning as 
the Latin Leatus (joyful). Born at Correggio (1494-1534). His 
father, Pellegrino Allegri, was a respectable merchant. A'ery little 
is known of the early life of Correggio, but it is thought that he was 
a pupil of Tonino Bartoletto of his native city. He probably studied 
the works of Leonardo da Vinci, and the painters of Mantua and 
Modena, for he fled to Mantua in 1511 on account of the pla_nu at 
Correggio. He appears, however, to have been largely the founder 
of his own style. He is the greatest master of li^lit and dark, or 
chiaro-scuro, whether effected by color or shades. His management 
of li'.dit was wonderful ; he gave the most brilliant effect without 
dazzling, and his deepest shades were not dull. In all his subjects 
there is life and motion. He loved to depict the joyousness of child- 
hood, while his representation of earthly love was blissful, and that 
of heavenly love fervent. If sorrow was represented, it was deep- 
ened by the contrast with his usual joyousness. His passion seems 
to have been foreshortening and violent perspective. For his cupola 
paintings, this was a necessity, but he used it often apparently for 
the mere love of it, as in one instance he painted a " Madonna'' sit- 
ting on her throne as if seen from below, and her knees appear almost 
to touch her breast. He was the first modern artist who excelled in 
chiaro-scuro, and is allowed to be still unequalled. When twenty-live 
years old, he was at Parma, and had an established reputation. In 
1520 he contracted to paint the dome of S. Giovanni Evangelista. 
the payments for which extended through four years. ^ lie had pre- 
viously painted in Parma, some mythological designs for the. convent 
of S. Paolo. We are amazed that these designs were chosen for 
a cloister; but Lanzi says, " Our wonder will cease, when we reflect, 


that the same place was once the residence of a lady abbess, at a 
time when the nuns of S. Paolo lived unguarded by grates, in 
which every abbess sought to enjoy herself, held jurisdiction over 
lands and castles, and independent of the bishop, lived altogether as 
a secular personage." At Correggio, before this time, Allegri had 
painted altar-pieces. The Madonna at Dresden, called " The Madonna 
del S. Francesco," is claimed to have been painted when he was 
hut twenty-one, and the " S. George," also at Dresden, is another 
early work. At S. Giovanni he painted " The Ascension of Christ,'' 
who is represented as suspended in air, in the centre, while the Apos- 
tles are seated on the clouds below. In the pendentives are the Evan- 
gelists and four fathers of the church. This was the first instance of 
remarkably foreshortened figures, and was grand in arrangement and 
detail. But Correggio brought his style to perfection, in the cupola 
of the cathedral, at Parma. 

This was done between 1526 and 1530. Here he represented " The 
Assumption of the Virgin." In the centre, high up, is Christ, who 
sterns to precipitate Himself to meet his mother. The principal 
group, of the Virgin borne in triumph by angels, is much lower down, 
while between that and Christ are several saints, both male and 
female, which are wonderfully foreshortened. All the light pro- 
ceeds from the glory around Christ. This occupies but the upper 
half of the dome. Below are the Apostles between the oblong win- 
dows, which are in this part of the dome ; above the windows are 
^enii ; the whole is a vast throng of angels, saints, etc., for in the 
four pendentives beneath the cupola, are the- patron saints of Parma, 
seated on clouds, and surrounded by angels. A pious rapture seems 
to be diffused through all, and the richness and boundlessness of the 
i ffect can scarcely be conveyed in language. Of course these 
figures are all much foreshortened, and the artist was told, " Ci avctc 
fatto un guazzetto di rane " (you have given us a hash of frogs). 
Besides these wonderful frescoes, there are many altar-pieces and 
easel pictures by Correggio. One of the most beautiful is the S. 
Jerome, at Parma, called " II Giorno," the day, in contrast with 
La Notte," or " The Adoration of the Shepherds," at Dresden. 
" The Marriage of S. Catherine "" is one of the most beautiful and 
oftenest repeated of his small pictures, and the best example is in the 
Louvre. In Kugler's " Handbook." the editor remarks in a foot- 
note (page 423), when speaking of this picture : " This subject 
was comparatively late; S. Catherine of Siena died in the fourteenth 
century, and was not canonized till 1461. The painters appear to 
have improved on the legend." Here is a mistake. The picture 
illustrates the legend of S. Catherine of Alexandria, who died in the 
fourth century, and has no reference to S. Catherine of Siena. " La 
Ziogarella" (the Gypsy), so called from the turban worn by the 
Virgin, is a picture of " The Repose during the Flight to Egypt," 


and is very beautiful. Other important pictures in the Gill, at Parma 
are " The Madonna della Scodella," so culled from the cup in the 
hand of the Virgin ; " The Deposition from tin- Cross," and >- Tin- 
Martyrdom of SS. Plaeida and Flavia." At Dresden, besides 
those already mentioned, there are "The S. Sebastian." which has 
sometimes been called the most beautiful of all the figures of Correg- 
gio; " The Reading Magdalene," and a portrait, said to be that of 


Prr-dm (Jail. 

the physician to this master. The National Gall., London, has the 
" Ecce Homo," " Venus and Mercury teaching Cupid his Letters," and 
the " Vierge au Panier." In the Coll. of the Duke of Wellington is 
" The AUOIIV of Christ upon the Mount of Olives," a remarkable 
eabinct picture; it was presented by Ferdinand VII. of Spain to the 
first duke. The " Christ in the Garden with the Magdalqne," 
is in the Madrid Gall. There are other works of this master of an 
entirely different character. At the Stafford House Gall, is one with 
a horse and mule, both laden, with their drivers, in the midst of a 
glowing landscape. This is said to have been painted for a siirn to 
an inn. In the- Berlin Mus. are " Leda and the Swan." and " lo 
embraced by .Jupiter." These show the triumph of earthly love, as 
intensely as the religious pictures present that of the heavenly. The 
latter picture was once in the Orleans (Jail, and the son of the duke 
cut out the head of To because it was too voluptuous in expression ! 


The present head was the work of Prud'hon. There is a copy of 
this picture in the Vienna Gall., which is universally believed to 
be also by (Jorreggio. At the Borghese Gall, at Home, is the pic- 
ture of Danae. At the Paris Museum, " Jupiter and Antiope." It 
is said that when Correggio saw the pictures of Raphael, his eyes 
brightened, and he exclaimed, " I also am a painter." When 
Titian saw the works of Correggio at Parma, he said, " Were I not 
Titian, I should desire to be Correggio." Annibale Carracci wrote 
from Parma in 1580, " Tibaldi, Niccolini, Raphael himself, arc- 
nothing to Correggio." The monks were very fond of Correggio, 
and in 1520 he was made a member of the Congregation Cassinensi, 
in the monastery of S. John the Evangelist at Parma. Tasso was 
also a member of this fraternity. This membership conveyed a 
participation in the masses, prayers, and alms of the community, 
and was accompanied with a promise to perform the same offices for 
the repose of his soul, and those of his family, that they would per- 
form for their own number. In 1520 he married Girolama Merlini, 
a lady of good family, very gentle and lovely. She was probably 
his model for " La Zingarella " after the birth of his first child. She 
bore him one son and three daughters, and died in 1529. He did 
not marry again, and died suddenly in 1534. The story of the 
great poverty of Correggio, set forth by Vasari, seems to have been 
unfounded ; it is certainly contradicted by the quantity and quality 
of the colors he lavished on his pictures. The prices which he 
received such as 1,000 ducats, or 150/. sterling for the Cath. ui 
Parma, 11- 10s. for " La Notte," etc., seem to us very small, but we 
must consider the value of money in those days, and these sums arc 
not inconsiderable. It is not known whether Correggio ever visited 
Rome or not, and various arguments are brought to bear on both 
sides of the question; but Ortensio Landi, in a work published in 
1552, says, "he died young, without being able to see Rome." 


Engraver, AXDERLOXI, Pietro. Magdalene. 

Engraver, AUDOUIN, Pierre. Jupiter and Antiope. 

Engraver, BAZIN, Nicholas. The Virgin Mary suckling th:' 

Engraver, BEAUVAIS, Nicholas Dauphin de. The Virgin with 
the Infant Jesus upon a pedestal, and several saints below. 

Engraver, BERGKR, Daniel. The A r irgin and Child. 

Engraver, BERNARD, Samuel. Mezzotinto, The Repose ; called 
La ZingareUa. 

Engraver, BERTELLI, Cristofano. The Virgin and Infant, with 
SS. Sebastian, Francis, and Roch. 

Engraver, BONAVKRA, Domenico Maria. The Cupola at Parma : 
the Assumption. Dmninico Bo\avera, s-. 1(597. 



Engraver, BRIZXIO or BKICCIO, Francesco. The Il.ily Family. 

Engraver, CAPITKM.I, Bernardo. Tli.- Marriage of S. Catherine. 

Kiii/raver, CARACCI, Agostino. The Virgin and Infant with Mag- 
dalene; S. Jerome and an Angel ; 1586. 

Engraver, CHATEAU or CHASTKAU, William. The Repose in 

Engraver, CORT, Cornelius. The Marriage of S. Catherine; S. 

Engraver, CUNEGO, Domenico. The Virgin and Infant. 

Engraver, DUCHASGE, Gaspar. Jupiter and lo; Jupiter and 
Danae; Jupiter and Lola. 

Engraver, EARLOM, Richard. The Repose, called la Zingara. 

Engraver, EDELIXCK, Nicholas. The Virgin and Infant. 

Engraver, FKSSARD, Stephen. S. John Baptist, with other saints. 

Engraver, FREZZA, Gio. Girolamo. Tlie Repose, called la Zin- 

.7 "'" 

Engraver, JODK, Arnold de. Mercury educating Cupid. 

Engraver, LORENZINI, Fra Antonio. S. John surrounded with 

Engraver, MEXAGEOT, Robert. Friendship ; a circular print. 

Engraver, MERCATI, Gio. Batista. The Marriage of S. Cath- 

Engraver, MITELLI, Giuseppe Maria. The Adoration of the Shep- 
herds, called La Notte. 

Engraver, MOGALLI, Como. The Holy Family. 

Engraver, PICART, l^tienne. The Marriage of S. Catherine. 
Virtue triumphant over Vice ; The Sensualist. 

Engraver, PoRPORATr. Jupiter and Leda ; The Madonna with 
the Rabbit ; Leda and the Swan, and Leda bathing ; La Zingarella. 

Engraver, Rossi, Girolamo. The Virgin and Infant Jesus. 

Engraver, SANUTO or SAXUTUS, Giulio. Apollo and Marsyas. 

Engraver, SMITH, John. Venus standing in a Shell. 

Engraver, SORNIQUE, Dominique. Diana and her Nymphs. 

Engraver, SPIKRRE, Francis. The Virgin suckling the infant 

Engraver, STEEN, Francis Vander. Cupid shaping his Bow ; Ju- 
piter and lo ; Ganymede. 

Engraver, STRANGE, Sir Robert. Tlie Magdalene. 

Engraver, SURRUGUE, Peter Louis. Tlie Adoration, called " La 
Notte." ' 

Engraver, TROYEX. John Van. Magdalene Penitent. 

Engraver, VOLPATO, Gio. Christ praying on the Mount. 

Engraver, WATSON, Thomas. The Virgin with the infant Jesus 
and S. John. 

Allegri, Pomponio Quirino, son of Antonio, born at Correggio 
1521. lie was but thirteen when his father died, therefore he could 


derive but small benefit from him, except in the study of his works. 
He had fair abilities, and was established at Parma, where he was 
constantly employed until 1593. In the Cath. of Parma there is 
a fresco by him representing Moses just after he received the Tables 
of the Law, and is showing them to the Israelites. 

Allegrini, Francesco, born at Florence 1729. A designer and 
engraver. Jn 1 762 he published one hundred portraits of the Medici 
family with a frontispiece, all engraved by himself. He made a 
print of S. Francesco d'Assisi, which is much esteemed in Florence. 
He also engraved other eminent poets, painters, and men of Florence. 

Allegrini, Francesco, called da Gubbio (1587-1663). A disciple 
of Giuseppe Cesari, called II Cavaliere d'Arpino. He painted in 
oil and fresco, but mostly in the latter. At Gubbio he painted 
the cupola of the Sacrament in the Cath., and another at the 
Madonna de' Bianchi. He lived at Rome and worked in the Casa 
Panfili. Small pictures by this master are often seen in Rome and 
Gubbio, which merit praise. He also painted figures in the land- 
scapes of Claude ; two of these were in the Colonna Pal. He 
painted in the Cath. and Casa Gavotti at Savona, and in the Casa 
Durazzo at Genoa. His two sons, Flarninio and Angelo were histori- 
cal painters. 

Allet, Jean Charles, born at Paris 1668; died at Rome 1732. 
Designer and engraver. He marked his plates sometimes Charles, 
and sometimes Jean Charles, which led to the opinion that there 
were two engravers of the name of Allet, but they are now believed 
to have been one person. His engravings are portraits and subjects 
from sacred history. 

Alloisi. See Galanino. 

Allori, Alessandro, born at Florence (1535-1607). A nephew 
of Bronzino, he was called by his name, which he sometimes affixed 
to his pictures. Vasari speaks of him as living most lovingly, even 
as a son, with his uncle. Before he was seventeen he had painted 
from his own design, an altar-piece representing the Crucifixion. At 
nineteen he went to Rome and remained two years. There he 
studied principally the works of Michael Angelo. Returning to 
Florence he was constantly occupied on public edifices, but painted 
some portraits. He wrote a book upon anatomy for the use of pain- 
ters, and was so much devoted to this, that he neglected some other 
branches of art. He was a great mannerist, and his portraits were 
his best pictures, though some of the horses which he painted in 
Rome were fine ; but on the whole he was little if any above medi- 

Allori, Cristoforo, born at Florence (1577-1621). Son of Ales- 
sandro, and called also Bronzino. He was a pupil of his father, 
whom he afterwards called "a heretic in painting," and followed 
Cigoli and Pagani, whose works he admired. By some his execution 


was considered better than that of any other artist of his time ; in- 
deed, he was so fastidious that he finished few pictures. He excelled 
in portraits, and in landscape painting surpassed the Florentines of 
his day. His best work is the " S. Julian," in the Pitti (.all., but 
his " Judith " is more generally known. It is said that the bead of 
" Ilolofernes " is his own portrait, " Judith " that of his mistress, and 
" Abra," that of her mother. He made copies of the " Magdalen '' 
of Correggio which passed for duplicates by the great master. 

Allstoii, Washington, lioru at Waceamaw, South Carolina. 1779; 
died at Cambridge. Mass., isi:;. He graduated from Harvard Col- 
lege in 1800, and went to London and studied in the Royal Acad. 
After three years of assiduous labor he went to Paris, and pmreedcd 
to Italy, when- he remained four years, mostly in Rome. There he 
a>sociated intimately with Coleridge and Tborwaldscu. In ISOIt he 
came to America and married Miss Chaimiii'i, and subsequently fixed 
his residence in London. lie there exhibited " The Dead Man re- 
vived," which took the prize of two hundred guineas at the British 
Institution. He next painted ." S. Peter liberated by an Angel." 
now in the eh. of Ashby-de-la-Xouch ; " I riel iu the Sun," also a 
prize, picture/ now belonging to the Duke of Sutherland; "Jacob's 
Dream, 7 ' now at Pet worth ; and between these larger works, several 
smaller ones. He returned to America in 1*1*, and settled in Boston. 
He was elected to the Royal Acad. in Kngland, where his works 
were much esteemed. The only one be brought to America. Elijah 
in the Wilderness," was sold to the lion. Mr. Laboucherc, and taken 
to England. His next pictures were The Prophet. Jeremiah." now 
at Yale College; ''Saul and the Witch of Endor," which belonged 
to the late Colonel T. II. Perkins, of ISostou : Miriam >ingiug the 
Song of Triumph," also owned in Boston, by the late lion. David 
Sears; and the small pictures of "Dante's Beatrice " and ''The 
Valentine." In 1830 he married Miss Dana, and removed to Cam- 
l>nd'_ r e. where he passed the remainder of his life in seclusion. He 
theiv painted " Spalatro "' or the " Vision of the Bloody Hand." and 
l!<>-alie" which belonged to the Hon. Nathan Appleton. " The 
Spalatro " is in the Coll. of John Taylor Johnston, New York. 
Mr. William Pane. Proident of the National Acad. of Design, New 
York, said in a recent lecture, that when he praised this work to 
Allston. he replied. ' I think, perhaps, it is on the whole the best 
picture I ever painted." Mr. Pa'jv said. " In color it is not as good 
as the best of Titian's, yet few pictures of Titian's, of that .-i/e, are 
so good in color. In composition and cliiaro-scuro it is one of the 
great pictures. It is the best picture in a gallery which contains the 
best pictures to be seen in America." Allstoii also painted some por- 
traits. Among them were that of Benjamin West, in the. Boston 
Athenasum, and one of Coleridge, in the National Portrait Gall, of 
England. Of the last, Wordsworth said, " It is the only likeness 


3 P 



which ever gave me pleasure." In 1836, he was invited by Congress 
to paint a large picture for the Capitol, but his mind was fixed upon 
painting " Belshazzar's Feast," for which he had made a sketch in 
1817. This was unfinished when he died, and is in the Boston Athe- 
naeum. Allston was remarkable for the versatility of his concep- 
tions. The beauty of Beatrice and Rosalie, the prophetic sternness 
of Jeremiah, the grace of Miriam, the moonlight effects, the forests 
and mountains of his landscapes, the horror of Spalatro, and the im- 
pressive mysteriousness of the reviving Dead Man, display a won- 
derful scope of thought and a surprising power of execution. His 
literary talents were good. In 1813 he published a poem, "The 
Sylphs of the Season," and later, "The Two Painters" and 
"The Paint King." In 1821, " Monaldi " was written, but not 
published until much later. This story gives his own life in Home, 
mingled with a story of passion, the whole gracefully adorned with 
observations upon art, and descriptions of nature. A course of lec- 
tures which he wrote upon Art, but did not deliver, were published 
after his death. Tuckerman has well said, " Indeed, the writings 
and paintings of Allston exquisitely illustrate each other. By their 
mutual contemplation we perceive the individuality of the artist and 
the pure spirit of the man ; and realize that unity whereby genius 
harmonizes all expression to a common and universal principle, mak- 
ing form and color, words and rhyme, express vividly and truly 
what exists in the artist's nature. ' Rosalie,' for instance, the poem, 
is the reflection of ' Rosalie,' the picture; and his letter describing 
a view among the Alps, breathes the identical feeling that pervades 
the landscape depicting the scene." Allston often related the follow- 
ing incident in his life. Not long after he went to Europe after his 
first marriage, his pecuniary wants became very pressing. One day 
while in his studio the thought came to him, that he merited his trials 
as a punishment for his want of gratitude in the past, when he had 
been more prosperous. Suddenly he felt a strong hope that God 
would answer his prayer ; he locked his door, threw himself on his 
knees, and prayed for a loaf of bread for his wife and himself. There 
was a knock at the door ; he opened it with a feeling of shame, and 
a fear that he had been observed. A stranger asked for Mr. Allston, 
and inquired if his picture of "Uriel" had been sold. When an- 
swered in the negative he asked where it could be found. " Here, in 
this very room," replied Allston, and he brushed the dust from the 
picture and brought it forward. When the price was demanded, All- 
ston said he had done fixing a sum, for his price had, so far, 
exceeded his offers. "Will -100 bo an adequate recompense?" 
asked the stranger. " It is more than I have ever asked," said All- 
ston. " Then it is mine," replied the Marquis of Stafford, for he it 
was. From this hour they were the warmest friends. By him All- 
ston was introduced into society, and soon became a favored guest in 
a circle which embraced manv <nfted minds. 


Almeloven, John, born about 1614 or 1G24. Dutch engraver and 
painter. Best known by some etchings of landscapes. 

Alsloot, Daniel, born at Brussels (1550-1608). Landscape 

Alsloot, Denis van, flourished in early part of the seventeenth 
century. Painter of landscapes and portraits. 

Altamonte, or Altamonti, Martin, born at Naples, porno say in 
1657, and others, in 1682; died, 1745. He. was among tin- l>est 
painters of his time. His subjects were historical and architectural. 

Altdorfer, Albrecht, born at Altdorf in Bavaria, 1488, died at 
Ratisbon, or Regensburg, 1538. He is said to have been a pupil 
of Albert Durer's, but this lacks confirmation. He was a painter. 
and an engraver on cop'per and wood. Kugler says, He seized 
the fantastic tendency of the time with a poetic feeling at once 
rich and pleasing, and he developed it so as to attain a perfection 
in this sort of romantic painting, such as no other artist has ever 
realized." He is one of the best of the "little painters " of Ger- 
many. The latter portion of his life was given to painting, as his 
last prints were dated 1525. Some of his works display wonderful 
patience when we compare their sixe and the number of figures. That 
of the " Victory of Alexander at Arbela." is purely Gothic in dc>ign. 
and the costumes such as were worn in 1529 when it was painted. It 
has been said to contain more figures than any other picture. Srhlegd 
sivs, It is, in truth, a little world on a few square feet of canvas ; tin- 
hosts of combatants, who advance on all sides against each other, are 
innumerable, and the view into the background appears interminable. 
In the distance is the ocean, with high rocks, and a rugged island 
between them ; ships of war appear in the offing, and a whole fleet 
of vessels ; on the left, the moon is setting , on the ri'jjht, the sun 
rising ; both shining through the opening clouds, a clear and strik- 
ing imago of the events represented The armies arc arranged in 
rank and column, without the strange attitudes, contrasts, and dis- 
tortions generally exhibited in so-called battle-pieces. How indeed 
would this have been ]x>ssihlc with such a vast multitude of figures ? 
The whole is in the plain and severe, or it may be, the stiff manner 
nf the old style. At the same time, the character and execution 
of these little figures is most masterly and profound. And what 
variety, what expression there is, not merely in the character of 
the single warriors and knights, but in the hosts themselves! Here 
crowds of black archers rush down, troop after troop, from the 
mountain, with the rage of a foaming torrent ; on the other side, 
high upon the rocks in the far distance, a scattered crowd of flying 
men are turning round in a defile. The point of the greatest, in- 
terest stands out brilliantly from the centre of the whole ; Alexan- 
der and Darius, both in armor of burnished gold : Alexander, on 
Bucephalus, with his lance in rest, advances far before his men, and 


presses on the flying Darius, whose charioteer has already fallen on 
his white horses, and who looks back upon his conqueror with all 
the despair of a vanquished monarch." This picture was in the 
Gall, of Schleissheim, and was taken to Paris. Napoleon liked 
it so much, that he had it at S. Cloud, in his bath-room. It was 
returned to Bavaria in 1815, and is now in the Pinacothek, Munich, 
Cabinets, 169. In the same place, Cabinets, 138, is the " History of 
Susanna" by Altdorfer. In the Augsburg Gall, there is an altar- 
piece with wings ; very fine. At Nuremburg, there is in the Lan- 
dauer Bruderhaus, No. 179, a Crucifixion, and in the chapel of S. 
Maurice a picture by this master, of S. Quirinus being drawn from 
the water. In the Coll. of the Historical Society at Ratisbon, 
there is an " Adoration of the Shepherds." The Rev. J. Fuller Rus- 
sell has a picture of " Christ parting from the Virgin," which is un- 
doubtedly by Altdorfer, although it is sometimes attributed to Durer. 
I find mention of no other picture by Altdorfer, in England. His en- 
gravings were not inferior to his paintings, and he executed, on 
copper and wood, more than one hundred and seventy prints. The 
following is a list of a small portion of them. 

Engraved on Copper. 

Portrait of himself with his cipher. 

Portrait of Luther, with an oval of foliage. 

S. Jerome with the Lion. One of the best. 

Judith with the head of Holofernes. 

Adam and Eve in Paradise. 

Solomon's Idolatry. 

Samson and Delilah. 

Pyramus and Thisbe. 

A naked Woman with wings, seated on a star, with a torch in one 
hand and an escutcheon in the other, called Lascivia. 

S. George and the Dragon. 

Mucius Scaevola. 

Amphion saved from the Sea by a Dolphin. 1825. 

The Death of Lucretia. Etching. 

The Virgin and Child, dressed in the costume of Ratisbon, with 
a palm-tree. 

A Man and Woman dancing. 

Engraved on Wood. 

Forty cuts of the Fall and Redemption of Man. Very fine. 
Paris dying on Mt. Ida with the three Goddesses. 1511. 
The beautiful Virgin of Ratisbon after the picture in the Cath. 
One of his best works. 

S. Christopher, stooping to take up Jesus. 1513. 
The Purification. 


The Murder of the Innocents. 1511. 

The Resurrection of Christ. 1512. 

The Annunciation. 1513. 

S. Jerome before a Crucifix in a Grotto. 

Abraham's Sacrifice. 

Altharn , flourished about 1660. A German painter of 

marine subjects and landscapes. 

Altissimo, Cristofano dell', flourished about 15G8. Pupil of 
Bronzino. A good portrait painter. The Duke Cosmo dei Medici 
I., employed him to copy the portraits of illustrious persons in the 
Gall, of Count Giovio. Vasari says he finished more than 280 of these, 
which were hung around the Guardaroba of the Duke. Many 
more were finished later, and they were placed in the corridor of 
the Uffizi. His family name was Papi. 

Alunno, Niccolo, born at Foligno about the middle of the 
fifteenth century. He painted in distemper, but his colors still 
endure. His principal works are, the " Annunciation" in S. Maria 
Nuova at Perugia, 1466 ; a " Crucifixion " in the Art Hall at Carls- 
ruhe, 14G8 ; an enthroned "Madonna" in the Brera at Milan, 
1465 ; portions of pictures originally at Assisi, which represented a 
" Pieta," much praised by Vasari ; portions of an altar- piece in the 
ch. of S. Niccolo, at Foligno, 1492 ; a "Madonna " in the Berlin 
Mus., etc., etc. Numbers of his works are dispersed in the March 
of Ancona. Many of them were in several pieces, although that 
manner of painting had almost passed away in his time. Alunno 
may be called the founder of a new style in the Umbrian school. 
Hitherto the Art of those quiet valleys had expressed the character 
of their inhabitants, and breathed forth the deep religious enthusi- 
asm of a people living in retirement, unfamiliar with classic studies, 
and filled with fervent spiritual longings ; in short, a people who 
regarded Assisi with its Basilica as a holy place, and the lovely S. 
Francis as the most perfect earthly model that could be represented 
in Art, or imitated in life. But the tendency to represent mere 
beauty, the realistic mode, began now to be felt, even in Umbria, 
and it was first remarkable in the works of this painter. The blend- 
ing of the two styles resulted in that wonderful beauty which we 
find in the works of Raphael, where the richness of Italian painting 
is made perfect by the expression of tender feeling, purity of soul, 
and spiritual and devotional sentiment. It is the union of beauty 
in form and expression that imparts the charm to the works of a 
class of painters, who, without great power or scope of thought, 
agreeably portray pure spiritual feeling with grave and quiet dignity. 
To this class Niccolo Alunno belonged, and his mission seems to 
have been to prepare the way for others who possessed more genius 
than himself. In addition to the works already mentioned there 
sure at Gualdo, Duomo, several saints, a Crucifixion, etc. ; a S. Paul 


here is one of his best figures. At Nocera, Sacristy of Duomo, a 
" Nativity " and a " Coronation of the Virgin," with saints, doctors of 
the church, and half lengths of the Apostles. At Aqnila, convent of S. 
Chiara, a " Crucifixion '' surrounded by four scenes from the life of 
Christ. At La Bastia, in the ch. of the place, an altar-piece 
dated 1499. In the Bologna Gall, a standard. On one face is an 
" Annunciation," on the other an enthroned ' Madonna." At the 
Louvre, Musee Napoleon 111. Ex. Campana Gall. No. 111., a standard; 
No. 88 the " Annunciation." London, National Gall. No. 247, bust of 
Christ. No trace of this master has been found later than 1499. 

Axnalteo, Pomponio, born at S. Vito 1505 ; died 1588. Son- 
in-law of Pordenone, and his successor in his school at Friuli. He 
painted historical subjects for Ihe public edifices near Friuli. At 
Belluno in the Hall of the Notaries he painted scenes from Roman 
History. His chefs-deceit ire were the three Judgments of Solomon, 
Daniel, and Trajan, painted in a gall, where causes were decided at 
Ceneda, and a " S. Francis receiving the Stigmata," in the ch. of that 
saint at Udine. The moment chosen was that of the sun's rising 


and from its centre bright rays fell on the hands and feet of the 
saint. He not only colored in the splendid manner of the Vene- 
tians, but also designed with accuracy. 

Amalteo, Girolamo, brother and pupil of Pomponio. He died 
young. Graziano, in the poem of Orlando, calls him, " Girolamo 
Amalteo de' vita san!o." 

Amato, Gio. Antonio d', called also II Vecehio, born at Na- 
ples 1475, where he lived until his death 1555. Said to have 
been a pupil of Silvestro Buono. He afterwards studied the style 
of Perugino, and seems to have largely educated himself. He 
painted in oil and fresco. He had many pupils. His favorite 
study was theology, and he gave expositions of the Scriptures, for 
which he was quite celebrated. His paintings may be seen in the 
churches of Naples. In S. Dominico Maggiore, there is a " Holy 
Family " in the chapel of the Caraffa. 

Amato, Gio. Antonia d', born at Naples (1535-1597). A 
nephew of the preceding. In the ch. of the Banco de Poveri at 
Naples, is his best work the altar-piece, a representation of the 
infant Christ. 

Amato, Francesco, an engraver and painter. His pictures are 
little known, but his etchings are spirited and- in the style of Bis- 

Amatrice, Cola dell'. Flourished in 1533. Lived at Ascoli del 
Piceno. Distinguished there as an architect and painter. He 
painted a picture of the " Saviour dispensing the Eucharist to his 
Disciples," which is highly extolled in the Guida di Ascoli. 

A may a . Flourished 1G82. Pupil of Vincenzio Carduoho, 

and painted in Segovia, with correctness of design, and good color- 


Amberes, Francisco de, flourished in the early part of the six- 
teenth century. A painter and sculptor. In 1502 he ornamented 
the Cath. of Toledo ; in 1508-10 together with Jean de Bourgogne 
and Villoldo he painted the arabesque chapel, which is still an inter- 
esting object. 

Amberes, Miguel di, flourished about 1640. His pictures are seen 
in the religious houses of Spain. He was originally of Antwerp, and 
somewhat resembled Vandyck in his style of portrait painting. 

Amberger, Christopher, born at Nuremberg 1490(?); died at Augs- 
burg, 1563 (?). Pupil of the elder Holbein, he imitated the younger. 
He painted in distemper and oil, and is said to have ornamented the 
exteriors of houses in Augsburg in the former method. His pictures 
are chiefly small portraits. They are not equal to those of Holbein 
in execution, but have been mistaken for his. In 1532, when Charles 
V. visited Augsburg, Amberger painted his portrait, with which he 
was so much pleased that he paid him thirty-six rix dollars, the price 
being but twelve, and presented him with a medal on a gold chain. 
Charles is said to have declared the picture as good as one for which 
he had paid Titian one hundred rix dollars. It is probably now in 
the Berlin Gall. Amberger's best works are in the Franciscan eh. 
and convent of S. Martin at Amberg. There is also a fine portrait 
of Sebastian Munster at Berlin, and one of Henry VIII. at Augs- 
bur"\ attributed to Amberger. 

O * ~ 

Ambrogi, Domenico degli, middle of 17th century. Native of 
Bologna. Called Menichino del Brizio from havin"- studied with 

O O 

Francesco Brizio. He painted in oil and distemper. lie excelled in 
perspective, landscapes, and architectural views, and painted also 
historical subjects. He was employed in many churches and palaces of 
Bologna. In S. Giacomo Maggiore there is a vl (Juardian Angel," and 
in the Nunziata a " S. Francis " by this artist. He was the instruc- 
tor of Fumiani and Pierantonio Ccrva. In 1 (!;>;! he published some 
wood-cuts from his own designs, printed in chiaro-scuro. 

Amelsfoort, Quirinus Van, born at Bois-le-duc (1760-1820). A 
painter of allegories, history, and portraits, which last were remark- 
able as likenesses. 

Amerighi, Michelangelo da Caravaggio (1569-1609), called 
Caravaggio from the place of his birth. He was the chief master of 
the school called Naturalistic, from its direct representation of com- 
mon life. Kugler says its style maybe called " the poetry of the re- 
pulsive." When confined to scenes of common occurrence, and a 
somewhat low life, these pictures are often powerful and have their 
own peculiar charm ; lint when this style is used to depict sacred sub- 
jects, although, in a sense, powerful, it becomes painful and offensive. 
Caravaggio was wild in his nature and life. He lived much in Rome, 
but went also to Naples, Malta, and Sicily. The contrasts of vivid 
and subdued lights ; his remarkably effective draperies, and his car- 



nation tints, give great effect to his pictures. Some of his sacred 
pictures were taken away from the altars where they were placed, on 
account of their coarseness. One of his best works is the " Behead- 
ing of S. John," in the Cath. of Malta. In Rome, there is at the 
Vatican, the "Entombing of Christ; " this is his most celebrated 
picture. It is impressive in its solemnity, but devoid of sacredness or 
sublimity. In S. Luigi de' Francesci there is a chapel painted by 
Caravagdo ; in the Borghese Gall, an immense "Holy Family;" 
in the Sciarra Pal., the " Cheating Gamester; " in the Spada Pal., 
" Geometry," as a ragged girl, playing with compasses; and in the 
Gall, of the Capitol, a " Fortune-teller," which is a chef-d'oeuvre. 


These last are such subjects as he best represents. In the Berlin 
Mus. is " Earthly Love " and a portrait. At tin; Louvre is the por- 
trait of " Vignacourt," Grand Master of Malta. 

Ames, Joseph, born in Roxbury, New Hampshire (1816-1872). 
This painter studied in America and Italy and finally settled in New 
York. His best fancy subjects are the " Old Stone Pitcher " and 
"Maud Muller. " But his success was in portraits, of which he 
sometimes executed seventy-five in a year. Of course they could not 
be very carefully finished, but they were true to nature and his colors 
were fresh and bright. His picture of " Pope Pius IX." was much 
admired at Rome ; his portraits of Webster, Choate, Felton, Rachel, 


and Gazzaniga are well known. His " Death of Webster " lias 
been engraved. 

Amici, Francesco. A modern Italian engraver. 

Amiconi or Amigoni, Jacopo, born at Venice in 1C 75; died at 
Madrid, 1 752. After painting in Venice he went to Home and 
thence to Munich, where he acquired considerable fame. Going 
thence to England in 1729 his pictures were much in vogue, and lie 
was employed by many noblemen in the decoration of staircases and 
similar works in the style of llicci. He returned to Venice with 
5,000. He was afterwards called to Spain and made painter to the 
king, Ferdinand VI. Two largo pictures by him are in the vestibule 
of the Queen of Spain's Gall., " The Finding of the Cup in Benja- 
min's sack " and " Joseph in the Palace of Pharaoh." 

Amiconi or Amigoni, Ottavio, born at Brescia (1 605-1 GC!). 
Pupil of Antonio Gandini. lie excelled in frescoes executed after 
the manner of Paul Veronese. The scenes from the life of S. Al- 
bert, in the Carmelite ch. of Brescia, were partly his work. 

Amidano, Pomponeo, born at Parma. Flourished about 1595. 
He has been called a pupil of Parmigianino ; of this there is no proof, 
but he was a close imitator of that master. The altar-piece in the 
ch. of Madonna del Quartierc is his best work, and has been attrib- 
uted, even by good artists, to Parmigianino. Orlandi says that many 
of his pictures were sold to foreigners, but they have probably been 
assigned to Parmigianino, as the name of Amidano is not found in 

Amigazzi, Gio. Batista, a scholar of Claudio Ridolfi. lie excelled 
as a copyist. In S. Carlo at Verona is a copy of a " Supper," by 
Paul Veronese, finely drawn and of good color even now. 

Amling, Carl Oustavus, born at Nuremberg (1G51-1710). A 
designer and engraver. The Elector of Bavaria sent him to Paris for 
instruction, and he studied with F. de Poilly. lie was a respectable, 
but not eminent artist. He made many plates, and was more success- 
ful in portraits than in other subjects. He engraved some for the 
Acad. of Sandrart and also made prints after tapestry, the plates of 
which belonged to the Elector of Bavaria. 

Amman, Justus, born at Zurich ( l.">;i!)-1591). Went to Nurem- 
berf in 1560, where he lived until he died. One of the " little art- 

o ' 

ists," who excelled in wood-cuts. It is said that he made more 
than a thousand, comprising almost every imaginable subject. His 
" Huvoir\ta " is a remarkable work ; it contains a description of the 
artist's time, and has one hundred and fifteen wood-cuts of mechan- 
ics and tradesmen in their proper costumes. Amman himself is pre- 
x-nted as the engraver. The cuts from this book were used in that 
of Hans Sachs, " Kigentlichf Pu-schreibimg aller Stande auf Erden." 
He also made illustrations of Livy's Rom in History. Nearly all 
his cuts were for books. Amman was also an author and wrote a 
book on "Poetry, Painting, and Sculpture." 


Amman, John. An engraver who lived at Hanau in 1640. 

Ammanati, Bartolomeo, born at Florence {1511-1589 V). Stud- 
ied under Bandinelli at Florence, and afterwards at Venice with San- 
sovino, sculptor *an' I architect. He was much employed in Padua, Ur- 
bino, Naples, Venice, Rome, and Florence. The principal buildings 
upon which he was employed as an architect were the Pal. of Bena- 
vides at Padua, the Pitti Pal. at Florence, the Pal. Rucellai and 
the facade of the Collegio Romano at Rome. He also rebuilt the 
Ponte S. Trinita at Florence in 1569. This is his best work, a 
great ornament to the city, and one of the most graceful and beauti- 
ful bridges in the world. His most important work in sculpture was 
the fountain for the Piazza della Signoria. It consists of a colossal 
Neptune, in a car, surrounded by other figures, and is open to much 
criticism. He also erected a monument for Pope Julius III. which 
may still be seen at the eh. of San Pietro in Montorio. He married 
Laura Battiferri of Urbino, who was a poetess, and a member of the 
Society of the Intronati at Siena. She was a lady of wealth, and 
they lived at the Villa Caserotta, near Florence. His wife died three 
years sooner than himself. Ammanati was buried in the ch. of S. 
Giovanni, upon which he had lavished both time and money. His 
biographer says, " his friends wept at his death for the loss of a dear 
friend, the poor for a constant helper, the priests for a zealous pro- 
moter of the divine worship, the ariists for a great master, and all the 
city of Florence for a distinguished architect." Before his death he 
wrote a letter to the Florentine Acad. of Design, regretting that he 
had sculptured undraped figures, and that their evil influence must 
survive him ; warns other artists against the same sin, especially that 
of placing inappropriate figures in churches. 

Ammanati also wrote a large work called " La Citta. " It con- 
tained designs for all the e.liuces necessary to a city. When Mich- 
ael Angelo died he was one of the four chosen to superintend the 
obsequies of the great master. 

Ammon, Clement. Son-in-law of Theodore de Bry, the en- 
graver. Ammon added two volumes to the Coll. of portraits pub- 
lished by De Bry in six quarto vols. entitled " Bibliotheca Calco- 
graphica." Those of Ammon were published in 1650-1G52. He 
was much superior to De Bry. 

Ammon, Johann, born at Schaffhausen. An engraver of por- 
traits. Flourished in 1 700. 

Amorosi, Antonio, born at Communanza. Flourished about 
1736. He painted some pictures for churches, one of which may be 
seen in S. Rocco at Rome, but he excelled in caricatures (bambocci- 
ate), and subjects from common life. 

Amstel, Cornelius Ploos Van, born at Amsterdam, 1732. An 
amateur engraver who executed an interesting set of plates in imita- 
tion of the best masters. 


Anchilus, N., born at Antwerp, 1688; died .it Lyons, 1733. A 
painter of conversations in the manner of Teniers. lie went to 
London and copied the pictures of Snyders for Sir K. Walpole. 

Ancona, Andrea Lilio d', called also Andrea Anconitano, died 
1610. This painter was employed by Sixtus V. in the ornamenta- 
tion of the library of the Vatican, and in the Pal. of S. John of 
Lateran. In the Scala Santa he painted, in fresco, " MOM-S striking 
tin- Kock ;" in S. Maria Maggiore, " Oar Saviour washing the feet 
of the Disciples;" and in the Chiesa Xuova, "The Archangel 
Michael driving the Evil Spirits from Heaven." Ancoiia p<j- 
some works of Lilio's, both in oil and fresco. 

Anderlini, Domenico, born at Pesaro, flourished about 1720. 
A landscape painter of some merit. 

Anderloui, Fauatino, born at Brescia. Flourished about 1786- 
1794. An engraver. He illustrated several scientific works and 
made portraits of Schiller, Herder, and Carlo Porta. He also en- 
graved " The Dying Magdalene," after Correggio ; " The llepose i.i 
Egypt," after N. Poussin ; and the "Mater Amabilis," after 

Anderloni, Pietro, brother of Faustino, born 1784. He studied 
with P. Palaxzi and Faustino, ami was undecided between painting 
and engraving, but after deciding upon the latter, at the i 
twenty he entered the school of Loivjflu. 'vheiv he remained nine 
years. Under that master he became excellent in his an, and was 
allowed to put his name upon some plates in ackn nvied^iuent, of his 
share in their execution. He went twice to to make drawin 's 


after Raphael, and in 18:51 he succeeded Longlli as superintendent of 
the Acad. of Engravers at Milan. He became a member of several 
academies and distinguished in bis art. 

Anderson, . An Kn.rli>li painter of small marine pictures. 

Auderton, Henry, flourished about 1CCO, died 1G(J5. After 
studying under Streater he went to Italy. lie painted some histori- 
cd pictures, but principally portraits; one of the latter which he 
made of Mrs. Stuart (later Duchess of Richmond), so pleased Charles 
II. that he gave Andcrton his patrona^-'- 

Andre, Jean, born in Paris (\M\-2-l 7 :>:>). He was a Dominican 
and went to Rome, where he studied the works of Michael Air_cel<> 
and Raphael, and was a pupil of Carlo Marat li. lie painted histori- 
cal subjects and portraits. 

Andrea, Alessandro. An artist who flourished alxiut 1.">7S, when 
he engraved a portrait of the Abl.e de S. Arnaud, the French ::ml>i~ 
sador at the court of Constantinople. 

Andrea da Firenze. This artist was employed in painting the 
story of the Bcato Rimicri, at the Campo Santo at Pisa, as is shown 
by his receipt for payment made tlu 13th of October, 1377/1378 
(Pisan style). It is not possible exactly to trace this artist, as at that 


time there were seven Andreas on the roll of Florentine artists, 
either one of whom may have been the one employed at Pisa. There 
has also been a question as to whether he did not paint the Cap- 
pellone dci SpagnOoli, which Vasari ascribed to Simone. 

Andrea da Firenze, who painted an altar-piece in a chapel of S. 
Margaret at Cortona, and a picture of the " Conversion of Constan- 
tine," flourished in 1437. 

Andrea del Sarto. See Sarto. 

Andreani, Andrea, born at Mantua, 
1540 or 1560; died, 1623. His paintings 
are- little known, but he was a very cel- 
ebrated engraver. Early in life he established himself in Rome, and 
ddvoted himself to wood-cuts, which were printed in chiaro-scuro. 
He excelled all who had preceded him. It is said that he procured 
the blocks of other engravers, retouched them and called them his 
own. The number of prints attributed to him is very large, and they 
arc prized by good judges. From the similarity of his monogram to 
that of Albert Altdorfer, their works are sometimes confounded. 

Andreasi, Ippolito, a native of Mantua. A pupil of Giulio Ro- 
mano, whom he assisted in his cartoons. Andreasi painted pic- 
tures of merit, in S. Barbara and other places. 

Andriessen, Jnrriaan, born at Amsterdam (1742-1819). Pupil 
of A. Elliger and J. M. Quinkhart. He excelled in decorative paint- 
ing, and the new theatre at Amsterdam was decorated by this artist 
and Xuvnan. He had several pupils who are distinguished. 

Andriessen, Antony, born at Amsterdam (1746-1813). Painted 
landscapes and figures with his brother, Jurriaan. 

Andriessen or Adrienses, Hendricks, called Mankenhein, corn 
at Antwerp, 1GOO ; died at Zealand. 1655. A painter of still life. 

Andrioli, Girolamo. A Veronese painter. His name, with the 
date 1606, is found on an altar-piece and other pictures in the ch. of 
S. Caterina di Siena, at Verona. 

Andriot or Ilanderiot, Franz or Francois, born at Paris about 
1655. An engraver who worked in Rome and Paris. He followed 
the style of Poilly, and although he did not equal that artist his plates 
are prized for their subjects and the masters after whom he engraved. 

Aneda, Juan de, born at Burgos, where he painted, in 1565, sev- 
eral pictures, which are still in the Cath. He was associated in this 
work with Juan de Cea. 

Anesi, Paolo. A native of Florence. Several of his works are in 
the palaces and private galleries of that city and at Rome. He 
painted ruins in the manner of P. Panini, as well as landscapes. 
Francesco Zuccherelli was one of his pupils. 

Angeli or Angelis. There were many artists of this name, but 
the facts recorded of them scarcely serve to distinguish them from 
each other. 


Angeli, Giulio Cesare, born about 1570 ; died 1630. A pupil of 
the Caracci. There is a large picture by him in the ch. of S. Agos- 
tino at Perugia. 

Angeli, Giuseppe, born about 1615. Pupil of Piazzetta. lie 
painted some altar-pieces, but principally cabinet pictures. 

Angeli, Niccolo. An engraver who flourished about 1635. 

Angelis, Peter, born at Dunkirk, 1685; died at Rennes, 173-1. 
He went to Flanders, and passed some time there and at Dusseldorf. 
In 1712 he went to England, and met with such success that he 10- 
mained sixteen years. In 1728 he went to Rome and remained three 
years. His pictures were much admired there, but his retiring dispo- 
sition and his devotion to his art prevented his pushing his fortune. 
He left Italy with the intention of returning to England, but stopped 
at Rennes, in Bretagne, where he found so much employment 
that he spent the remainder of his life there. He painted landscapes 
with small figures and conversations. He was fond of introducing 
fruit and fish into his pictures. His designs are graceful and natural, 
but his colors sometimes faint and wanting character. 

Angelico, Fra Giovanni, da Fiesole. See Fiesole. 

Angelini, Scipione, born at Perugia or Ascoli (1C61-1729). A 
very skilful painter of flowers. Many of his works were exported 
from Rome, where he worked, to France, Holland, and England. 

Angelo Pedro. Stirling calls him the first good engraver of 
Spain. He engraved several fine portraits for books, among which 
were those of Card. Ximenes de Cisneros and Pedro Gon/ale/ do 
Mendozn, the great cardinal of Spain. 

Augelo, called Angeluccio. Flourished about 1680. A promis- 
ing pupil of Claude Lorraine who died young. 

Angelo, Michael. See Buonarotti. 

Angiers, Paul. An engraver of whom little is known. He re- 
sided in London. He was employed mostly by booksellers, but his 
best print is a " View of Tivoli," after Moucheron, and there is one 
of a " View of Roman Ruins," after Panini. dated 1 741). 

Angioletto, of Gubbio, was a mosaist who flourished about 1325. 
He worked at Orvieto and at As>i-i. where he assisted in the win- 
dows of the lower church. 

Anguier, Francois, born at Eu, in Normandy, K504; died in 
Paris, 1669. A son of a carpenter who early taught him to carve in 
wood. He went afterwards to Paris to study sculpture, and later to 
Rome. He was one of the first artists of his time in France, and 
Louis XHI. made him keeper of the Gall, of Antiquities, and gave 
him apartments in the Louvre. At one time he was employed in 
England. One of his best works is a " Crucifix," in the ch. of the 
Sorljonne. His sculptures may also be seen in the ch. de L'Or;.- 
toire : the ch. S. Andre-ties- Arcs ; and at Moulins. He also exe- 
cuted four figures for the tomb of the Duke of Rohan, in the ch. of 
the. Celt's; ines, at Paris. His copies after the antique were fine. 


Anguier, Michel, born at Eu (1612-1C86). Brother of the 
preceding, with whom he studied until they went to Rome. Michel 
became the pupil of Algardi and worked with him at 8. Peter's and 
in several palaces. He remained ten years in Rome and was the 
friend of Algardi, Poussin, and Du Quesnoy. In 1651 he returned 
to Paris and assisted Francois in his greatest work, the tomb of the 
Duke de Montmorenci at Moulins. He made a statue of Louis XIII. 
which was cast in bronze. For Queen Anne of Austria he executed 
the principal sculptures in the ch. of Val de Grace, and adorned her 
own apartments in the Louvre. His " Nativity " in the last named 
<;h. is considered his master-piece. He also executed sculptures for 
the high altar of S. Denis de la Chartre ; bas-reliefs for the Porte S. 
Denis ; the monument of the Duchi ss de Longueville ; the brazen 
vase in the garden of Versailles ; and the statues of Pluto, Ceres, 
Neptune, and Amphitritc. This artist was professor in the Acad. of 
Arts at Paris, and wrote lectures on Sculpture. 

Aiiguisciola or Angosciola, Sophonisba, born at Cremona, 1530 
or 1533 ; died about 1620. She was of a good family and one of six 
sisters. She was first taught by Bernardino Campi, then Bernardo 
Gatti, called Sojaro. She came to be considered one of the best por- 
trait painters of her age. She instructed her sisters also, four of 
whom, besides herself, were artists. Vasari praises her picture of 
three of her sisters playing chess with an old woman, and another 
group of family portraits, in which her father is introduced. Her 
fame was so great that Philip II. invited her to Spain as court 
painter, whither she went in 1559. She was received with great 
honor and first painted the portrait of the king, with which he was 
so much pleased, that he gave her a diamond worth fifteen hundred 
ducats and a pension of two hundred ducats. She then painted the 
Queen Isabella, and a copy of this picture was sent by her to Pope 
Pius IV. with a letter written by her, which Vasari gives, together 
with the pope's reply. She painted various princes and persons of 
rank, and the whole court, in fact, desired to have her pictures. She 
at length married Don Fabrizzio di Moncada, a Sicilian nobleman, 
and resided at Palermo, while he lived. The king allowed her a 
handsome pension, and at her husband's death desired her to return 
to- court, but she preferred to visit her native Italy and on her pas- 
sage to Genoa she fell in love with, and it is said, offered herself to 
Orazio Lomellino, the captain of the galley in which she sailed, and 
of a fine Genoese family. She continued to practice her art in Genoa, 
but late in life became blind. In 1620 Vandyck was often with her 
in Genoa, where her house was a favorite resort of all artists, and he 
was heard to say that he had been more enlightened in painting by a 
blind woman than by his own master. When we consider that this 
master was Rubens, and Vandyck his favorite pupil, this is great 
praise. She painted two portraits of herself which were much ad- 


mired, and Lanzi says one of them was in the ducal Gall, of Florence, 
and the other in the possession of the Lomellini family at Genoa. At 
Althorpe, in Northamptonshire, is a portrait of herself playing on a 
harpsichord. The picture of her sisters playing chess was in the Coll. 
of Lucien Bonaparte, and is somewhere in England ; and the Earl of 
Pembroke, at Wilton, had the " Marriage of S. Catherine '' by her. 
Her sisters Lucia, Europa, and Anna Maria all painted, but none of 
them equalled Sophoni&ba. 

Angus, William. Flourished 1786-1820. An English designer 
and engraver of public buildings and landscapes. He made plates of 
many gentlemen's country seats, and was employed on various topo- 
graphical works. He also made engravings from the designs of 

Anichini, Luigi, a Ferrarese engraver praised by Vasari. 

Anichmi, Pietro. An engraver of whom little is known. Some 
of his plates are dated 1655. 

Anjou, Rene d', King of the Two Sicilies, Duke of Lorraine, 
and Count of Provence, was a painter. His life belongs, however, 
to history rather than art. He painted his own portrait, which was 
in the chapel of the Carmelites at Aix. There is a print from it in 
Montfaufon. He painted missals and miniatures on glass, and it is 
said that he also did a portrait of Charles VII. of France. 

Anna, Baldassarc d 1 , Flemish by birth, but of the Venetian 
school, and a pupil of Corona of Murano. After his master's death 
in 1605, Anna completed several of his works. He also painted orig- 
inal pictures for the Scrvi, which surpass those of Corona in softness 
and the power of chiaro-scuro, but are inferior in design. 

Ansaldo, Gio. Andrea, born at Volt re (1584-1638). Pupil of 
Orazio Cambiasi ; he also studied the works of Paul Veronese. I It- 
was an excellent colorist both in oil and fresco, especially in the lat- 
ter. His works are numerous in the churches and palaces of Genoa ; 
his chcf-tV atuvre was the cupola of the Xunziata in that city. 

Ansaloni, Vincenzio, born at Bologna. Flourished about 1615, 
and died young. A scholar of Ludovico Caracci. be became a painter 
of some merit. He left two altar-pieces in Bologna. One at S. 
Stefano, representing the death of S. Sebastian ; the other a Ma- 
donna, in the ch. of the Celestine monks, which is much admired. 

Anselin, Jean Louis, born at Paris (1754-1823). An engraver. 
His chief works were from the pictures of French masters represent- 
ing historical and poetical subj< 

Anselmi, Giorgio, born at Verona (1722-1797). Pupil of Bales- 
tra. Painted the cupola of S. Andrea at Mantua. 

Anselmi. Michael Angelo, called Michelangelo da Siena, born 
at Lucca and studied at Siena, but his family were of Parma (1491- 
15")4). Bazzi was his master. lie l>ecame a follower and imitator of 
Cjrreggio. When the latter painted the Cath. of Parma, Anselmi 


was one of the artists to whom the chapels were given. He painted 
much in Parma. There is a "Madonna" by him in the Louvre. 
His designs were weak ; his heads studied, and his colors gay. He 
died at Parma. 

Ausiaux, Jean Joseph Eleonora Antoine, born at Liege (17G4 
-18-10). Pupil of Vincent. He painted historical and poetical sub- 
jects, and large numbers of portraits. He ranks among the first art- 
ists of his time. There are three pictures by him in the ch. of S. 
Paul at Liege. He painted portraits of many eminent statesmen ai d 

Antelami or Antelmi, Benedetto, born at Parma. Flourished 
about 1185. A basso-relievo of the " Crucifixion " by this sculptor 
is in the Cath. of Parma, and though rude when compared with an- 
cient or more modern sculpture, it is excellent for its time. 

Anthemius, born at Tralles in Lydia. An eminent architect and 
mathematician. In 532 he was employed by Justinian in the build- 
ing of the ch. of S. Sophia at Constantinople. In 1777 a fragment 
of one of his mathematical works was published at Paris. 

Antiquus, Jan, born at Grbningen (1702-1750). He commenced 
his artistic career as a glass painter ; he next studied with Jan Abel 
Wassenberg, after which he went to France and painted portraits. 
At length he went to Florence, where he was six years in the service 
of the Grand Duke of Tuscany. After his return to Holland he 
painted various large pictures in the Pal. of Loo, one of which was 
"Mars disarmed by the Graces." His design and color were good. 

Antoliiiez, Don Josef, born at Seville (1639-1676). Pupil of 
Don Francesco Rizi. His historical pictures were admired for their 
fine landscape backgrounds. He was a man of haughty temper and 
sarcastic humor. In the Queen of Spain's Gall, is his " Magdalene in 
Ecstasy upborne by angels." The design and coloring are good, but 
the saint is too sad for her triumphant position. In the ch. of La 
Magdalena at Madrid are the " Miraculous Conception " and the 
" Good Shepherd," by Antolinez. 

Antolinez de Sarabia, Francisco, died 1700. Nephew of Josef 
and pupil of Murillo. Although he made himself a good reputation 
as an historical painter, he gave up the profession to practice law, 
for which he had been educated at Seville. But not succeeding, lie 
was obliged again to paint as a means of living. At this time he 
made a series of small pictures from the Bible and the life of the 
Virgin, which have been very greatly admired. After the death of 
his wife he determined to be a priest, but did not live long enough to 
take orders. Palomino says, "in spite of his strange temper and 
unsettled habits, a man of large erudition and great powers of mem- 
ory, and had an apposite quotation on his tongue for every incident 
that could occur." 

Antonello da Messina. See Messina. 


Antonio, Marc. See Raimondi. 

Antonio, Pedro, born at Cordova (1614-107/j). Pupil of Antonio 
del Castillo. A good colorist. 

An'onisze, Cornelius, born at Amsterdam about 1500. He ex- 
celleil in painting views of streets and towns. In the treasury of 
Amsterdam is his picture of that city in 153C ; he. also painted twelve 
views of its public buildings and engraved them on as many blocks 
of wood. These prints are now rare. 

Apellea. The most celebrated Grecian painter. He studied 
und.r Ephorus at Ephesus, under Pamphilus at Amphipolis, and 
later in the school of Melanthius at Sicyon. He combined the ele- 
gance of the Ionic, with the accurate science of the Sicyonic school. 
The best part of his life was spent at the courts of Philip and Alex- 
ander the Great, and he was the only master whom the latter would 
allow to paint his portrait. His most famous work was the " Venus 
Anadyomene." This was painted for the temple of Asclepius at Cos. 
It was taken to Rome by Augustus and placed in the temple of 
Caesar, and when it had been injured no artist would attempt its res- 
toration. He painted Alexander with a thunderbolt in his hand, for 
the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, and the monarch is said to have 
declared that there were two Alexanders ; the son of Philip Avho 
was unconquerable, and the work of Apelles, which was inimitable. 
There are many anecdotes of Apelles, and he is said to have .seen 
and admitted the excellences of other artists, but he claimed that he 
excelled all in grace. In order to test the accuracy of his works he 
was accustomed to expose them in some public place and conceal 
himself where he could hear the remarks of those who passed by. 
On one occasion a cobbler criticised a shoe ; Apelles corrected the 
fault; but when the same man found fault with the leg, the master 
rushed out and commanded him to stick to the shoes. Apelles went 
to Rhodes, and to the studio of Protogencs when that master was 
absent. A panel was there ready for use. Apelles took a pencil and 
drew a thin colored line in such a way that when Protogenes saw it 
lie, knew who must have done it; he then drew a thinner line of a 
different color upon that of Apelles. When the latter saw this he 
drew still another line which divided that of Protogenes as he had 
divided the first. This panel was carried to Rome, where it. was con- 
sidered the most wonderful work of art in the Pal. of the Caesars. 
It was burned with that building. No work of Apelles' remains. 

Apollodorus. 1. An Athenian painter who flourished about 408 
. c. He was the discoverer of chiaro-scuro. Pliny says he was the 
first artist whose pictures riveted the eyes. 2. A sculptor. He 
made bronze statues ami then destroyed them, because they did not 
satisfy him. He was called the "mad-man," and was represented in 
that character by the sculptor Silanion. 3. An architect of Damas- 
cus. Trajan employed him to build the Forum, Odeum, and Gym- 



nasium at Rome. Hadrian, who took offence at some words of Apol- 
lodorns', first banished him, and afterwards put him to death. 

Apollonio, Agostino, born at S. Angelo in Vado. Nephew of 
Luzio Dolci, whom he assisted in the latter part of his life. Apollo- 
nio removed to Castel Durante and worked both in stucco and oils. 
He was the heir of Luzio. 

Apollonio, Jacopo, born at Bassano (1584-1654). Grandson of 
Jacopo da Ponte, called Bassano, by whom he was instructed. He 
was the best imitator of his master among all his disciples. His 
finest work is the " Martyrdom of S. Sebastian " in the ch. of that 
saint at Bassano. In the dome of Bassano there is a " Magdalen," 
and at the Riformati a picture of " S. Francis," by Apollonio. 

Apollonius 1 . Born at Tralles and a brother of Tauriscus. These 
brothers were the sculptors of the 
group called the " Farnese Bull," 
which represents the punishment 
of Dirce. This group, now at 
Naples, was taken from Rhodes 
to Rome by Asinus Pollio ; it was 
found in the excavation of the 
Baths of Caracalla in the 16th 
century, and placed in the Far- 
nese Pal. Battista Bianca, of Mi- 
lan, undertook its restoration, but 
his work is very unlike the orig- 
inal. It was originally made of a 
nn<jle block of marble. It is be- 
lievcd that these sculptors lived 
in the first century of the Chris- 
tian era. 2. An Athenian sculp- 
tor, son of Nestor, and the author 
of the ' Torso of Hercules " in the 


Belvedere, one of the most splendid remains of Grecian art. There 
is also a statue of ^Esculapius at Rome by this master. 3. Another 
Athenian sculptor, son of Archias. He executed the bronze head of 
a young hero, found at Herculaneum. 4. A sculptor, whose name is 
on a beautiful statue of a young satyr in the Coll. of the Earl of Egre- 
mont at Petworth, Sussex, England. 

Appelius, Jean, born at Middlebourg. Flourished about 1778. 
Painted history, portraits, and landscapes. His pictures are mostly 
large. He had more than ordinary talent. 

Appelman, Bernard or Barent, born at the Hague (1640-1G86). 
It is not known where he studied, but the fact that many of his pic- 
tures are of Italian scenery indicates that he visited Italy. The 
Prince of Orange employed him a long time. The landscapes which 
he painted in the Pal. at Soesdyk are good in style and color. He 


painted landscape backgrounds to the portraits of other artists. ;m 1 
also painted portraits himself. 

Appiani, Andrea (1 7a4-18l8). An Italian, who painted in oil 
and fresco, in an original and graceful style. His frescoes in the 
imperial pal. at Milan are simple and grand. The portrait which he 
made of Napoleon, who had appointed him his painter, is in Eng- 
land. He was made a knight of the Iron Crown and a member of 
the Legion of Honor, but when the Bourbons were restored his pen- 
sion was taken away. In 1813 he had a stroke of apoplexy, and IH-- 
came so poor that he was forced to sell his drawings, and everything 
of value that he possessed. 

Appiani, Francesco, born at Ancona, 1702. Pupil of Magatta. 
In S. Sisto Vecchio at Rome, he painted in fresco, for Benedict XIII.. 
a picture of the " Death of S. Benedict." The pope gave him a 
gold medal. lie settled in Perugia, was presented with the freedom 
of the city, and labored until he was ninety years old with a vigor 
equalled only by that of Titian. Perugia is full of his pictures, and 
there are many of them in England. 

Aquila, Francesco Faraone, born at Palermo, 1676. A designer 
and engraver. A brother of the celebrated Retro Aquila. In 1700 
he established himself in Rome. Some of his engravings are highly 
esteemed. Besides detached pieces, he made twenty-two plates, 
called " Picturae Raphaelis Urbinatis ex aula et conclavibus Palatii 
Vaticani, etc., Franc. Aquilo, del. et incid. 17-J--V 

Aquila, Giorgio, (ailed Maestro (Jiorgio da Firenzi, flourished 
from 1314 to 1325. Said to have been the first Italian artist who 
used nut oil. 

Aquila, Pietro, born at Marzalla. The early part of his life was 
passed in a seminary preparing for the priesthood. He went to 
Rome in 1700 with his brother Francesco, and became a monk, but 
in his seclusion he was devoted to art. He painted only tolerably, 
but excelled as an engraver. His best prints are after the Caracci. 
and these arc highly esteemed. The number of his works is very 
large, and some of them are after his own designs. His drawing is 
correct and his etching bold and free. The ' Farnese Gallery " with 
the statues and ornaments, is one of his best works. 

Aquila, Pompeo dell'. Flourished in the last part of the 16th 
century. A painter of history in oil and fresco. Several of his 
frescoes are in his native city, Aquila. At Rome, in the ch. of S. 
Spirito in Sassia, there is a fine ' Deposition from the Cross " by this 

Araldi, Alessandro, born at Parma (146f>-1528). Painted his- 
tory. Lanzi says, " was indisputably a good artist in the mixed 
manner, that is now called tinlico tnodcrno." His pictures arc con- 
fined to Parma. He had little originality. The following is a list 
of his works: Duomo, fresco, on the wall to the right as you 


enter; "Virgin and Child'' with S. Joseph and a kneeling man; 
Parma Gall., an "Annunciation" on wood, painted in oil; ch. of 
S. Paolo, a room painted in various designs ; ch. of S Sepolcro, pic- 
ture of " S. Ubaldus, between the archangels Michael and Ra- 
phael ; " with an ' Annunciation" and " Pieta" in the pediment. 

Arbasia, Cesare, born at Saluzzo. Flourished 1&83-1614. A 
pupil of Federigo Zucchero. Painted in oil and fresco, but excelled 
in the latter. He went to Spain and worked in Cordova and Ma- 
laga. In 1583 he painted the ' Martyrs " of the former city in the 
Cath. For a picture of the ' Incarnation,'' in the Cath. of Malaga, 
he received three thousand ducats. About 1588 he went to Rome 
with his former master. He was one of the founders of the Acad. 
of S. Luke, of which Federigo was the first president. 

Arce, Josef de. A pupil of Martinez Montanes. He executed 
ein'ht colossal stone statues, representing the four Evangelists and 
four doctors of the Church, which were placed on the balustrades of 
the Sagrario of the Cath. of Seville. He also carved in wood the 
saints which adorned the high altar of the Carthusians at Xeres. 

Archer, Wykeham, born at Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1806-1864). 
He studied engraving with John Scott of London. He made etch- 
ings of places of interest at Newcastle and Hexham. At Edinburgh, 
he made drawings of the streets and edifices of the town, and re- 
turned to London to perfect himself in etching upon steel. He was 
a member of the new society of painters in water-colors. Mr. Ar- 
cher was author of "Vestiges of Old London," illustrated by etch- 
ings ; and a contributor to different journals. He claimed to have 
revived the practice of engraving in monumental brass, and executed 
works of that description. He also painted a little in oil. 

Arcimboldi, Giuseppe, born at Milan, 1533; died at Prague, 
1593. H.- was court painter to Mixi nilian II. and the Emperor 
Rodolph. lie excelled in painting interiors, kitchens, fruits, vege- 
tables, utensils, etc. He also painted capricci, or pictures which 
looked like figures in the distance, but fell into heaps of flowers and 
leaves as one approached them. 

Arco, Alonso del, horn at Madrid (1625-1700). Called El Sor- 
dillo de Pereda, and a disciple of Antonio de Pereda. He was deaf 
and dumb from his birth. Palomino praises him. Stirling pays his 
pictures were mostly painted for public occasions, such as triumphal 
processions, etc. Many of his works were in the public buildings of 
Madrid and throughout Spain. 

Ardell, James Me, born about 1 710. A native of Ireland, or the 
son of Irish parents. One of the best mezzotinto engravers. The 
number of his plates is large. Many of them are portraits of dis- 
tinguished men of his time. He left a few plates of historical sub- 
jects after Vandyck, Murillo, Rembrandt, etc., some of which are 
extremelv fine. 


Ardemana, Teodoro, born at Madrid, 1G64. An eminent archi- 
tect, sculptor, and painter. He studied in the school of Coello. His 
attention was so given to his other pursuits that his pictures were 
few. That in the vault of the sacristy of S. Francis at Madrid is a 
chef-craeuvre. In 1689 he was master of works to the C'ath. of Gra- 
nada, where he distinguished himself as a civil engineer. In 1691 he 
went to Madrid, and filled the place of master of works to the muni- 
cipality while that functionary was sick. In 1694 he was appointed 
to the same post at Toledo, and in 1700 at Madrid. In 1 7u2 Philip 
V. made him superintendent of works at the Alcazar. In 17:i( he 
was made painter-in-ordinary, and received a key as deputy-Aposen- 
tador. He made designs for various public occasions, funerals, etc.: 
the plans for the collegiate church ami high altar; for a lanre part of 
the Pal. and gardens of S. Ildefonso; and for the ch. of S. Millan at 
Madrid. It is said he also made some engravings. He wrote and 
published works on engineering and architecture, and a eulogy upon 

Ardente, Alessandro. Flourished 1565-1595. He was a Pied- 
montese, but the exact place of his birth is not known. Many of his 
works are at Lucca. At Turin, at the Monte dclla Pieta. there is a 
picture of the " Conversion of S. Paul," which indicates by its >t\le 
that he studied at Rome. At the time of his death he was painter 
to the court of France. 

Aregio, Pablo de. Flourished 1506. He is classed among Span- 
ish painters, but it is probable that he was an Italian, and of the 
school of Leonardo da Vinci. He painted, together with F. Neapoli. 
the doors of the great altar in the Cath. of Valencia. Lonir afterwards 
Philip IV. said of them, "the altar was silver, but its doors were 

Arellano, Juan de, born at Santorcaz (1614-1676). A pupil of 
Juan de Solis. He did not succeed at first, and began to copy the 
pictures of Mario dei Fiori. He studied nature closely, and at length 
excelled in flowers and fruits. His pictures are seen in mo-t Spani>h 
collections and are highly esteemed. 

Aretino, Spinello, born at Arezzo (1328-1400). He painted at 
Are/xo, Florence, Siena, and in the Campo Santo at Pisa. In S. 
Angelo at Arezzo he painted the " Fall of the Angels," in which 
Lucifer was so terrible that the remembrance of it affected the mind 
of Spinello, haunted his dreams, and, in truth, hastened his death. 
In general Spinello was sketchy and unequal in execution, but showed 
great talent in the vehemence of his conceptions. He painted the 
hi-tory of S. Benedict in the Sacristy of S. Miniato at Florence. 
These pictures are well preserved, ami some of them are among the 
most spirited conceptions of all the pictures of the school of (Jiotto. 

Aretusi, or Munari degli Aretusi, Cesare. Called by some Mo- 
denese, because born at Modena, by others Bolognese, since he lived 


and took tip his citizenship at Bologna ; died at Parma about 1612. 
He formed his style after Bagnacavallo. He was the intimate friend 
of Gio. Batista Fiorini, and they painted much together. Aretusi 
excelled in color and Fiorini was full of fine conceptions. Lanzi be- 
lieved that in every work attributed to Aretusi we should look for 
assistance from some other artist. But he excelled in portraits with- 
out the aid of any one, and surpassed in imitation. He could assume 
the style of almost any artist with wonderful exactness. He made a 
copy of the " Xotte " of Correggio for the ch. of S. Gio. di Parma, 
which Mengs declared would be a good substitute for the original. 
The excellence of this performance obtained for Aretusi the honor 
of restoring the picture which Correggio had painted for the tribune 
of the same church, and this last work was so well done that many 
believed it to be the original of Allegri. 

Arevalo, Juan Cano de, born at Valdemoro (1656-1696). Scholar 
of Francisco Camilo. He excelled in designing small figures, and at 
length painted most exquisite fans. But the Spanish ladies thought 
the French fans exceeded all others, and would not buy those made 
at home. Arevalo shut himself up and finished a great many very 
beautiful ones, and then displayed them, pretending that they were 
French. Before his deceit was detected his fans were so much ad- 
mired that he was appointed abaniquero or fan-painter to the queen. 
He did some pictures in distemper in the ch. of Valdemoro. When 
the queen, Maria Louisa, died, he designed a strange allegorical pic- 
ture which represented her as a glorious spirit within a halo of rays, 
each ray containing a text which alluded to one of her many virtues. 
He went to Alcala to assist in painting some altar-pieces for the 
Jesuit college and the ch. of S. Maria. While there he died of a 
wound received in a duel. His fans were his best works, and so fine 
that they were preserved in cabinets after they were no longer used. 

Arfian, Antonio de. Flourished 1551. He studied with Murillo 
and L. de Vargas. He did several important works, and together 
with Antonio Ruiz painted the great altar-piece of the Cath. of Se- 
ville. This artist first introduced at Seville the painting of landscape 
and perspective backgrounds for bas-reliefs. He added to them 
painted figures which appeared to be carved like the rest. He also 
introduced improvements in the coloring of draperies on statues. 

Arias, Fernandez Antonio, born at Madrid; died 1680 or 1684. 
Studied with Pedro de las Cuevas. When but fourteen he painted 
the large altar-piece of the Carmelites at Toledo. This was much 
admired, and he was incited to greater application to his studies by 
the praises he received. At twenty-five he was one of the best 
painters at Madrid. The Duke d'Olivarez employed him to paint 
the portraits of the kings of Spain. After all his success, and his 
favors at court, he died in a hospital, although his life had been be- 
yond reproach. His daughter, who survived him, was a painter of 


some merit. In the Queen of Spain's Gall, there is a picture by 
Arias of "The Pharisees asking Christ concerning the Tribute 

Aristeides. 1. Lived about 360 B. C. One of the most, celebrated 
Greek painters. A native of Thebes, son of Aristodemus, and pupil 
of Euxenidas and Nicomachus. He excelled in depicting the passions 
and feelings which are observed in common life. It is said that the 
tirst foreign painting ever displayed in Rome was by this artist, and 
represented " Bacchus." It was brought to Rome by Muinmius, and 
placed in the temple of Ceres. 2. A sculptor celebrated for his 
statues of two and four-horsed chariots. 

Aiiaiid. James Anthony, born at Geneva (1668-1743). lie first 
painted small miniatures for the jewellers, but at length did some 
portraits, which were so successful as to induce him to go to Paris. 
Here he was patronized by the Duke of Orleans, who gave him 
apartments at St. Cloud, and took lessons in painting from him. He 
devoted himself to his profession, in order to merit his good fortune, 
and became a favorite of the Princess Palatine. She gave him her 
portrait set with diamonds, and when he would go to England, she 
gave him a letter recommending him to the Princess of Wales, 
afterwards Queen Catherine. Arland painted her portrait, and was 
patronized by many of the nobility. Me returned to Paris, and a 
few years after, having acquired an ample fortune, he settled in his 
native city, in which he remained until his death. 

Armanno, Vincenzio (1598-1649). A Fleming by birth. He 
painted landscapes and lived at Rome. His pictures are praised for 
their truthfulness, color, and shading. His figures are good and his 
invention copious. It is said that he was imprisoned in Rome for 
eating meat on fast days, and that on his liberation he left the city in 
disgust and went to Venice, where he died. 

Arnolfo, erroneously called di Lapo, was the son of Cambio of 
Colle de Val d'Elsa (1232-1310). A disciple of Niccola, under 
whom he worked at Sienna. When he died he held the ollice of 
chief architect and sculptor of S. Reparata at Florence. Many archi- 
tectural monuments were assigned to him. but most of them have 
perished. The tomb of Card, de Hraye, in S. Domenieo at Orvieto, 
was executed by him in 1280. This is a mixture of mosaic, sculp- 
ture, and architecture, and affords but small opjxjrtunity for judging 
of his merits. 

Arpino, il Cavaliere d'. See Cesari. 

Arredondo, Don Isidore, born at C'olemar de Oreja (1653-1702). 
A pupil of Josef Garcia, and later of Francesco Ri/.t. IK; painted 
history with great success, and at the death of Ri/,i was appointed 
court painter by Charles II. Palomino mentions a large and very 
grand picture of the " Incarnation " by Arredondo. 

Arteaga y Alfaro, Matias, born at Seville; died, 1701. Pupil 


of Juan de Vakles. An eminent painter and engraver. He painted 
many perspective views, into which he introduced the stories illustra- 
tive of the legends of the Virgin. He was secretary of the Acad. 
of Seville, at the time of his death. 

Artois, Jacob van, born at Brussels (1613-1665). Probably 
studied with Lodewyck de Vaddcr. Many of his pictures are very 
large. He painted only landscapes, and the figures in his pictures 
were done by Teniers, Van Herp, Gerard Zegers, and Gaspard de 
Craeyer. They sometimes represented Scripture stories, and are seen 
in the churches of Belgium. The pictures of Artois faithfully rep- 
resent the scenery of his native country. His pencil was light and 
free; some of his works are grandly poetic, and his foliage so p.-r- 
fect that it seems to be in motion. His coloring is not of the best. 
His pictures are numerous, and very unequal in merit and value. 
The Dresden Gall, has a fine small picture by this master, No. 956. 
The Gall, at Brussels has four; Xos. 37, 1, and 4 are the best. The 
figures in the first are by Van Herp. In No. 4, they are by Gaspard 
de Craeyer and Peter Snayers, and represent " S. Hubert adoring 
the Crucifix." In the Vienna Gall, are two large pictures with fig- 
ures by Gerard Zegers. In private galleries in England there are 
'good pictures by Artois. 

Asper, Hans, born at Zurich (1499-1571). He painted portraits 
in the style of Holbein, and gained a reputation which has been in- 
jured by his pictures being sold for those of Holbein. The portraits 
of Zuinglius and his wife, in the library at Zurich, are by Asper. 
His drawings of game, flowers, and birds, were much esteemed. A 
medal was given him to record his merit, and yet he lived and died 
in poverty. 

Aspertini, Amico, born at Bologna (1475-1532). Scholar of 
Francis Francia. Very peculiar in character all his life, and insane 
before his death, according to Vasari, who says that lie studied art 
by going through all Italy and making copies of all that pleased him. 
He could paint with both hands at the same time, and was called 
Amico da due Penelli. His earliest works are in S. Cecilia at Bo- 
logna, and are much injured. At S. Frediano in Lucca, there are 
nine pictures by this master, in the chapel of S. Agostino. They 
.ire much injured. His other works are, Berlin Mus., Xo. 119, 
"Nativity;" Bologna Gall., Xo. 297, "Virgin and Child," with 
several saints and the portraits of two patrons ; Madrid Mus., Xo. 
885, " Rape of the Sabines ;" Bologna, ch. of S. Martino Maggiore, 
" Virgin and Child " with saints, among which is S. Xicholas giv- 
ing their dowry to three young girls. At Ferrara, in the Strozzi 
Pal., a " Predella " with four scenes from the life of Mary. 

Aspertini, Guido, born at Bologna, about 1460. Scholar of Er- 
cole di Ferrara. Died young. His principal work was an " Adora- 
tion of the Magi," now in the Gall, of Bologna (Xo. 9). It is some- 
what fantastic, but a pleasing picture. 


Assche, Henri van, born at Brussels (1775-1841). Studied 
first with his father, and then with De Roi of Brussels. His pictures, 
which arc landscapes, may be seen at Ghent, Lille, Haerlem, and 
Brussels. In some there are figures and animals by Ommeganek. 

Asselyn, Jan, born at Dicsseu. near 
Amsterdam. Scholar of Esaias van de 
Velde, and Jan Miel. He went to Italv 
in 1630, and remained fifteen years. He painted landscapes which 
are remarkable for tender coloring, good drawing, and poetic concep- 
tion. His works are highly esteemed. In the Louvre there are four. 
In the Van der Hoop Coll. at Amsterdam, a fine one, with a massive 
ruin in the foreground and blue mountains in the distance. In the 
Munich Gall. Cabinets, No. 445 has a fine effect of chiaro-s<-i-.m. 
It represents a ruined castle on a rock. In the Coll. of T. Baring, 
Esq., England, a picture of a Woman and Cattle reflected in the 
water, at the entrance of a cave, is one of the best works of Asselvn. 
Assen, Jan Walther van. Said to have 

, , l been born in Holland, about 1490. One of the 

A /A>V ./T K\ earliest engravers on wood. His cuts are highly 
prized by collectors. A contemporary of Lu- 
cas von Leyden, he seems to have had the same rank in wood en- 
graving that Lucas held in engraving on copper. Little is known of 
his life. He was living in Amsterdam in 1517. His works are as 
follows : 

A set of six prints, circular, representing the Passion of Christ, 
marked with his cipher, and dated 1513 and 1514. 

A set of six large prints of different subjects in architectural com- 
partments. In tlie middle of each the words : 1. Supcibia; 2. Lnx- 
uria ; 3. Invidia ; 4. Ira; 5. Gula ; 6. Avaricia ; and their opposite 

A small print of an armed Figure on Horseback; inscribed S/. 
Hadrianus Ainstelwlamus in ^Edibus Donanli I'l-li'l, etc. 

Asserreto, Giovacchino, born at Genoa (1GOO-1649) Studied 
under Borzone and Ansaldo. When but sixteen he painted a 
" Temptation of S. Anthony." There are altar-pieces painted by 
Asserreto in several convents and churches at Genoa. 

Asta, Andrea dell', born at Naples (1G73-1721). Scholar of 
Francesco Solimene. He went to Rome, where he studied the works 
of Raphael. His best pictures are the ' Nativity," and the * Ado- 
ration of the Magi," painted, after his return to Naples, for the eh. 
of S. Agostino. 

Astley, John, born at Wemm, Shropshire, England. A portrait 
painter, who studied under Hudson. He visited Italy. His portraits 
were fine, and he was rapidly acquiring great reputation, when a 
wealthy lady, whose portrait he had painted, offered him her hand. 
After his marriage he relinquished his profession. Died 1787. 
Athanasio, Don Pedro. See Boccanegra. 


Athenodorus. See Agesander. 

Attavante or Vante. Living in 1487. This artist was a celebrated 
illuminator of MSS. Lanzi says, the excellence of this artist ought 
to confer on him " greater celebrity than he enjoys." He orna- 
mented many books for Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary. These 
afterwards remained in the Medicean and Esteusean libraries. A 
magnificent Missal which Attavante illuminated for Matthias is now 
in the Library at Brussels. It was probably brought to Brussels by 
Maria, sister of Charles V., and wife of Ludwig II. of Hungary. 
After the death of her husband she obtained the government of the 
Netherlands. The regents of Belgium formerly took their oaths 
upon this volume. The first to do so were Archduke Albert and 
Isabella, in 1599 ; the last was the Prince of Saxen-Teschen, in the 
name of Joseph II., in 1781. 

Attiret, Jeau Denis, called Frere Attiret, born at Dole, 1 702 ; 
died at Pekin, 1768. After studying at Rome, and distinguishing 
himself by his pictures at Lyons, he became a Jesuit at Avignon. 
About this time the Jesuit missionary at Pekin sent to France for a 
painter. Attiret was chosen to make this journey, and left France 
in 1737. A picture which he presented the emperor, soon after his 
arrival, so pleased his majesty, that he wished to employ Attiret con- 
tinually, lie wished him to work in water-colors, for he did not like 
the gloss of oil. His commissions were so numerous that he was 
obliged to employ Chinese assistants, who had at first been jealous of 
him, but at length became reconciled to his supremacy. He became 
a great favorite, even among the painters, and was able to establish 
a drawing-school. About 1 760 the emperor obtained victories over 
Tartar tribes with whom he was at war. Attiret was ordered to pro- 
ceed to the northwest part of the empire, where he made accurate 
sketches of triumphal processions, festivals, etc. From these he 
painted pictures which so pleased the emperor that he desired to 
make him a mandarin, which honor Attiret declined. All -the princi- 
pal men of the empire sat to him for their portraits some of them 
travelling eight hundred leagues for the purpose. Sixteen of these 
portraits were sent to Paris to be engraved at the expense of the em- 
peror. Very few impressions cf these plates were reserved in France, 
and they are extremely rare. They were of immense size. When 
the artist died the emperor ordered two hundred ounces of silver to 
be given towards the expense of his funeral. 

Aubert, Augustine, born at Marseilles, 1781. Painted history and 
landscapes. The latter are principally from scenery about Marseilles, 
and the former represent sacred subjects, and are often very large. 

Aubert, Michel, born at Paris (1 700-1757). An engraver of por- 
traits and historical subjects. He seems to have imitated Gerard 
Audran. but with small success. 

Aubin, Augustine de St., born at Paris (1736-1807). A skilful 


engraver. He engraved the works of several French and Italian 

Aubiii, Augustine de St., born at Paris. 1720. An engraver of 
merit. Scholar of Laurent Cars. lie engraved the coll. of nearlv 
three thousand medals belonging to M. Pellerin, and the gems of the 
Duke of Orleans, besides an immense number of portraits, historical 
subjects, vignettes, ornaments for bocks, etc. 

Aubin, Charles Germain de St., born at Paris, 1721. Brother of 
the preceding, and an engraver. 

Aubin, Gabriel Jaques de St., born at Paris. 1721. Brother of 
the preceding. He painted historical subjects, and also engraved a 
few plates from his own designs. 

Aubriet, Claude, born at Chalons-sur-Man.e (HJ/il-l 7 13). A 
pupil of Joubert. He distinguished himself first as a miniature 
painter. He was appointed to make drawings of objects of natural 
history at the Jardin des Plantes. He accompanied Tournet'ort to 
the Levant, and the plates which afterwards illustrated the Klc- 
ments dc Botanique " were after the designs of Anbriet. At tin- 
death of Joubert he was appointed painter to the king in the Jardin 
des Plantes, and many of his drawings arc now in the library of the 
Jardin. There are also five folio volumes of his designs in the Ko\al 
Library at Paris. He was a botanist, and the plates in ' Tourne- 
fort's Voyage to the Levant " wen; after his designs. 

Audenaerde or Oudenaerde, 

Robert van ' lj(>rn at < ; hcut 
(lUtt-174:J). A good painter, 
and celebrated engraver. A scholar of Francis van Mierhop and 
John van Cleef. At twenty-two years of age he went to Rome, 
and there studied under Carlo Maratti. He became, a reputable 
painter of historical pictures. In leisure moments he amused himself 
by making plates, and when these were seen by Maratti he advised 
his pupil to devote himself to engraving. The plates in which he 
used the point are much finer than those done entirely with the 
graver. The principal part of his prints were after the pictures of 
his Italian master. His drawing is very correct and shows perfect 
knowledge of the human figure. His paintings are (mite in the style 
of Maratti. His chef-tFceuvre is the altar-piece in the ch. of the 
Carthusians at Ghent. It repre>ent> the appearance of S. Peter to a 
number of monks. In the ch. of S. James is his picture of S. Cath- 
erine refusing to worship the False (Jods." Other churches and 
convents of his native city po>sess works of this artist. 

Audouin, Pierre, born at Paris (17(38-1822). An eminent en- 
graver and a [nijiil of Beauvarlet. He engraved several of the finest 
paintings of the Italian and Dutch masters for the coll. of the Mus. 
published by Laurent. 

Audran, Benoit, born at Lyons (1661-1721). Sou of Germain 


Audran, -with whom he first studied, but later he became the pupil 
of the celebrated Gerard, his uncle. Although he did not equal the 
latter, he was an excellent artist. He was a member of the Acad. 
and engraver to the king. He engraved many portraits and his- 
torical subjects. His style was, like his uncle's, clear and bold, his 
drawing correct, and his heads full of expression. 

Audran, Charles, born at Paris (1594-1674). This name was 
eminent among French engravers for more than a century. Charles 
was the first to make it so. His disposition for the art was shown very 
early, and he was still quite young when his plates attracted atten- 
tion in Rome, where he had gone to study. He imitated the style 
of Cornelius Bloemaert, and used only the graver. His works were 
finished with great care. His earlier plates were marked with a 
('., but when his brother Claude used the same letter, he changed to 
K., the initial of Karl. 

Audran, Claude, born at Lyons (1639-1684). After studying 
drawing at Paris under his uncle, he went to Rome. He drew well 
and had great facility in execution. He returned to Paris, and was 
engaged as an assistant by Le Brim. Under the direction of the 
latter he painted the grand staircase at Versailles, the Gall, of the 
Tuileries, and the Chapel of Colbert's Chateau de Sceaux, all in 
fresco. He became an imitator of Le Brim, whom he also assisted 
in his " Battles of Alexander," and many other works. 

Audran, Gerard, born at Lyons (1640-1703). Son of Claude and 
nephew of Charles. This artist may be said to have reached perfec- 
tion in engraving. He studied first with his father, then with his 
uncle, and finally at Rome, it is believed under Maratti. He was in 
Rome three years, and made a portrait of Clement IX. and other 
plates, which gave him such a reputation that he was recalled to 
Paris by Colbert. He was soon appointed engraver to the king, with 
a generous pension and apartments at the Gobelins. He became in- 
timate with Le Brim, and some of his finest plates are after the 
paintings of that master. The ' Battles of Alexander" cannot be 
too highly praised. His plates were very numerous. 

Audran, Germain, born at Lyons (1631-1710). Nephew of 
Charles and Claude, and inferior to some members of his family in 
artistic merit. He engraved portraits, ceilings, ornaments, vases, etc. 

Audran, John, born at Lyons (1667-1756). Son of Germain, and 
brother of Benoit. After studying with his father, he too was placed 
under the famous Gerard, and became a celebrated artist. He was 
made engraver to the king, and had a pension and apartments at the 
Gobelins, in 1707. His prints are numerous, and he continued to 
labor after he was eighty years old. 

Audran, Louis, born at Lyons (1670-1712). Youngest son of 
Germain. He also studied under Gerard. He assisted his brothers 
in then- plates, and did not execute many of his own. He also en- 
graved copies of the large historical plates of his relatives. 


Andubon, John James, born in Louisiana (1782-1851). 
artist, distinguished for his drawings of the ''Birds of America." 
He studied painting in Paris under the celebrated David. His plates 
are very perfect, of the size and color of life, and the beaks, talons, 
and legs are of accurate dimensions. The book was thirteen years 
in preparation and was published in Edinburgh; this time does not 
include the making of a large portion of Audubon's pictures. Jt has 
435 plates, containing 1,065 figures. Cuvier pronounced it the 
most gigantic and most magnificent monument that had ever been 
erected to Nature." Audubon was also the author of ' Ornithol.._r- 
ical Biography," and at the time of his death was at work upon the 
" Quadrupeds of America," 

Augur, Hezekiah, son of a carpenter, born in New Hampshire 
(1791-1858). He was first a shoemaker's apprentice, then a trades- 
man in New Haven, where he failed. He partly paid his debts by 
carving ornamental furniture, and invented a machine for weaving 
worsted lace. Gradually he turned his attention to sculpture. lie 
copied a "Head of Apollo," and in 1827 executed a Washing- 
ton" and a " Sappho," which established his local fame. His be>t 
work was the group of " Jephtha and his Daughter." still preserved 
in Yale College Gall. This obtained for him several commissions lor 
busts and monuments. 

Austin, "William, born in London about 1740. An engraver an 1 
a pupil of George Bickham. He engraved some landscapes after 
Ruysdael and other artists, but his principal work was a set of 
plates, of views of Palmyra and its Ruins, and of Ancient Rome. 

Auzon, Madame, born in Paris, 1775. She studied under Reg- 
nault. Painted portraits and familiar subjects. Several of her pic- 
tures have been engraved. 

Avanzii or Avanzi, Jacopo degli. An ancient painter of Bo- 
logna, of whom little is known. He flourished about the middle of 
tin- Mih century. In the Colonna Gall, at Rome, there is a " Cruci- 
fixion " by this master, and Nos. 159, 160, 161, of the Bologna 
Acad. are also his. In the ch. of Mczxarata he painted pictures 
which Malvasia asserts were praised by Michael Aiinvlu and the Ca- 
racci. These have been whitewashed, and restored, and are verv 

Avanzi, Giuseppe, born at Ferrara (1655-1718). School of Co- 
stanzio Cattanio. He is noted for the numbers of his works, rather 
than for excellence. Most of them were for the convents and 
churches of his native city. 

Aved, Jacques Antoine Joseph, born at Douay (1 702-1766). 
Pupil of Picard and a portrait painter of merit 

Aveline, Anthony, born at Paris, 16C2. Designer and engraver. 
His principal works were views of the palaces and chateaux of Eu- 


Aveline, Pierre, born at Paris, 1710. Designer and engraver. 
Scholar of John Baptist Poilly. His subjects were often trifling and 
insignificant, his drawing stiff, though not incorrect. 

Aveline, Francis Anthony, born at Paris, 1718. Cousin of the 
preceding. An engraver of small reputation, and worked mostly for 

Avellino, Giulio, called II Messinese, born at Messina (1645- 
1700). A landscape painter, said to have studied with Salvator 
Rosa. He settled at Ferrara, and was much' employed by the nobil- 
ity of Ferrara and Cremona. He painted in the grand style of Rosa, 
and introduced ruins, architecture, and figures into his pictures. His 
pictures are valued, and are in many collections. 

Avellino, Onofrio, born at Naples (1674-1741). Said to have 
been a pupil of .Francesco Solimene. In Rome he painted an altar- 
piece in the ch. of S. Maria di Montesanto, and the vault of the ch. 
of S. Francesco di Paola, which last is considered his best work. 

Avibxis, Gaspar Ab or Patavinus, born at Padua, 1530. An 
en"raver whose principal work was a large volume containing the 
portraits of the Royal House of Austria, full-lengths, signed Caspar 
Patavinus, incisor. 1569. 

Avogadro, Pietro, called Bresciano, born at Brescia. Flourished 
about 1730. A scholar of Pompeo Ghiti. His coloring was Venetian, 
especially in the carnations. The whole style of his composition and 
painting is pleasing. By some he is said to rank as the fourth among 
the artists of Brescia, that is, after Bonvicino, Gambara, and Savoldo. 
His "Martyrdom of SS. Crispino and Crispiano," is his principal 
work, and is in the ch. of S. Joseph at Brescia. 

Avont, Peter van der, born at Antwerp 
/L ~\J CX about 1619 A fine landscape painter, and an 
eminent engraver. He often painted figures in 
the landscapes of Vinckenboom. 

Avril, Jean Jacques, born at Paris (1744-1832). An engraver 
whose works are much admired. Scholar of J. G. Wille. He left 
about 540 plates, some of them large. 

Avril, Jean Jacques, born at Paris (1771-1831). Son of the pre- 
ceding. One of the engravers employed by Laurent. His plates of 
many of the pictures and statues of the Louvre are excellent. 

Axtmann, Leopold, born at Fulneck ; died at Prague (1700- 
1748). An animal painter. He rivalled his master, John George 
Hamilton, in reputation. His pictures are in Bohemia. He painted 
dogs and horses excellently. 

Ayala, Barnabi de. Painter of history at Seville. Scholar of 
Zurbaran. He so well imitated his master that it is believed that 
the pictures of Ayala are sold as those of Zurbaran. He was one of 
the founders of the Acad. of Seville. 

Azzolini or Mazzolini, Gio. Bernardino, born at Naples. 


Flourished 1510. He resided chiefly at Genoa, and his pictures arc 
in the chnrehes and convents of that city. lie excelled in wax-work, 
and formed heads with a wonderful expression of life. 


Baader, Amalie, born in Erding, Bavaria, 1763. An amateur en- 
graver. She studied under J. Dorner. Her mark is an A and 15 
interlaced, and is founcl on copies after Rembrandt, Schmidt, and 
some Italian masters. 

Baak, Hattigh Jan. An artist of Utrecht about the middle of 
the 17th century. In the hospital of S. Job of Utrecht there is a 
work of his dated 1642. It is a landscape, with figures, and from its 
style he was probably a pupil of Poelcmburg. 

Baan, John de, born at Haerlem, 1633 ; died at the Hague, 1 702. 
An eminent portrait painter. Instructed first by an uncle named 
Piemans, he then studied under Jacob de Backer. He succeeded M> 
well in portrait painting, that he confined himself almost entirely to 
that branch of art. He was an admirer and worthy imitator of Van- 
dyck. Charles H. of England was anxious to be painted by J)e Iiaan. 
and invited him to his court for that purpose, where he also painted 
many of the nobility. When Louis XIV. had conquered a part of 
Holland, he sent to Utrecht for this artist to come and paint his 
portrait. But he received a refusal, the excuse beiii'_ r . that when his 
country was in the midst of mourning, he could not trace tin- features 
of her conqueror. One of the best works of De Baan is his portrait 
of Prince Maurice of Xassau-Ziegen. 

Baccarini, Jacopo, born at Reggio (1630-1682). Painter of his- 
tory and a pupil of Orazio Talami. Two of his best works are in 
the ch. of S. Filippo at Reggio, and represent the "Death of S. 
Alessio " and the " Repose in Kgypt." 

Baccicio. See Gaulli. 

Baccio. See Delia Porta. 

Bacheley, Jacques, born at Pont 1'Evdquc in Normandy (1712- 
1781). An engraver and designer. Member of the Acad. of lumen. 
We have prints of landscapes after Dutch masters by this artist. 

Bachelier, Jean Jacques, born at Paris (1 724-1S05). As an ar- 
tist he is unimportant, but he gained a fortune of 60,000 francs, 
which he devoted to the establishment of a free school of drawing 
for artists. He was director of the porcelain manufactory at 
Sevres, and greatly improved its taste. Bachelier assisted Count 
de Caylus in his attempt > to discover the ancient method of en- 
caustic painting, and invented a kind of encaustic varnish to pre- 
serve marbles from the action of the weather. He also wrote two 
books entitled " Le Conseil de Fauiille," and a " Me'moire sur 
1'Education dee Filles." 


Bachelier, Nicholas, born at Toulouse (1496-1554). An unim- 
portant sculptor and architect. 

Bachiaca. See Ubertino. 

Backereel, Giles. An artist who adorned many of the churches 
of the Low Countries. A contemporary of Rubens, and like him in 
style. One of the best artists of his country, when art was at its best. 
An altar-piece of his in the Cath. of Bruges, represents " S. Charles 
Borromeo administering the Sacrament to those stricken with the 
Plague.'' A grand and striking composition, with fine coloring. In 
the ch. of the Augustincs at Antwerp, there is a fine " Crucifixion " 
lw Backereel, and at the Franciscan ch. at Brussels, a picture of the 
Virgin and Child." with S. Beatrice and other saints. 

Backhuysen, Ludolf, born at Einbden, 1631 ; died at Amsterdam, 
1 709. Until he was eighteen years old, he was employed in mercan- 
tile pursuits; but constantly sought the company of painters, and at 
that age became the pupil of Aldert van Everdingen. He went con- 
stantly amongst the shipping, and made sketches in Indian ink and 
bistre, which were purchased by collectors, at large prices. He at 
length began to paint with good success, and became, in time, the 
most noted painter of rou^h seas. He often exposed himself and his 
boatmen to great danger, by going out in storms, to study the waves 
and clouds, when in their wildest state. In coloring he cannot com- 
pare with Willem van der Velde, but the pictures of the latter rep- 
resent mostly smooth waters. The pictures of Backhuysen were in 
great demand, not only in his own country, but in others. Smith 
enumerates one hundred and eighty-four of his works, and many of 
them of considerable size. It is not possible to give a full list of 
them and the places they are in, but the following are some of the 
best. One in the Van der Hoop Coll. at Amsterdam, a coast scene, 
sea and sky agitated with coloring or lighting, of great beauty. No. 
5, Amsterdam Mus., dated 1673, view of the River Y; clear and 
brilliant. No. 6, same place, stormy scene. Louvre, No. 7, rough 
sea at the mouth of the Maas; a fishing boat is trying to run in. 
No. 5 of the Louvre gives ten men-of-war at the mouth of the Texel. 
A view of the last river in the Bridge-water Gail.. No. 1 22, with seven 
vessels, and dated 1670, is very fine. In the Mus. at the Hague, No. 
6 is fine in the sunshine and shadow upon the water, but No. 7 is 
heavy and hard. Many of his pictures are in England, in the Na- 
tional Gall., colls, of Lord Ashburton, Mr. Baring, and others. 
Peter the Great was a pupil of Backhuysen, who made for the Czar 
numerous drawings for the construction of vessels. 

Backhuysen, Ludolf, grandson of the preceding, born at Amster- 
dam (1 717-1782). Good painter of horses and battles. 

Baerse, Jacques de la. A sculptor of Dendermonde, who la- 
bored ; n 1391. He did the carving of the remarkable shrines, de- 
signed and painted by Melchior Broederlain, for the Cath. of Dijon, 
which are now preserved in the Mus. of that city. 


Baglioni, Cesare, born at Bologna. A contemporary of the Ca- 
raeci, he profited by their style, though not of their school. II was 
an artist of considerable merit, and painted landscapes, history, ani- 
mals, fruit, etc. His principal works are at Bologna and Parma, and 
are much esteemed. In the ch. of the Madonna del' Soeeoi>o at Bo- 
logna there is an " Ascension," and in the eh. of S. Gicrgio. an altar- 
piece, representing " S. Anthony and S. Martha," by this master. 
He was living in 1610. 

Baglioni, Cavaliere Gio., born at Rome. A pupil of Francesco 
Morelli. He was much employed during the time of Clement VIII. 
and Paul V. In S. Niccolo in Carcere, there is a fine picture of his 
of the " Last Supper." In S. Peter's there is a picture of 'that 
saint raising Tabitha from the dead, for which he was made a 
Knight of the Order of Christ, by Paul V. This artist was the 
author of the " Lives of the Painters, Sculptors, and Architects who 
flourished at Rome from 1572 to 1642." 

Bagnacavallo, H. The real name of this artist was Bartolommco 
Ramenghi. He was called II Bagnacavallo from his birthplace. 
Born 1484; died at Bologna, 1542. lie studied under Francia at 
Bologna, before he went to Rome, where he was a pupil in the school 
of Raphael, and afterwards assisted that great master in some impor- 
tant works. Bagnacavallo worshipped Raphael, and felt that to imi- 
itate him, was an aim worthy of his ambition. Upon his return to 
Bologna he brought the Roman style of painting to that city. 

The works of this artist are not common in galleries. It is said 
that his pictures were admired by the Caracci. He distinguished 
himself at Bologna by a " Crucifixion " which he painted for the ch. 
of S. Pietro. It is dated 1522. In the Dresden Gall, there is a 
' Madonna and Child" in a glory, with four male saints, which is, 
by some, considered his masterpiece. It is " a picture of great and 
energetic expression." A " Holy Family : ' with saints, in the (Jail. 
at Bologna is pleasing, but not powerful. In S. Maria della Pace at 
Rome, there are frescoes of a Saint and a Prophet in armor, colossal 
in size. There are also works of his in the Berlin Mns.. the Colonna 
Pal., and in the Solly Coll. There are others in different churches 
of Bologna. 

Bagnacavallo, Gio. Batista. Son of Bartolommeo Rameiiiihi. 
lie went to France as an assistant to Primaticcio, when he undertook 
his work at Fontainebleau. When he returned to Bologna, he was 
made chief of the Acad. of that city. 

Baillie, Captain William. An amateur engraver. 
Born in Ireland about 1736. His early life was passed in 
the army, from which he retired with the rank of captain 
of cavalry. He devoted the remainder of his life to art. 
He was one of the most intelligent connoisseurs of his time. We 
have about a hundred plates of his, engraved in different manners. 


His copies after Rembrandt, and his plates after the style of that 
master, are his choicest works. The following are a few of his 
plates . 

Christ Healing the Sick, called the Hundred Guilder Print. Orig- 
inal plate by Rembrandt, and admirably retouched by Baillie. 

Beggars at the Door of a House ; after Rembrandt** print. 

The Gold- weigher; finely copied from Rembrandt's print. 

Three Trees ; landscape ; after same. 

Old Man, half-length, with a Cap and Beard; 1765; after Rem- 

Landscape, with a Horse; after Rembrandt's print. 

The Pen-cutter; afler Ger. Douiv. 

Interior of an Ale-house, with figures regaling; after Teniers , 

Another Interior with Peasants Smoking and Drinking ; after A. 1765. 

Bailii, David, born at Leyden (1584-1638). Painter of portraits 
and perspective church interiors. The latter works of his are much 

Baillu or Bailliu, born at Antwerp, 1614. An engraver, whose 
principal plates are after Rubens and Vandyck. Although not the 
best, his prints are well esteemed. 

Baillu or Bailliu or Baleau, Bernhard, born in the Netherlands 
about 1625. An engraver of portraits and a few historical subjects. 
He executed entirely with the graver. 

Bajardo, Gio. Batista, born at Genoa (1620-1657). A painter of 
history whose pictures are esteemed in Genoa. The best are in the 
portico of S. Pietro and the cloister of S. Agostino. 

Bakker, Jacob, born at Harlingen (1608-1641). Lived chiefly 
at Amsterdam, and painted history and portraits with great rapidity. 
Ills works arc praised by the poet Vondel. Many of them are in 
Spain. An altar-piece in a chapel of the Antwerp Cath. represent- 
ing the " Last Judgment " is by Bakker, and is a fine picture. 
Another of his works is a large archery piece, No. 34, in the new 
Hotel de Ville at Amsterdam. 

Bakker, Adrian, born at Amsterdam (1G43-1686). Nephew of 
Jacob. Studied at Rome. Excelled most of his countrymen in cor- 
rectness of design. His chef-d'oeuvre is a picture of the " Judgment 
of Solomon," in the Hotel de Ville at Amsterdam. 

Baldi, Lazzaro, born at Pistoja (1623-1703). A scholar of Pietro 
da Cortona, in Rome. He became an eminent painter of his time. 
In the Pontifical Pal. at Monte Cavallo, there is an esteemed work of 
his representing "David and Goliath." The "Martyrdom of S. 
Lazzaro " is in the ch. of S. Luke. 

Baldovinetti, Alessio, born at Florence (1422-1499). He is 
believed to have been a pupil of Paolo Uccelli. His works are few, 


and are distinguished for minuteness in detail. lie is said to have 
painted straws so that their stems and joints could be- seen. He ex- 
ecuted portraits and historical subjects, both in oils and fresco. His 
remaining works are much injured by scaling or the abrasion of tin- 
colors. Those best known are a fresco in the cloister of the Annun- 
ziata at Florence; No. 24, Uffizi Gall.; and a "Trinity" with Saints. 
painted for a chapel in S. Trinita at Florence. He wa> interested 
in mosaic work, and studied much to learn the best manner in which 
it could be done. In 1481 he repaired the mosaic over the portal 
at S. Miniato al Monte. He was a chemist, as well as an artist. He 
claims to have been the teacher of Ghirlandaio. He was buried in 
S. Lorenzo at Florence. 

Baldrighi, Giuseppe, born at Pavia (1722-1802). A pupil of 
Vincenzio Meucci. He was invited to the court of Parma, and ap- 
pointed painter to the Duke. He painted portraits of the ducal 
family, which were much admired. One of his finest pictures is in 
the saloon of the Acad. of Parma, and represents " Prometheus." 

Balducci, Oio., called Cosci, died 1600. Said to have been a 
native of Florence and a pupil of Batista Naldini. He was employed 
at Rome by Leo XI., when Card. I)--' Medici. His works may In- 
seen at Rome, at Florence, and at Naples, which he visited towards 
the close of his life. 

Baldung, Hans, called Griin. Born at Gemund, 1470; died at 
Strasbourg, 1552. A contemporary, and perhaps a pupil of Albert 
Diirer, but inferior to him in beauty of design and color. A number 
of his pictures may he seen in the Cath. of Freiburg. An altar-piece 
dated 1516 is considered his chef-d'oeuvre. One of his best portraits 
is in the Vienna Gall. No. 14s, Munich Gull. Cabinets, is a por- 
trait of the Margrave of Baden. Berlin Mus., Nos. t!<>3 and 623 are 
his works. He was an engraver, and worked chiefly on wood. 
Bartsch assigns to him two engravings on copper, and mentions fifty- 
nine wood-cuts. His drawing was sometimes incorrect; but the 
expression of the heads was good. The following are some of his 
prints : 

Adam and Eve plucking the apple. 

The Fall of Adam ; inscribed on a tablet, "Lapsus humanis gen- 
eris. 1511. 

Christ and the Apostles. 1514. Thirteen plates. 

The Crucifixion, with S. John, the Virgin, and Mary Magdalene; 
in chiaro-scuro; fine. 

Two landscapes; very scarce. 

Four small upright prints : Solomon's Idolatry, Samson and Deli- 
lah, David and Bathsheba, and Aristotle and Phryne; very fine. 

An Incantation ; in chiaro-scuro. 1510. 

The Holy Family, with SS. Elizabeth and Catherine ; half-length. 


Two prints of Horses in a Forest; marked " BALDUXG. 1534." 

A Man with a Horse ; large upright ; no date. 

Balechou, Jean Jacques, born at Aries, 1715 ; died at Avignon, 
17G4. Very celebrated engraver. He excelled all French engravers 
who preceded him in the clearness of his strokes and brilliancy of 
color. In neatness of execution he has rarely been surpassed. There 
is, however, a deficiency in his drawing, especially in portraits, which 
detracts from the effect of his works. His three plates after Yernet, 
representing the " Storm," the " Calm," and the " Bathers," are 
among his finest plates. 

Balen, Heiurich van, born at Antwerp (1560-1632). Pupil of 
Adam van Oort. He went to Italy, and returned to Antwerp, where 
the demand for his pictures was greater than he could supply. In 
purity of color he excelled the older Flemish artists, but was cold in 
feeling, and mannered in design. The backgrounds of his pictures 
were often painted by Jan Breughel, and sometimes by Kierings. 
These works were found in the best collections. His nude figures 
were the most pleasing, and exquisite in finish. In the Antwerp 
Cath. are two altar-pieces, and in the ch. of S. Jacques an " Ascen- 
sion " by Balen. He was the first instructor of Yandyck. 

Balestra, Antonio, born at Yerona (1666-1740). Pupil of Carlo 
Maratti at Rome, where he was employed to paint in several churches 
and palaces. He gained the prize at the Acad. of S. Luke in 1694. 
He was not a great master, but his works are held in good estima- 
tion. One of his finest pictures is in the ch. of S. Ignatius at Bo- 
logna. He was also an engraver, and his plates from his own designs 
are etched in a free and masterly manner. 

Baltz, J. Georges, born at Strasbourg, 1 760. Painted miniature 
portraits and landscapes on porcelain, many of which are seen in the 
cabinets of Europe. 

Bambini, Giacomo, born at Ferrara ; died 1622. Pupil of Do- 
menico Mona. There are many of his works in the churches and 
public edifices of Ferrara. 

Bambini, Niccolo, born at Yenice (1651-1736). Pupil of Giulio 
Mazzoni and Carlo Maratti. He imitated Liberi, and like him was 
distinguished for his beautiful women. He was a reformer in Vene- 
tian art. Many of his works are in the churches of Yenice. Bam- 
bini was the master of Zanetti. 

Bamboccio. See Peter de Laer. 

Banck, Peter van der, of Flemish extraction, but born at Paris 
(1649-1697). Pupil of Francis de Poilly, and an eminent engraver. 
In 1674 he went to England with Henry Gascar. He painted por- 
traits of many eminent persons of his time, which are much esteemed 
for their historical value, as well as for their merit as engravings. 

Bandinelli, Baccio, born at Florence (1487-1559). Sculptor 
and painter. Scholar of Rustici, and friend of Leonardo da Vinci. 


His designs were powerful, and his treatment bold, but he had much 
mannerism. He hated Michael Angelo, whom he never could equal. 
He was envious, fals, and calumnious, full of silly vanity, his only 
virtue being that of industry. But all that has passed away, and his 
works remain to claim for him his due distinction. The best of these 
are a bas-relief on the screen of the choir (or the high altar) of the 
Florence Cath., which represents the Prophets, the Apostles, the 
Virtues, etc. ; a bas-relief on a pedestal in the Piazza of S. Lorenzo, 
at Florence ; and a group representing " Xicodemus supporting 
Christ," which he intended for his own monument. This last is in 
the ch. of the Annunziata, at Florence, and the Nicodeonu is a 
portrait of Bandinelli himself. 

Banks, Thomas, born at Lambeth (1738-1805). He served his 
apprenticeship to a wood carver. He obtained several premiums 
from the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts, for models in 
sculpture. He then entered himself a student of the Royal Aead.. 
and obtained their gold medal. This entitled him to study in Home 
three years. He applied himself closely to the study of the antique, 
and there executed two of his best works in marble : " Cupid catch- 
ing a Butterfly," purchased by Catherine II. of Russia ; and " Ca- 
ractacus brought Prisoner to Rome." He returned to England, and 
attempted to indulge his fancy in works of a lofty and heroic style, 
but he was compelled to adopt the more lucrative employment of 
monumental sculpture. He was invited to Russia by the Kni]>iv>s, and 
remained two years. Monuments executed by him are in several 
churches in England; and in the Hall of the British Institution is the 
model of " Achilles mourning the Loss of Briseis," never executed in 
marble. His life was one of disappointment. His poetic groups were 
received with coldness, and he lacked that encouragement which 
stimulates to the highest attainment. 

Baptists. See Monnoyer. 

Barabbino, Simone, born near Genoa about 1585. Pupil of Ber- 
nardo Castello, who became jealous of his talent, and expelled him 
from his Acad. He then painted a picture for the Annunziata del 
Guastato, representing S. Diego, which has been much praised. 
He removed to Milan, where he received the honor due to his ability. 
One of his finest works is a "Madonna," with the dead Christ, and 
Saints, in the ch. of S. Girolamo. Lanzi says he became a mer- 
chant, and died in jail. 

Barbalunga. See Ricci. 

Barbarelli. See Giorgione. 

Barbaris, Jacopo de (1504). Little can be told of this painter; 
indeed, it is doubtful by what name he should be called, for lie is 
thought to be identical with Jacomo Barberino Vencziano, and with 
Jacob Walch, an artist alluded to by Diirer in his correspondence. 
His signature and emblem (a wand of Mercury), are on a panel in 


the Gall, of Augsburg, dated 1504, and on a head of Christ in the 
Mus. of Weimar. There are also pictures of his in Paris, Ratisbon, 
and in Dresden Mus. If he be the same as Jacomo Barberino Vene- 
ziano, he went, according to the Anonimo, to Burgundy and Ger- 
many, and adopted the style cf those countries. He was in the ser- 
vice of John of Burgundy, Bishop of Utrecht, at the same time with 
Alabuse, and excelled in painting and engraving. 

fBarbary, Jacob da. An engraver, 
and the true " Master of the Caduceus," 
j l-i who has been called until recently Franci? 
*~* de Baby lone. The reason of the name is 

found in the fact that he marked his 

plates with a caducous. One of his plates mentioned by Brulliot is 
dated 1504. His nationality is a matter of doubt. Different authors 
enumerate, altogether, twenty-nine plates by this artist, They are 
highly esteemed for their rarity. The following are among those 
known to be his : 

Apollo and Diana ; small upright plate. 

A Holy Family, with the Virgin resting on the stump of a tree, 
and S. Joseph leaning his head on his hand ; square plate ; half- 
length figures. 

A Holy Family with S. Elizabeth, and an Angel playing a musical 

The Offering of the Wise Men ; small upright plate. 

S. Jerome writing, with a Crucifix before him. 

Two small upright plates ; in one a woman carries a child in her 
arms, and in the. other a man carries a boat. 

A Sacrifice to Priapus ; a free subject; after Marc Antonio. 

Barbatelli, Bernardino, better known as Poccetti, and also 
called Bernardino (Idle facceati, or delle grotesche. Born at Florence 
(1548-1612). Pupil of Miehele di Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio. At first 
he painted only grotesques and the fronts of buildings, and was little 
known, but later he went to Rome, where he studied the works of 
Raphael, and also made a reputation as an architect. Few of his 
pictures on wood or canvas remain, but many of his frescoes are still 
in Florence, and compare well with those of many Italian masters. 
Mengs always studied him when in Florence, and Pietro da Cortona 
admired his works. He sometimes painted hastily, and again would 
prepare his drawings with the greatest care, but his pencil was 
always firm, and his works displayed facility and freedom. He 
adorned his historical pictures with fine landscapes, sea-views, fruits 
and flowers, and his draperies were admirable. 

Barbello, Gio. Giacomo, born at Cremona (1590-1656). Best 
known by his pictures in the churches of Bergamo. 

Barbiani, Andrea, born at Ravenna (1680-1754). Believed to 
have studied under P. Cesare Pronti, whose style he imitated in his- 


torical paintings. The churches and public buildings of Ravenna 
and Rimini are adorned with his works, one of the best being in the 
vault of the Cath. of Ravenna, and representing the " Four Evange- 
lists. " He was an artist of considerable merit. 

Barbiani, Gio. Batista, born at Ravenna. Flourished about 
1635. Probably studied under Bartolommeo Cesi. His best fresco 
is the " Assumption of the Virgin," in the dome of the chapel of N. 
Signora del Sudore, in the Cathedral. Some of his best pictures 
were at Bologna. 

Barbier-Walbonne, Jacques Luc, born at Nisines, 17G9. Pupil 
of David. He painted historical pictures, and portraits of the dis- 
tinguished generals of France. 

Barbiere, Domenico del, born at Florence about 1506. A pupil 
of II Rosso, whom he accompanied to France, when he came by in- 
vitation of Francis I. to ornament the palaces of Fontainebleau and 
Meudon. After the death of Primaticcio, Barbiere executed some 
frescoes after the designs of that master. He was also an engraver, 
but his works possess little merit. They are valued, however, on 
account of their scarcity, and arc found in curious collections. 

Barbieri, Gio. Francesco. See Guercino. 

Barbieri, Paolo Antonio, brother of Gio. Francesco, called Guer- 
cino, born at Cento (1596-1640). A painter of still-life. lie es- 
pecially excelled in pictures of fish. 

Barda, Don Vicente Calderon do la, born at Guadalaxara 
(1762-1794). Pupil of Don Francisco Goya. Painted history and 
portraits, and excelled in the latter. His finest historical work is in 
a college at Avila, and represents the " Birth of S. Xorbert." 

Bardin, Jean, born at Montbar (1732-1809). Pupil of the elder 
Lagrenee. Studied also at Rome. He was a popular artist in France 
and was admitted to the Acad. in 1795. His subjects were religious, 
poetical, and historical. David and Regnault were instructed in the 
elements of painting by Bardin. 

Barker, Robert (1739-1806). Inventor of panoramic painting. 
His first picture of this kind was a view of Edinburgh, which was 
exhibited in that city in 1788, and in London a year later. At first 
this kind of exhibition attracted but little attention, but soon its use- 
fulness was appreciated, and it became popular. 

Barnuevo, Don Sebastian de Herrera, born at Madrid (1G11- 
1671). Architect, sculptor, and painter. Studied first with his 
father who was a sculptor, then became a pupil in painting under 
Alonso Cano. He gained reputation in the three branches of art to 
which he gave his attention. Many of his works are in Madrid. 
The " Nativity," in the eh. of S. Geronimo, and the " Beatification 
of S. Augustine," in the great chapel of the Augustine Recollets, 
were his principal pictures. 

Baroccio, Federigo, born at Urbino (1528-1G12). Studied de- 


sign with his father, who was an engraver. Became the pupil of 
Battista Franco of Venice. Went to Pesaro, where he saw the art- 
treasures of the Dukes of Urbino, and when twenty years old, to 
Rome. He was hindered by his modesty, but Michael Angelo 
chanced to see some of his drawings, which he praised, and Gio. da 
Udine became his friend. He also became known to Card. Giulio 
della Rovere, who gave him his patronage. He returned, after four 
years, to Urbino, and executed some church paintings whkh gained 
him great reputation, and when, in 1560, he returned to Rome, Pius 
IV. employed him in the Vatican, with Federigo Zucchero. Here he 
was poisoned by some rival, and although the potion was not fatal, 
it induced a stomachic disorder, which prevented him from working 
more than two hours a day during the fifty-two remaining years of 
his life, which year?, with the exception of three at Perugia, and a 
visit to Florence, were passed at Urbino. Some of his best works 
were, the " Pardon of S. Francis of Assisi," for the Franciscans 
of Urbino, on which he spent six years; a " Deposition from the 
Cross," for tin Cath. of Perugia, three years, now in the Vatican; 
the "Calling of S. Andrew;" the ''Annunciation," now in the 
Vatican; " Santa Michclina," the " Presentation of the Madonna," 
and the "Visitation," in the Clik-sa Nuova, at Rome; the "Insti- 
tution of the Sacrament," according to the Romish rite, in the ch. 
of the Minerva, at Rome; the " Cenacolo," and a " S. Sebastian," 
in the Cath. of Urbino; a portrait of Duke Francesco Maria, in rich 
armor, in the Tribune at Florence; and a " Madonna del Gatto," 
in the National Gall. This is by no means a list of his pictures, for 
the amount of work which he accomplished was wonderful, when we 
consider his sufferings!. Baroccio lived when the art of Italy was 
declining, and although he avoided, very considerably, the prevalent 
mannerism in form, his coloring was imperfect. He admired Michael 
Angelo, but he imitated Correggio in color. Mengs finds his pictures 
wanting in yellow; Reynolds criticises his flesh colors; and Bellori, 
his biographer, thought he used vermilion and ultramarine too freely. 
His design was correct. Bellori says he always made two cartoons, 
and two colored sketches; made all his drawings from life, and 
dressed models in the required costumes. In spite of his faults he 
acquired a great name in his day, and merits the reputation of intro- 
ducing harmonious application of light and shade into Lower Italy 
in which management of light, added to variety and novelty of 
conception, his merit consists. Excepting his health, his life was 
fortunate. For he was in good circumstances, happy in his temper, 
had many pupils, and more orders than he could execute. Duke 
Francesco Maria often visited him in his house in Urbino, and on the 
1st of October, 1612, made this entry in his uiary : " Federigo Ba- 
roccio of Urbino died, aged 77; an excellent painter, whose eye and 
hand served him as well as in his youth," He was, in truth, eighty- 


four years old, and painted without spectacles, but not as well ;.s 
earlier in life. He was buried in S. Francesco, where, in the corridor. 
the tablet to his memory remains. At his funeral a standard painted 
by himself, representing the Crucifixion, was placed at the foot of 
his bier. Baroccio was also an engraver, and left several plates, cor- 
rect in design and good in expression, though not especially delicate 
in their execution. 

Baron, Bernard, born at Paris, 1700; died in London, 171! -2. An 
eminent engraver, and a pupil of Nicholas Henry Tardieu. lie en- 
graved several plates for the Crozat Coll. He resided in England 
some years before his death. His works have considerable, merit, 
although coarse in their execution. 

Baron, John, or Barouius, called Tolosano, born at Toulouse 
1631. Passed most of his life at Rome. An engraver of portraits 
and historical subjects. 

Barozzo, Jacopo, called Vignola, from his birthplace, in the ter- 
ritory of Modena (1507-1575). An illustrious architect. He com- 
menced to study painting in the school of Passarotti at I5ol<>_ r na, but 
became so enamored of the study of perspective, that by that means 
(as he himself said) he was led to devote himself to architecture. 
He became a law-giver in that art in Italy. He was employed in 
Rome by a society of nobles and gentlemen to make accurate meas- 
urements of the greater part of the Roman antiquities. These meas- 
ures or moulds were sent to France to be cast in bronze. Vignola 
then accompanied Primaticcio to France, where he was employed in 
architectural works as well as in the casting of the above named 
statues. In 1550 Julius HI. was made Pope, and Vignola. bv the 
recommendation of friends, was appointed architect to His Holiness. 
Soon he became known to Card. Farnese, who employed him to de- 
sign his magnificent Pal. of Caprarola, and would have even thinir 
about it done according to his decision. In this palace some pictures 
by Vignola were seen. After the death of Michael Angelo Pius V. 
employed Vignola to superintend the work at S. Peter's. Tins ma>- 
ter also published valuable works on architecture, in one of which he 
gave definite rules for the increase or decrease of every part in all 
the five orders of architecture. This was illustrated by i-n^ravinirs 
and proved a very useful book. Milizia called it "L'Abbieci dell' 

Barret, George, born at Dublin, 1728; died at Paddington. 1784. 
First studied in the drawing Acad. of his native city under Mr. West. 
The Earl of Powerscourt became his patron, and lie painted many 
views around Powerscourt Park. In the Dublin Society he took tin- 
premium for the finest landscape. In 1 762 he went to England, and 
there took prizes also. He greatly assisted in the establi>bineiit of 
the Royal Acad. He was a good painter of English landscape. His 
works are in the possession of the nobility, the prim ipal ones belong- 


ing to the Dukes of Portland and Buccleugh. He also left several 
spirited etchings. 

Barry, James, born at Cork (1741-1806). Son of a coasting 
trader. Commenced to paint as a boy. His picture of " S. Patrick 
baptizing the King of Ca>hel," obtained for him the notice of Burke, 
who gave him the means to go to London, and later, defrayed his 
expenses in Rome. He returned to London in 1771. In the great 
room of the Society of Arts, at the Adelphi, he painted six large pic- 
tures, illustrating the i4 Civilization and Regeneration of Man." In 
17<s-J he was made Professor of Painting to the Royal Acad. In 1799 
he was expelled the Acad. on account of a letter which he had pub- 
lished, and other disagreements with his academicians. He died 
poor and alone. He was laid in state in the Adelphi, in the midst 
of his works, and was buried in S. Paul's Cath. His other pictures 
were an " Adam and Eve; " " Venus Anadyomene; " " Pandora; " 
and " King Lear." His works arc not great, and his unlovely char- 
acter prevented his being treated with charity, although by many he 
is regarded as a martyr to his appreciation and love of high art. 
Grandeur seemed to mean vastness in his mind. The " Harvest 
Home," at the Adelphi, is the best of the six in composition and 
finish. He overesteemed his own pictures, and could see no beauty 
in those of other artists. 

Bartholomew, Edward Sheffield, born at Colchester, Conn., 
1822. After trying various employments he abandoned ail in disgust, 
spent his time in drawing, and studying any pictures which were 
within his reach. After a time, he read the life of Cellini. This, 
to use his own words, " put the devil into him.'' He abandoned all 
employment, and his friends regarded him as good for nothing, prac- 
tically. By some means he studied a year at the life school of the 
Acad. in New York, and did some drawings which revealed his 
talents to a few friends. He was the intimate friend of Church. He 
obtained the appointment of Curator of the Wadsworth Gall, at 
Hartford. He made careful copies and studies, but when he 
attempted to paint in oil found that he was color-blind. He then 
determined to attempt sculpture. His " Flora " was his first work, 
and from its execution may be dated his artistic career. By his own 
exertions and the aid of friends he obtained the means to visit Italy. 
When in New York he was attacked with small-pox, which left him 
lame for life, with a weakened constitution. When, at length, he 
sailed, it was in an ill provided vessel, and he suffered much on the 
voyage. He requested to be landed on the coast of France, and 
made his way thence to Rome. So great was his energy that, in 
spite of all his hindrances, within three days after his arrival he 
was engaged in modelling the " Blind Homer led by his Daughter." 
From that time his life was prosperous. His chef-d'oeuvre, the " Re- 
pentant Eve," belongs to Joseph Harrison of Philadelphia. His 


" Shepherd Boy " to E. Pratt of the same city. In Hartford there 
is a large collection of figures, busts, and bas-reliefs by this artist. 
He also executed several monumental works, and visited America 
to superintend the erection of a monument to Charles Carrol. 
His home was always in Rome. On a second visit to America h;> 
renewed his friendship with Church, and the citizens of Hartford 
complimented him by a public dinner. He returned to Italy with 
fresh zeal and aspirations, but it was only to die. In a tew months, 
on account of his health, he went from Rome to Naples, where he 
lived but a short time. 

Bartoli, Pietro Sante, sometimes called II Perugino, born at Pe- 
rugia, lG3o. He first practised painting, but gave it up for engrav- 
ing, in which he became eminent. He left a great variety and num- 
ber of plates, which are chielly etched in a free and masterly manner. 
He sometimes marked his plates with his initials, and added an F. for 
fecit : thus, P. B. F., but more frequently he used the following : 
Pelt: Ss. Bart. sc. Romce. 

Bartolin of Piacenza. Little is known of this ol>l painter. In 
the Baptistery of Parma, and in the ch. of S. Antonio at Piacen/a 
there are several pictures attributed to him. They are believed to 
belong to the close of the 14th, and rise of the 15th century, and are, 
very rude. 

Bartolini, Gioseffo Maria, born at Imola, 1G57. Pupil of Lorenzo 
Pasinelli. at Bologna. His pictures were historical, and sonic which 
still remain in the public edifices at Imola are much estecmc.i 
cially one in the ch. of S. Domenico, representing a miracle by S. 
Biagio. This artist was living in 17 IS. 

Bartolini, Lorenzo, born in Florence (1777-1850). He studied 
first in Paris : visited Koine, and settled in Florence. lie left, many 
works some of considerable merit, but others bear the impv 
French affectation. lie executed many statues and monuments, and 
was considered a leading master of his time. At the Kstcrhazy -Mus. 
in Vienna are three (Jenii '' by this master, remarkable for their 
elegance and truthfulness. 

Bartolo, Taddeo di. A Sienese painter of the early part of the 
15th century. His earliest pictures are at Perugia. There is an 
altar-piece dated 1403. It represents the ' Virgin and Child,'' with 
two angels and S. Bernard. This is now in the Acad.. where there 
are two other works of this master. In the ch. of S. Agostino. Pe- 
rugia, a " Descent of the Holy (ihost," by Taddeo, is admirable. 
The Acad. of Siena has an " Annunciation," and the L< uvre at 
Paris several pictures not important in considering Taddeo. but thost- 
of the " Life of the Virgin," on the walls of the chapel of the 
Palazzo della Signoria at Siena, are worthy of note. They were 
done in 1407, and are peculiarly improsive from their refinement and 
true feeling. In 1414 he painted a hall joining the chapel which is 
much inferior, and represents ancient orators, poets, and statesmen. 


Bartolo, Domenico di. Flourished 1440. The brother or nephew 
of Taddeo, but much inferior to him. An " Assumption " in the 
Berlin Mus. is somewhat effective in arrangement, but coarse in the 
manner of execution. In 1440 he represented the " Works of 
Mercy " in the Hospital della Scala at Siena, but they are pictures 
of no merit. 

Bartolommeo, Fra. See Porta, Baccio della. 

Bartolozzi, Francesco, born at Florence (1730-1813). This 
eminent designer and engraver studied drawing under Hugfort Fer- 
retti at Florence, and engraving with Joseph Wagner at Venice. He 
went to England in 1 764 and became eminently distinguished. He 
practised every kind of engraving. The number of his plates is 
enormous and .their finish exquisite. His etchings are remarkable for 
the truthfulness with which he reproduced the spirit and expression 
of the woi-ks he copied. 

Bartsch, Adam, born at Vienna (1757-1820). Engraver and 
author. He was principal keeper of the Imperial and Royal Gall, at 
Vienna, and published " Le Peintre Graveur," which is the best 
account of prints yet published. Besides this he published a " Cata- 
logue of the Etchings of Rembrandt and his Pupils," which like the 
former book is wonderful for its accuracy. For the first he made fac- 
similes of rare etchings, in which the spirit of the originals is per- 
fectly reproduced. In 1818, his son Frederic published a "Cata- 
logue llaisonne " of the works of the father, which numbered 505. 

Bas, Jacques Philippe Le, born at Paris (1708-1782). Cele- 
brated engraver. Studied with N. Tardieu. The number of plates 
which he left is very large. He had many pupils, was an ingenious 
artist, and Bryan says, il availed himself much of the freedom and 
facility of etching, which he harmonized in an admirable manner 
with the graver and dry point." He made more than one hundred 
prints after Teniers, and copied that master most successfully. 

Basaiti, Marco. It is not known whether this artist was born at 
Friuli or Venice. He was of Greek parentage. Flourished from 
1470 to 1520. He is believed to have been the assistant of Luigi 
Vivarini, and Gio. Bellini. He acquired much of the manner of 
both these masters, and imitated besides, at different periods, Palma, 
Lotto, and Carpaccio. He probably survived Raphael, but a wider 
difference could scarcely be imagined than exists between the pic- 
tures of the two. Basaiti' s colors are brilliant, and his pictures fin- 
ished with the greatest care, even in the most minute details, which 
results in a dry realism. His figures have character, and a peculiar 
dignity, but his draperies are stiff and his heads have a tiresome 
sameness. His works are almost numberless, and there are few col- 
lections without them. The following are some of the more impor- 
tant : National Gall., S. Jerome reading, and the Virgin seated in 
a meadow with the Child asleep on her lap; Munich Gall., " DC- 


position from the Cross; " Venetian Acad.. Christ with the Disci- 
ples in the Garden," and the " Calling of SS. Peter and Andrew." 
1511 ; Vienna, Belvedere Gall., " Calling of James and John," with 
fine landscape, signed, 1515, Marcus Baxaitj, F. 

Basili, Pier Angiolo, born at Gubbio (1550-1604). Studied first 
under Felice Damiani, and then with Christofano Roncalli. His 
style resembled that of the latter master, but was more delicate. In 
the ch. of S. Mazziale is a picture of " Christ Preaching,." with a 
great number of figures. His frescoes in the cloister ot' S. Ubaldo 
are much esteemed. 

Bassauo, Francisco da Ponte, born at Vicenza, 1475 ; died at 
Bassano, 1530. This was the founder of the family of Bassauo. six 
of whom were painters. Francisco, the elder, probably studied under 
Gio. Bellini, and imitated that master in his youth, but later in life 
he worked with more freedom and spirit. Ills ' S. Bartholomew " 
in the Cath. of Bassano, shows his early manner ; and the i; Descent 
of the Holy Spirit," at the village of Oliero, is grand iu composition, 
good in color and expression, and displays his later excellence. 

Bassano, Jacopo da Ponte, born at Bassano (1510-1592). Son 
of the preceding. He studied with his father, and afterwards with 
Bonifazio Veneziano. But he gained much of his knowledge from 
studying the works of Titian, and copying the designs of rarmigiano. 
He excelled in painting landscape and animals, and introduced the 
latter into almost every picture, sometimes with marked impropriety. 
He was, perhaps, the earliest Italian r/i arc painter. His coloring 
was good, and also his use of light and shade. He distinguished 
himself as a portrait painter, and painted many eminent persons, 
among them the Doge of Venice, Ariosto, and Tasso. He had four 
sons, who all painted with him, and many other scholars, so the 
amount of work completed in his atelier was very large. His latest 
pictures are by far the best. lie had the habit of concealing tin- 
hands and feet, which injured his pictures very much. His works 
are to be seen almost everywhere. " The Entombing of Christ," in 
the ch. of S. Maria in Vanzo, at Padua : " A Family Concert." in 
the Uffizi ; portrait of an old man, Berlin Mus.: portrait of a richly 
dressed woman, in Studj Gall., at Naples ; "The Mourning Maries." 
at Chiswick. and a %k Nativity," at the Louvre, are some of his larger 
works. His cabinet pictures are very numerous. 

Bassano, Francisco da Ponte, the younger, son of the preceding, 
born at IJassano (1548-1591). Trained in the. school of his father. 
lie established himself in Venice. Was employed to paint a series 
of pictures representing the hi-tory of the Republic, on the walls of 
the public palace, and one of his best works is on a ceiling there. 
He also painted for the churches of Venice. lie became melancholy, 
and this trouble was increased by his over application. He at last 
jumped from a window, and killed himself. 


Bassano, Gio. Batista da Ponte, born at Bassano (1553-1613). 
Second son of Jacopo. Spent most of his time in copying the works 
of his father, which he did with surprising skill. 

Bassano, Leaiidro da Ponte, born at Bassano (1558-1623). 
Third son of Jacopo. Excelled in portrait painting, to which he 
confined himself during his later years. He painted, among other 
distinguished men, the Doge Grimani, who made him a knight. 
The " Raising of Lazarus," in the Louvre, and the " Birth of the 
Virgin," in the ch. of S. Sophia, at Venice, are his best historical 

Bassano, Girolamo da Ponte, fourth son of Jacopo, born at 
Bassano (1560-1622). He spent much of his life in copying the 
pictures of his father, which he did so well that the copies passed at 
the time, and since then, as the originals. In the ch. of S. Giovanni, 
at Bassano, there is an original picture by Girolamo, of *'S. Barbara 
kneeling before the Virgin." 

Bassen, Bartholomew van. A Flemish artist who flourished 
from 1610 to 1630. He painted interiors of churches, and other pub- 
lic buildings. The figures in his pictures were done by other artists, 
and he in turn painted the architectural portions of their works. 
When called by his name they attract little notice, but are sometimes 
attributed to the painter of the figures. He was exact in perspective, 
and good in coloring. There are pictures of his in the Berlin Mus. 

Basseporte, Frances Magdalene, died about 1780. She painted 
subjects from natural history, in water colors. She did three hooks 
of flowers, which were engraved by Avril. She also engraved some 
plates for the Crozat Coll., and others, among which are, 

The Martyrdom of S. Fidelio de Sigmaringa; after P. A. Robert. 

Diana and Endymion ; after a design by Sebastiano Conca. 

Bassetti, Marc Antonio, born at Verona (1588-1630). There 
were but few pictures left by this master, for he believed that much 
time should be given to each one. Those he finished were highly 
prized. He was a scholar of Felice Riccio, called Brusasorci. He 
also studied the works of the masters in Venice and Rome. After 
his return to Verona he painted for the churches and public edifices 
of the city, but was cut off suddenly by the plague. 

Bassi, Antonio. The name of this painter occurs in the history 
of art in Ferrara, and some of his works may still be seen in the 
churches of that city. 

Bassi, Francesco, the elder, born at Cremona (1642-1700). 
From his landscape painting he was called " II Cremonese da Paesi." 
Many of his works are in the private collections of Venice. 

Bassi, Francesco, the younger, born at Bologna (1664-1693). 
Scholar of Lorenzo Pasinelli. He left pictures of merit in the 
churches of Bologna. One of " S. Antonio taken to Heaven by An- 
gels," in the ch. of that saint, is much admired. He was distin- 
guished for his copies after Guercino. 


Bast, Dominic de, born at Ghent, 1782. An amateur painter of 
landscapes, cattle, and marine subjects, in the last of which he was 
said to excel. His works are mostly in the private collections of 
Ghent, but one was purchased in 1822 by the Commissioners for the 
Encouragement of Fine Arts, in that city. 

Bastaro, Giuseppe del, born at Rome. Flourished in the time of 
Urban VIII. His pictures may be seen in several Roman churches. 
In S. Maria Maggkm is his "Assumption of the Virgin,'' and in S. 
Girolamo, a " Descent from the Cross," and The Death of S. 

Bastaruolo, H. See Mazzuoli Filippo, or Giuseppe. 

Batoni, or Battoni, Fompeo, born at Lucca, 1 7o-_> ; died at Rome, 
1787. Pupil of Francesco Fernandi. He was a contemporary of 
Raphael Men<_rs, who painted mostly in Spain. Batoni excelled 
most in portrait painting. He bestowed much labor upon the hands, 
and finished cravats, laces, etc., etc., with exquisite care. lie lived 
after the decline of Italian art, and showed a doire for severer study 
than was usual with artists of his time. Of his historical pictures, 
the " Fall of Simon Mairus." in the eh. of S. Maria dccrli Angeli, at 
Rome, deserves to be mentioned. In the eh. of S. Maria M;i'_"_ r iorc 
there is an altar-piece representing the " Annunciation; " in the ch. 
of S. Girolamo, a " Madonna," with saints and angels ; in the pa- 
vilion at Monte Cavallo there are five pictures by this artist, one of 
which represents " Christ giving Peter the Key>." and is sometimes 
called his best work. Being the best artist of his day in Rome, he 
was constantly employed, and his works were well esteemed all over 
Europe. At Hampton Court there is a portrait of Gregory XIV. by 
Batoni, and in the Dresden (Jail, a "Magdalene." and a " S. John 
in the Wilderness." These last are good specimens of his works, 
and display pure academic art, as if they were painted but to show 
color and design. 

Baudet, Stephen, born at Blois, 1G20; died at Paris, 1691. An 
eminent engraver. After studying in Paris he went to Rome. He 
used only the graver, at this time, and seems to have imitated Corne- 
lius Bloemart. Upon his return to Paris he ureatly improved his 
style by using the point also. He was a member of the Royal Acad. 
His choice of pictures from which to make plates was excellent, and 
were those of some of the best painters of Italy. 

Bauduins, Anthony Francis, born at Dixmude, in Flanders, 
1640 ; died at Paris, 1:00. He first studied painting under F. A. 
Vandermeulen, but afterwards became an engraver. Most of his 
plates were from the designs of Vandermeuleii. and were etched in a 
bold and effective style. 

Baur, John William born at Strasbourg (1600-1640). 

I \A/J Pupil of Frederick Brentel, whom he soon surpaed. 

He went to Rome, where his views of the environs of the 

city were much admired. In 10:i7 he went to Venice, and then to 


Vienna, where he was employed by Ferdinand III. His color was 
superior to his design. lie acquired some celebrity as an engraver. 

Baur, Nicholas, born at Harlingen (1767-1820). One of the best 
modern Dutch painters of marine views. He also painted landscapes 
and views of cities, and frequently represented winter and moonlight 
scenes. Many of his works are in private houses in Holland, and the 
King of Holland purchased two of his marine views for the Mus. at 
the Hague. 

Bausa, Gregorio, born at Mallorca, near Valencia (1596-1656). 
Pupil of Francisco Ribalta. His pictures had considerable merit. 
At Valencia, in the eh. of S. Philippe of the Carmelites, there is an 
altar-piece representing the Martyrdom of the Saint, and in the 
monastery of Los Trinitarios Calzados there are several works of his. 

Bayeu y Subias, Don Francisco, born at Saragossa (1 734-1 795). 
He first studied and gained the prize at the Acad. in his native 
city. Then, a pension being granted him. he was able to go to 
Madrid, where he studied with Antonio Gonzales Velasquez. He 
painted for the churches, and was employed by Charles III. in the 
Prado, and the palaces at Aranjuez, and Madrid. He became a 
member of the Acad. in 1765, and three years later was made painter 
to the king. Some pictures of the life of S. Bruno, at the Carthusians, 
are among his best works. 

Bayeu, Don Raymon, born at Saragossa (1746-1793). Brother 
and assistant of the preceding. 

Bazin, Nicholas, born at Troves, 1636. Pupil of Claude Mellan. 
He executed plates of historical subjects and portraits in a stiff, dry 

Bazzani, Giuseppe, born at Reggio (1701-1769). Pupil of Gio. 
Canti, whom he surpassed. Many works of his are in the churches 
and convents of Mantua and vicinity, and have considerable merit. 
At the time of his death he was director of the Acad. at Mantua. 

Bazziacaluve or Bezziacaluva, Ercole. An eminent engraver 
of Pisa or Florence, who flourished about 1640. 

Bazzi or Razzi, Giauantonio, called II Soddoma (1474-1549). 
Born at Vercelli, he seems rather to belong to Siena, for he settled 
there and became one of the best painters of the Sienese school. 
His mode of life was free and easy. He was fond of animals, and 
had a collection of them always about him. Queer birds, magpies, 
monkeys, etc., were always in his house. A raven who imitated him 
perfectly in voice, and manner of speech, was his especial pet. His 
dress and whole appearance was such that he attracted all sorts of odd 
people about him, and was not over fastidious about their character. 
He was married to a young wife, who left him soon after the birth of 
a daughter. When we consider his peculiarities it is a surprise that 
he could have painted such women as he did, for they are often of a 
remarkably pure and noble type. His conception of beauty was ex- 
traordinary, and his expression of deep enthusiastic feeling not less 


so. His women resemble those of Leonardo, under whose influence, 
he probably came in youth; he was also familiar with the Florentine 
art, and studied the works of Raphael in Home. He became vain 
and careless after attaining a good degree of fame, and painted only 
from the force of whims, or need; and yet, in spite of his careless life, 
and unequal temperament, his genius made him great. In lf)<i." lie 
painted twenty-six frescoes in the convent of S. Uliveto Maggiore, 
near Siena, which are still well preserved. They represent scenes in 
the life of S. Benedict, and are full of able characterization and indi- 
vidualism. Soon after this, Pope Julius II. called him to Rome to 
paint in the Vatican, where but little of his work remains. At the 
Villa Farnesina there are two fine frescoes which he did for the 
banker Chigi. They represent the " Marriage of Alexander and 
Roxana," and " Alexander in the Tent of Darius." The lirst is es- 
pecially beautiful; warm in color, exquisite in softness, the head of 
Roxana compares well with some of Raphael's. After his return to 
Siena he put new life into its art, and produced some of his best 
pictures. Among them are the frescoes which he did in connection 
with Beccafumi and Girolaino del Paechia in the Oratorium of S. 
Bernardino; figures of saints in a chapel of S. Spirito; and pictures 
of S. Caterina, both in the oratory of S. Caterina and in the 
chapel of S. Caterina in S. Domenieo. There are also frescoes of 
his in the Palazzo Pubblico. In the Uffizi there is a panel painting 
of S. Sebastian which is one of the best works of this time. There 
are also a few other fine panel pictures. There is a Resurrection " 
in the Studj Gall., at Naples; a " Scourging of Christ " in the Acad. 
of Siena, which has been transposed from the wall to canvas: the 
11 Sacrifice of Abraham " in the Campo Santo at Pisa; a very beauti- 
ful portrait of " Lucrezia " which belongs to M. Comthur v. Kestner; 
and lastly, a " Dead Christ " in the Berlin Mus.. and a Madonna " 
in the Borghese Pal., which are attributed to him. The " Kestasv 
of S. Caterina" at S. Domenieo is especially fine: the saint is repre- 
sented in a swoon, Liibke says, "with the deepest feeling and the 
noblest expression of pain." Razzi is sometimes called the pride of 
the Sienese school. 

Beale, Mary, born in Suffolk (1632-1697). A good portrait 
painter. Pupil of Sir Peter Lely. She studied the works of Van- 
dyck, whom she resembled in color. Her pictures wen- much sought 
by the distinguished persons of her time. 

Beale, Charles. Husband of the preceding, and a painter, but of 
no celebrity. 
TVT-) ~\"D T Beatrici, Niccolo, born at Thionville about 

1\J JXjJLj 1500> Karlv in life lu> W( ' nt to Koine-. nn(1 llis 

plates show that he was there from 1 ").'! - J to 15G2. 

He is supposed to have studied under Agostino Veiiexiauo, called De 

Musis. The works of Beatrici are not equal to those of the master. 




His subjects, however, were excellent, and his plates have been 
valued on that account. His prints are somewhat numerous. 

Beaumont, Claudio, born at Turin (1694-1766). After studying 
at Turin he went to Rome and spent some time in copying the works 
of Raphael, the Caracci and Guido. He admired Trevisani and 
imitated him in execution and color. Returning to Turin, he 
became distinguished, was employed by the King of Sardinia, and 
by him knighted. He decorated several apartments in the royal 
palace. A fine " Descent from the Cross," by Beaumont, is in the 
Chiesa della Croce. His pictures should be judged in comparison 
with others of his own time. Many other eminent foreign artists 
were employed by the court in competition with Beaumont. He re- 
modelled the Turin Acad. and extended it to all branches of art, 
under the name of the Royal Acad. , and from that time the cultiva- 
tion of the fine arts increased. The name of Beaumont is deservedly 
respected in his native city. 

Beaumont, George Howland (1 753-1827). An English baronet, 
an amateur painter and a pupil of Wilson. He painted landscapes 
respectably. He liked richly glazed foregrounds, but light and silvery 
skies. His wood scenes resemble those of Ruysdael. Beaumont 
was a liberal patron of artists, and was much associated with them. 

Beauvais, Nicholas Dauphin de, born at Paris about 1G87. 
Pupil of John Audran. His engravings are held in good estimation. 

Beauvarlet, James Firmin, born at Abbeville, 1733. Cele- 
brated engraver. Pupil of Charles Dupuis and Lawrence Cars at 
Paris. His earlier plates are bold and free, while the later ones are 
finished with great neatness and delicacy. 

Beccafumi, Domenico, called Meccherino, born at 

i I { < Siena (1484-1549). He was a shepherd boy, and 
\ J accustomed to sketch upon stones while watching his 
flock. This attracted the attention of one Meccherino, 
who obtained his father's consent that he should study under a 
master in Siena. Capanna was his instructor. He copied the de- 
signs of various masters, and, at first, adopted the manner of 
Perugino. He afterwards went to Rome, and studied antiques, as 
well as the works of Michael Angelo and Raphael. Returning to 
Siena, he competed with Razzi, next to whom he was ranked by the 
Sienese. His earlier works had more beauty and grace than those 
of his later years. His color was cheerful and pleasing, and of such 
a body that his pictures have endured the test of time better than 
many others. He used to say that he could not paint out of Siena, 
and his works are numerous there both in public and private collec- 
tions. He painted better in distemper than in oils. His frescoes in 
the oratory of S. Bernardino were fine. In the Acad. of Siena there 
is a picture by him of " S. Catherine receiving the Stigmata," which 
is one of his best easel pictures. He also did some works in sculpture 
and engraving, and we have a number of prints by him. One of his 


most interesting later works was the pavement of the Cath. of Siena 
executed in mosaic. This has been engraved by Andrea Andreani. 
One of his points of excellence was the power to suit his composi- 
tions well to the style of the areliitecture by which they were sur- 
rounded, and to ornament them with grotesque designs, so that they 
required no gilt stucco, etc., etc. He loved the retleetions of fires. 
and other lights, and was more learned in the principles of art than 
most artists of his time. He also understood foreshortening, espe- 
cially on ceilings. He sought strength and dignity in his figures, ami 
even his small pictures appear larger than they are for this reason. 
He was an upright man of solitary habits. Ilis memory was cher- 
ished by tlie Sienesc, and honored by their poets. 

Beccaruzzi, Francesco, born at Conigliano in the Frioiil. 
Scholar of Pordenonc. He painted reputably both in oil and fresco. 
Many of his pictures are in the churches and convents of Trevigi. 
One of his best works was a " S. Francis receiving the Stigmata." 
painted for the Franciscans of Conigliano. 

Becerra, Gaspar, born at Bai/.a in Andalusia, 1520 ; died at 
Madrid, 1570. One of the great fresco painters of Spain; also an 
architect and sculptor. It is difficult to say whether he was most 
celebrated for his pictures or his figures. lie was a close student of 
anatomy and made plates for a work on that subject, and also de- 
signed anatomical figures for the use of artists lie studied in Home. 
and returning to Spain, was made sculptor and painter in ordinary to 
Philip II. Perhaps his most celebrated production was an image of 
the Virgin made for Queen Isabel do la Pax. lie had already 
made two which did not please the Queen, when, as he >at one night 
over his work, befell asleep, and was awakened suddenly by a voice. 
saying, " Awake, and ari-c. and out of that log of wood blaziui: on 
the hearth, shape the thought within thee. and thou shall obtain the 
desired ima'_re." He did so. and having quenched tly.' burning stick, 
bewail at dawn to work. The statue grew rapidly, and became a 
miraculous image, and, draped in widow's weeds, was placed 'in a 
chapel devoted to her by the Minim Fathers at their convent in 
Madrid, to whom she brought much gain. This ima'_ r e is known as 
" Nuestra Senora de la Soledad." It disappeared during the war of 
independence. The most important work of this master was the 
high altar in the Cath. of Astoria, which was composed of many 
lias-reliefs and figures. It cost :{o.noo ducats. 11,000 of which made 
the share of Becerra. Many works of this master are in the public 
edifices of Madrid. Astorga. and Zamora. 

Beechey, Sir William, born at Kurford in Oxfordshire, 1772; 
died at Hampstead, 1839. Portrait painter to the Queen, appointed 
in 1793. lie was made a knight by (Jeorge III. for his picture, now 
at Hampton Court, which represents the king reviewing troops. In 
sixty-four years he .-xhihited 362 portraits at the exhibitions of the 
Royal Acad. 


Beeck, Jan, born at Looz ; died, 1516. A monk who became 
abbot of the convent of S. Lawrence near Liege. He painted the 
largest part of the pictures of his convent, and is considered next to 
the brothers Van Eyck, among the old painters of Liege. 

Beek, David, born at Arnheim (1621-1656). One of the ablest 
pupils of Vandyck, whom he assisted until his death, painting an im- 
portant part in some pictures, and the whole of others, after the 
designs of the master. He went to England, where he was patron- 
ized by Charles I. , and instructed the Prince of Wales and Duke of 
York in drawing. After some years in England he went to Sweden, 
and was appointed principal painter and chamberlain to Queen 
Christina. In spite of his honors he longed for Holland, and, at 
length obtained permission to go there under promise to return to 
Sweden ; but his love for his home prevented his keeping this prom- 
ise, and he died at the Hague. 

Beeldemaker, John, born at the Hague, 1636. A painter of 
hunting scenes. Many of his pictures are in England. lie handled 
his subjects with much spirit. 

Beeldemaker, Francis, born at the Hague (1669-1717). Son 
of the preceding, with whom he first studied. He next painted with 
William Doudyns, and at length went to Rome. After some years 
spent in Italy he returned to Holland, and painted portraits and his- 
torical pieces which were much admired. He was a member of the 
Acad. at the Hague. 

Beerstraaten, Alexander. This artist lived in the 17th century, 
hut there is nothing known of his life. One of his pictures is in the 
New York Metropolitan Mus. of Art, and represents " De Schreyer- 
storen " at Amsterdam. 

Bega, Cornelius, born at Haerlem (1620-1664). A pupil of 
Adrian Ostade. He painted the same class of pictures as his mas- 
ter, though in a different manner. He excelled Ostade in drawing, 
but fell below him in feeling for color, and management of light. 
No. 1 7, Amsterdam Mus., is one of his best works, and represents a 
village fete, with music and drinking. No. 13, Louvre, representing 
a peasant and wife at table, is cooler in color than the former, and 
more in his usual manner. His pictures are found in the choicest 
collections. He also left more than thirty etchings, executed with 
much ingenuity and spirit, with a coarse, but firm, graver. His real 
name is said to have been Begeyn, but in youth he so displeased his 
father by his reckless mode of life, that he was disowned, and as- 
sumed the name by which he is now known. At the time of his death 
he was about to marry a young girl to whom he was devotedly 
attached. She was seized with the plague which visited Holland in 
1664. Every one abandoned her, fearing infection, but Bega would 
not leave her, and gave her the most devoted attention to the last, 
when, having taken the disease, he also died. 


Begarelli, Antonio, called Antonio da Modena, iKirn at Modena 
(1499-1565). A modeller in clay. A pupil of Gio. Abati. He was 
associated with Correg'jjio in the decoration of the cupola at Farina, 
and made many models from which that artist painted his floating 
figures. These artists were the best of friends, and resembled each 
other in their conceptions of the grand and beautiful. In l.V_>!i 
Michael Angelo met Begarelli in Modena. and saw bis works. It is 
said that he exclaimed, " Alas for the statues of the ancients, if this 
clay were changed into marble! " Begarelli was an instructor in 
design and modelling, and greatly influenced the painting of the 
Lombard school. To him may be traced in a measure its excellence 
in design, especially its art of foreshortening, and its relief and 
grace, which often approaches that of Raphael. The works of Be- 
garelli are in the Berlin Mus. 

Eegas, Charles, born at Hcinsberg (1794-1854). While at the 
University of Bonn he received eome instruction in painting. He 
went to Paris and studied under Gros. He attracted the attention of 
the King of Prussia in 1815, and received an allowance with which 
to visit Italy. In 1825 he went to Berlin and became a professor in 
the Acad. of Arts. He painted portraits of Sehelling, Humboldr, 
etc.; and various religions subjects, among which are the "Descent 
of the Holy Spirit ;*' the "Transfiguration ;" " Christ bearing his 
Cross," etc. 

Begyn, Abraham, Dutch painter, born in 1650. Painted land- 
scapes and cattle in the style of Nicholas Berghem. His pictures 
are justly admired. He painted in a light, free manner, and his 
coloring is agreeable. 

Beham, Bartel, born at Nuremberg, 1496 ; 

~T~\ |^ iB died in Italy- 1 ">'<>. A painter, but more ci-le- 
h \ \ * ULr or:ltl>( l as an engraver. Pupil of Albert Diirer. 
lie gave so much promise of excellence that I hike 
Wilhelm of Bavaria sent him to study in Italy. His early pictures 
were much in the style of Diirer, realistic, broad and crude in color. 
A " Christ bearing his Cross," in the chapel of S. Maurice, and 
" Christ on the Mt. of Olives " in the Berlin (Jail, are of this time. 
When in Italy he attempted to change his manner, but without much 
success. No. 2, Munich Gall., representing "A Woman raised from the 
l),"ul by the True Cross." is a remarkable picture. Xo. 98. same Gall., 
represents " Marcus Curtius leaping into the Gulf." and is injured by 
too much antique architecture. In the (Jail, at SeUeiMheim, a number 
of portraits show his excellence in that department of painting. He 
studied engraving under Mare Antonio Kaimondi, and was one of the 
most successful imitators of that artist. His drawing was that of a 
master, and his heads are line in expression. Many of his plates have 
no mark, and this has occasioned some dillieulty in designating them. 
His signature was BB, and the prints that have it are dated from 1520 

BE1IAM. 87 

to 1533. His portraits of the Emperors Charles V. and Ferdinand I. 
are well known for their masterly conception and execution. The 
following are a part of his prints : 

Portrait of William, Duke of Bavaria. 

Bust of Erasmus Baldcrman. 1535. 

Bust of Leonard Van Eck. 

Adam, Eve, and Death before a Tree. 

Judith sitting on the body of Holofernes. 1525. 

The Virgin suckling the Child; very fine. 

A Sibyl reading and a Boy holding a Torch. BB. 

Susanna before the Elders; after Giulio Romano. 


Cleopatra. 1520. 

The Judgment of Paris. 

The following prints are marked with a B. on a die, thus; 
and have sometimes been attributed to X. Beatrici, but are [Jj | 
now called of Beham. 

Apollo causing Marsyas to be flayed ; af'er Raphael. 

Christ giving his charge to S. Peter; after the same. 

A Naval Combat. 

A Landscape, with animals about a tree, at the top of which a 
Phoenix is burning her nest. 

Four Friezes, with Boys playing and Festoons of Flowers; RAPH. 
V R B. IN. Ant. Laferii fonnis. 

The two following have the die without the letter B. 

Apollo and the Python. 

Apollo and Daphne. 

Beham, Hans Sebald, born at Nurem- 
berg, 1500; died at Frankfort, 1550. Nephew 
I ** -"- of the preceding, from whom he received his 
earliest instruction. He afterwards studied with Albert Dlirer. 
His bad habits compelled him to leave Nuremberg in 1540, when he 
settled in Frankfort. He often painted humorous subjects, and 
sometimes those that were vulgar and indecorous. He was a good 
draughtsman, had singular powers of invention, and was not wanting 
in feeling for beauty and grace. His only oil picture now known is 
in the Louvre. It represents scenes from the life of David, and was 
executed for Albrecht, Archbishop of Mayence, in the form of a 
table, in 1534. He also executed five miniatures in a prayer-book 
for the same ecclesiastic. These are in the royal library at Aschaff en- 
burg, and prove his skill in this line of art. He was more important 
as an engraver than painter, and belonged to what are called " the 
little masters." We have no better examples of the manners and 
customs of his time than his " Triumphal Entry of Charles V. into 
Munich," and two pi'ocessions of soldiers by him. His wood-cuts 
were free and spirited. His copper-plates are executed entirely 


with the graver, and are neatly done. From 1519 to 1530 he 
marked his plates with the letters H. S. P. From 1531 to 1549 he 
used H. S. B. His copper-plates are very numerous. The follow- 
ing are a few of them : 

Plates with the first cipher which were engraved at Nuremberg 
from 1510 to 1530 : 

Portraits of Hans Sebald and his wife ; the cipher with a wreath of 
laurel in the middle ; engraved also by Ifo/lur. 

Adam and Eve in Paradise ; two small plates. 1519. 

S. Jerome with a cardinal's hat, and a Lion. 1519. 

The Virgin suckling the Child. 1520. 

The Virgin with a Glory, standing, holding the Child. 15'20. 

The death of Dido; Regince Ditlonis imayo. 1520. 

S. Anthony, Hermit, writing. 1521. 

Plates with the second cipher which were engraved at Frankfort. 
1531 to 1549: 

Adam and Eve, a Stag behind them. 1536. 

Adam and Eve in Paradise ; the Serpent presenting the Apple ; 
very fine. 

The Emperor Trajan listening to the Mother's complaint against 
his Son. 1537. 

Melancholy ; inscribed, Mdancolia ; 1539 ; after Albert Dtirer. 

Fortuna ; a woman holding a Wheel. 1541. 

A Man trying to pull up a Tree ; inscribed, Impossible, 1549. 

Twelve small plates of the labors of Hercules ; inscribed, JErumnrr. 
Herculis. 1542 to 1548. 

The Judgment of Paris ; Judicium Parldis ; 1546 ; fine. 

Death seizing a young Woman; Omnem in homine, etc.; 1547; fine. 

Wood-cuts, marked sometimes with one, and again with the other 
of his two ciphers : 

Portrait of Beham with a Cap. 

Eight prints of the Passion of Christ. 

S. Jerome with a Book and Crucifix. 

A Village Fair, with a Steeple and Clock; large frieze; very 

A March of Soldiers ; large frieze, in four sheets ; very scarce. 

Biblica? Historian, 348 prints ; most of them with figures on both 

The Baptism of the Anabaptists : circular, scarce. 

The same subject ; large, four sheets ; very scarce. 

Behnes, "William (1K01-1864). An English sculptor, distin- 
guished particularly for his busts. In 1820 he gained the silver medal 
for the best model from life. 

Beich or Beisch, Franz Joachim, born at Munich (1663-1748). 
He was first a pupil of his father. Willie! m Beich, then went to 
Italy, where he became an imitator of Caspar Poussin. But he is not 


an imitator merely, for he was himself inspired by nature. Kugler 
says: "He takes the first place among the painters of ideal ten- 
dency." He was court painter to the Elector of Bavaria, and his 
best works are in the electoral palaces. He excelled in landscapes 
and battle scenes. While some of his pictures have the darkness 
and heaviness of color, which was the fault of his time, others are 
transparent and warm intone. Two landscapes in the Vienna Gall., 
which are excellent in many ways, fail in color ; but in the Munich 
Gall, the opposite is true of Nos. 138, 162, and 171. We have also 
four sets of plates, twenty-six in all, etched by Beich. They are of 
landscapes, with figures and buildings, and are executed with facility 
and spirit. 

Beiiiaschi. See Benaschi. 

Belcamp or Belkamp, Jan Van. A Dutch painter who was much 
employed in England in copying the pictures in the royal college. 

Bella, Stefano Delia, born at Florence, 
(1610-1664). Son of a goldsmith, and in- 
tended for his father's profession, he showed 
such a talent for drawing, that he was placed with Cesare Dandini to 
learn painting. But he had so great a preference for engraving that 
he was allowed to study with Canta Gallina, master of Callot. Per- 
haps no one has handled the point with more facility than Bella. 
The number of his prints exceeded 1,400, so it is not strange that some 
of them are slightly etched ; but he designed with great taste, and his 
plates are brilliant in effect. In 1642 he went to Paris. Card. 
Richelieu employed him to make plates of the siege and taking of 
Arras. He also made some plates for Henrich, the uncle of Israel 
Silvestre. When he returned to Florence he was appointed to in- 
struct the son of the Grand Duke in drawing, and received a pension. 

Belle, Clement-Louis-Marie-Anne, born at Paris (1722-1806). 
Studied under Lemoyne, and later in Italy. His subjects were 
religious and poetical. He was an academician, and inspector of 
the royal manufactories at the Gobelins. 

Belle, Augustine-Louis, born at Paris (1757-1831). Son of the 
preceding, and his assistant at the Gobelins. He painted many 
pictures of subjects from sacred and profane history, and the ancient 

Belle, Nicholas-Simon-Alexis (1674-1734). Scholar of F. de 
Troy. An eminent portrait painter. 

Bellevois, died at Hamburg, 1684. A painter of marine subjects. 
His works are in many collections in Flanders, and have considerable 

Bellini, Jacopo, born at Venice (about 1405-1470). A pupil of 
Gentile Fabriano, with whom he went to Florence in 1422. At that 
time all strangers who settled in Florence were observed jealously 
and regarded as intruders. One day a company surrounded the 


shop of Fabriano and threw in stones. .Taoopo was sent out to drive 
them off, and came to blows with one Bernardo <li ser Silvrstri. a 
son of a notary. This young man was determined on revenge, and 
Jacopo, fearing trouble, left Fabriano, and " took service on board 
of the galleys of the Florentine States." Bernardo went before a 
judge and preferred charges against Jacopo, and he was summoned 
to appear, which failing to do, he was sentenced to a fine. After a 
year he returned to Florence, ignorant of what had been done. In a 
few days he was seized for contempt of the court, and sent to the 
Stinche. While there he compromised with Bernardo, and promised 
to pay him twenty-five small florins, and to submit to an act of pen- 
ance. This was performed on the 8th of April, 1425, when lie 
inarched bareheaded, surrounded by a guard, to the Baptistery of San 
Giovanni, where it was proclaimed by sound of trumpet, that Jacopo 
had come to do penance, for having shown contempt of Florentine 
law. This ceremony ended, he was set at liberty. From this time 
there is much uncertainty respecting Jacopo. His master gave him 
no assistance in the time of his trial. We know that Jacopo painted 
the portrait of Fabriano, and that Fabriano held the first child of 
Jacopo at the font ; but the dates of these occurrences are not 
known. The only certain thing is, that Jacopo was in Venice in 
1430, as is proved by his sketch-book. This book, after passing 
through many hands, is now in the British Mus. It has 99 pages. 
17 by 13 inches. The drawings are done in pencil, tinted with un IMI 
earth in water-colors, and sometimes retouched with pen and ink. 
Many of the sketches are very imperfect. In this book we are intro- 
duced to the very innermost artistic life of Jacopo. It has sketches 
of almost everything. Still and animal life, nature, ancient sculp- 
ture, buildings, and human figures are all there. Nothing seemed too 
small for his study. Some subjects are several times repainted, rear- 
ranged, and brought to the perfection of his manner. The stories of 
Judith and Holofernes, of David and Goliath, many New Testament 
histories, the wonders of the hagiology and tlu^e of mythology all find 
a place. In contrast with these are studies of apes, eagles, do^s. eats. 
village scenes, hawking parties, etc., etc. The student of art delights 
in this book, and understands the feeling which led Gentile Bellini 
to leave it an heir-loom in his family, in order to perpetuate, as noth- 
ing else could, the remembrance of his father. In his time artists 
were not masters of anatomy and motion, and for that reason the 
drawing of Bellini is the more admirable. He attained a middle 
place between the conventionalism of art which preceded him, and 
the naturalistic art which followed him. lie worthily commenced 
what his son Giovanni, and Titian perfected. It is scarcely possible 
to judge of Jacopo Bellini as a colorist, for tin 1 two panel pictures 
which remain to us are greatly injured. One of these is a small 
half-length of the " Madonna and Child," at Lovere, in the Coll. 


of the Counts Tadini. The other, No. 443, Acacl. of Venice, repre- 
sents the same subject. These are injured by scaling and blackened 
by time. Of his wall pictures, it is believed that some remain at 
Venice, but those of Verona are better known. That of the " Cru- 
cifixion," in the Arch-episcopal Pal., fully illustrates the style of this 
master. A copy of another " Crucifixion," in the Cath. of Verona, 
is in the Casa Albrizzi at Venice. The arrangement is little changed 
from that in his sketch-book, and these works served as models 
to the artists who followed him, especially Antonello of Messina, 
Carpaccio. and Mantegna. Of his other works, there is a small 
" Christ in Limbus," in the Communal Gall, of Padua, much in- 
jured ; at S. Zaccaria, Venice, some frescoes in the dome of the 
Chapel of S. Terasio, much abraded and blackened ; and a picture 
of a " Dominican Friar, preaching in a Square," in the Oxford Mus. 
This last was probably the work of some one in his atelier, and is 
a panel on gold ground. It is known that Jacopo dwelt for a time 
in Padua, and there had a work-shop in which his sons assisted him ; 
that his daughter Nicolosia married Andrea Mantegna, and that he 
painted pictures and frescoes in that city, one of which was done in 
1459. It is believed that he induced Mantegna to study Donatello 
and Uccelli, and thus greatly influenced the style of the gifted 
Pad nan, and that he himself was affected by contact with that of 
Donatello. Jacopo also painted portraits, one of which Ridolfi noticed 
especially, that of the Kin? of Cyprus, who Avas beheaded at Venice. 
Although Jacopo was greatly surpassed by his sons, he was a re- 
markable man for his time, and deserves to be remembered for pre- 
parin'_ r the way. and making it easier to those who folloAved. 

Bellini, Gentile, eldest son of the preceding, born at Venice 
(1421 ?-1507). After laboring Avith his brother Giovanni in the 
atelier of their father, at his death they declared their perfect inde- 
pendence of each other, but continued to labor together, and shared 
the respect of their countrymen and the laurels Avhich they won. 
The study of Jacopo and of his master, Fabriano, was of great value 
to them, but they progressed far beyond both, and, together, laid the 
foundation for the perfect style of Titian and his followers. Giovanni 
Avas the most excellent, and Gentile was called " clumsy " by later 
Venetians. But he did a noble Avork in teaching them the A r alue of a 
thoughtful imitation of nature. In 1464 Gentile painted the doors of 
the great organ of S. Marco. He represented four gigantic saints. 
These are noAv in a Gall, leading from S. Mark's to the Ducal Pal. 
Gentile Avas often employed as a portrait painter. Of his Avorks of 
this kind I shall only mention No. 136, Gall, of the Capitol, Rome; 
one in the University Gall., Oxford, of IAVO boys in profile ; Correr Mus., 
Venice, No. 14, and one of Lorenzo Giustiniani, noAv in the lumber 
room of the Acad. of Venice. In 1474 he Avas appointed to restore 
the old, and paint new pictures in the great council-chamber of 


Venice. His works there gained him much reputation. In 1479 Sul- 
tan Mchemet, the conqueror of 
Constantinople, sent to the Signo- 
ria of Veniee for a good painter. 
The Doge divided to send Gentile 
Bellini, and he was dispatched 
with two journeymen, in galleys 
belonging to the state. In Con- 
stantinople Gentile was treated 
with great consideration, and made 
many portraits of notable person- 
ages. At one time he presented 
the Sultan with a picture of the 
head of John the Baptist in a 
charger. The Sultan criticised the 
painting of the neck, and when he 
saw that Gentile did not under- 
stand his mistake, he called in a 
slave, and had his head instantly 
struck off, to prove to the artist 
what was the true action of the 
muscles under such circumstances. 
Such an act did not tend to make 
Bellini enjoy his residence in the 
domains of Mehcmet II. He re- 
mained there a year, was made a 
knight, and received many pres- 
ents at parting. The Sultan of- 

(Venice. S. Manad^ Orta. Gentile feml him . my ?ift h( , W()llM n . {m ^ 

but he only demanded a letter of 

praise to the Signoria of Venice. He carried to Venice many 
sketches, and a portrait of Mehemet. lie also brought a picture. 
Louvre No. 68, which represents the reception of a Venetian 
embassy by the grand vizier and other oflicers. AVhen Gentile 
left Venice, Giovanni was appointed to his place in the council- 
chamber, and when he returned, they continued the work in com- 
pany. The pictures painted there were partly legendary, and partly 
historical, and represented events in the Venetian wars in 1177; the 
combats on the Adriatic; and the reconciliation of the Emperor with 
Pope Alexander III. These were done in fourteen compartments. 
They were almost destroyed by fire in 1577, but enough remains to 
make their loss a subject of regret. The other great work in which this 
artist was engaged was the decoration of the school of S. Giovanni 
Evangelista, at Venice. Two of these pictures, one representing a 
miracle by means of a relic of the holy cross, the other a procession 
in which the same relic is borne, are in the Venetian Acad. Of his 



other works I shall only mention No. 90, in the Brera, at Milan, 
representing " S. Mark preaching at Alexandria ; " and a portrait of 
Mehemet, said to be in England. In the former of these he intro- 
duced the costumes he had seen in the East. The picture was not 
finished at his death, and in his will, he provided that his brother, 
Giovanni, should not receive the sketch-book of his father until he 
had finished the picture of S. Mark. This painting, in spite of the 
injuries it has received, has a brilliant effect, and is valuable as the 
last work of the elder, combined with the mature perfection of the 
younger brother. There are other pictures ascribed to Gentile which 
lack proof of having been painted by him. Such are No. 69, Louvre; 
No. 13, Correr Mus.; and No. 12, Berlin Mus. He was also a 
mosaist, and left a " Virgin and Child " to the company of S. Marco. 
It is believed that he had a school, and that Titian became his pupil 
in I486, Avhen but nine years of age. His time was constantly occu- 
pied, and in 1506 he refused an order from the Marquis of Mantua, 
asserting that he was engaged for a long time in advance. He was 
married, but had no children, and worked until the day of his death, 
at which time he was more than eighty years old. 

Bellini, Giovanni, the younger brother of Gentile, was born at 
Venice (1422-1512). The most excellent of this celebrated family. 
His works maybe divided into two periods ; those which he executed 
before he learned to paint in oil, and those done afterwards. The 
first have sweetness and elegance, but are also dry and timid; the 
last are a rich foretaste of the Venetian coloring which was perfected 
later, while they lose nothing of the charms of the former. His 
chefx-cV 'oeuvre , which can still be seen in the Acad., and churches 
of Venice, were painted after he was sixty-five years old. We cannot 
appreciate this man unless we take into account the state of Venetian 
art in his day. It had been greatly influenced by Mantegna, the 
Paduan, but Gio. Bellini must stand as the founder of true Venetian 
painting. Even earlier than this its coloring had been softer, and 
more richly blended than that of other schools. The very atmos- 
phere resulting from its situation must have produced this, for it 
habituated the artist to wonderful effects of color. Then the spirit 
of the life there, the pomp, the cheerfulness, the oft-recurring fetes, 
engendered a love of the rich and deep tones of color which so 
enhance beauty. Then, too, about the time when Giovanni could 
be said to be an artist, Van Eyck was introducing oil colors into 
Flanders, and Antonello da Messina brought them to Italy. There 
is a story that Giovanni went to the studio of Antonello in disguise, 
and thus learned the secret of the new color mixing, but this is not 
verified, and does not accord with his character. But, however he 
may have learned, it is true that he employed oils with great success 
and judgment. His compositions are not especially varied or poetical. 
His powers were not versatile, but there is a moral beauty in his 


figures, rather than a spiritual one, and he seems to stop just on the 

line which separates the highest earthly 
type from the heavenly. Kugler says: 
' ' His Madonnas are amiable beings, 
imbued with a lofty grace ; his saints 
are powerful and noble forms ; his 
angels cheerful boys in the full bloom 
of youth." His representations of 
Christ are full of moral power, such as 
has rarely been equalled. His draperies 
are peculiar in the crystal-like clearness 
of their deep, rich colors. His authentic 
works do not belong to his youth. We 
have seen how he labored with Gentile 
in the great council-chamber, in which 
place he continued to paint, at times, dur- 
ing all his life. His earliest dated work 
is of 1487, and represents a " Madonna 
and Child " standing on a parapet. It is 
in the Acad. of Venice, and there is a 
similar one in the Berlin Mus. It is 
interesting to see previous works of this 
master, and study the changes through 
which his style has passed. In this 
way one can comprehend, in a measure, 
the struggles through which he reached his later style, and his grop- 
ing after the proper handling of the new oil mediums, which was an 
art in itself. To 1488 belongs a large altar-piece in the Sacristy of 
S. Maria de' Frari ; two angels in this are especially beautiful. The 
whole picture is a fine piece of color, and nicely finished. There is 
also a large altar-piece in SS. Giovanni e Paolo, which is one of his 
earlier pictures ; and another, very similar, in the Acad. In the eh. 
of S. Zaccaria is a "Madonna" with saints and an angel, dated 1505, 
and at S. Salvatore, " Christ at Emmaus," belonir'm^ to the same 
period. This last is especially fine. A similar picture, but not as 
good, is in the Manfrini Gall. Perhaps his latest work of this kind 
is in S. Gio. Crisostomo, dated 1515. In this he painted SS. Jerome, 
Augustine, and Christopher. The shades of moral contrasts are 
finely and powerfully drawn. It is a picture that compels one to 
study i;. Other works of his are in the eh. del Kedentore, the Man- 
frini (Jail., and the Aead. Some of them are allegorical represen- 
tations, full of naleete and cheerfulness. One of his latest works was 
a " Bacchanalian," with a landscape by Titian. He often painted the 
single figure of the Redeemer. Liibke says of these representations: 
" By grand nobleness of expression, solemn bearin<_ r , and the, excellent 
arrangement of the drapery, he reached a, dignity which has been 



rarely surpassed." The pictures of Giovanni arc very numerous in 
Venice, and found in all large collections elsewhere. Space will not 
allow description. The following are some of the more important 
ones : National Gall., Nos. 726 and 280 ; No. 27, Correr Gall. ; No. 

4, Lochis Carrara Gall., Bergamo; a "Pieta," No. 188, in the Brera ; 
" Pieta" in the Cath. of Toledo, Stuttgart Mus., No. 4-; Berlin Mus., 
Nos. 4, 6, and 36; Padua Gall., No. 48 ; Uffizi, No. 581 ; Castle 
Howard, No. 125 ; Leuchtenberg Gall., No. 68; Mus. of Rovigo, 
No. 80 ; Doria Gall., Rome, No. 5-; Belvedere, Room 2, Nos. 63 and 
65; Naples Mus., No. 378; Stadel Gall, Frankfort, No. 17; Madrid 
Mus., No. 665; Brera, No. 209; Louvre, No. 69 bis; and many, many 
others. His very last work was a " Madonna " in S. Giustina, Padua, 
dated 1516, It is a singular truth that some of his latest pictures 
arc much more like those of a youthful artist than were his earlier 
ones. For in 1514, almost at the close of his life, he painted a feast 
of the gods, which represents the gay and sensual with the happiness 
of the bright days of Titian. This picture is now at Alnwick Castle. 
In 1515 he painted the " Venus of the Belvedere," Room 2, No. 
43 His last works were thus in marked contrast with his first. 
He is believed to have instructed Giorgione and Titian. It is said 
that Albert Diirer visited him in the last year of his life, and pro- 
nounced him the best artist of that time. His death occurred on the 
29th of November, and he was buried in SS. Giovanni c Paolo, by 
the side of his brother Gentile. 

Bellini, Filippo, born at Urbino, 1594. A good painter, and an 
imitator of Federigo Baroccio. One of his most important works is 
a series of fourteen representations of the Works of Charity, in the 
Chiesa della Carita at Fabriano. In the Basilica of Loretto there is 
a " Circumcision," and in the dome at Ancona a " Marriage of the 
Virgin," by this master. 

Bellini, Giacinto, Cavaliere, born at Bologna, was living in 1660. 
Pupil of Francesco Albano. Later ho studied with Francesco 
Caracci in Rome. There he attracted the attention of Card. Tonti, 
who employed him a long time, and procured him the knighthood of 
the Order of Loretto. His pictures possess much of the gracefulness 
of Albano. 

Belliniano, Vittore, born at Venice. Flourished about 1526. A 
painter of history. Several of his works are in the Confraternity of 

5. Mark's, and the neighboring churches of Venice. 

Bellotti, Bernardo, born at Venice, 1724; died at Warsaw, 1780. 
A painter and engraver. Nephew and pupil of Antonio Canal, 
called Canaletto. Bellotti painted perspective and architectural views 
in a pleasing manner. He lived much in Germany, and etched, from 
his own designs, views of Vienna, Dresden, and Warsaw. He was 
a member of the Acad. of Dresden, and many of his pictures are 
in the Gall, of that city. They are called by the name of Canaletto, 


which he assumed. He signed some <>{ his works Bernardo Belotto 
detto Canaletto. Tho fine views of Dresden were ordered by Count 
Briihl, at 200 thalers each. The figures were the work of Stct'ano 
Torelli of Bologna. 

Beltraffio, Gio. Antonio (1467-1516). A Milanese gentleman. 
and a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci. His characterise is gentleness. 
In the Louvre is an altar-piece painted for a ch. in Bologna. It 
represents the " Madonna and Child " with John the Baptist and S. 
Sebastian; the donors are kneeling. It was painted in 1500. In 
the Berlin Mus. there is a " S. Barbara" by Beltraffio. " A figure 
of peculiarly grand, statue-like dignity." In the National (Jail. 
there is a " Madonna and Child " ascribed to him ; his works are 

Bellucci, Antonio, born at Pieve di Soligo (1654-1726). A 
painter who excelled in small figures. He painted these in many nt 
the landscapes of Tempesta. In color he belonged to the Tctirhnmi. 
but used shadow so judiciously as not to spoil his color He is said 
to have painted altar-pieces in Venice and Verona. There are 
pictures of his in the Dusseldorf Gall., and a " Nativity " in the cli. 
of the Ascension at Venice. 

Beltrano, Agostino, and his wife. Amelia. Neapolitan painters 
who flourished about the middle of the 17th century. They were 
the pupils of Massimo, and Aniella was his niece. Beltrano was a 
good fresco painter, and more than ordinary in his coloring in oil. 
This is proved by numerous cabinet pictures, and a few large fres- 
coes. Aniella painted in the same style, and worked with her 
husband. She had talent and beauty. The pictures which are 
called hers arc praised, e-pecially that of the " Birth and JK-ath of 
the Virgin," in the Chiesa della Pieta de' Turchini. But it is not 
unlikely that she was assisted by Massimo. In Ki-l!>, when thirty-six 
years old. she was murdered by her husband, in a fit of jealousy. 
She survived her wounds long enough to pardon Beltrano. lie lied 
to France, and wandered, an outcast, till 1 <)."!. when he returned to 
Naples and resumed his work. He lived, tormented by remorse. 
till 1665. 

Bemmell, William van, born at Utrecht (1630-1703). Pupil 
of Herman Sachtleeven. and. like him, an excellent landscape 
painter. He went to Italy and made many studies of scenery about 
Rune. lie settled, at, length, in Nuremberg. His pictures were 
much admired, and are mostly in German collections. 

Bemmell, Peter Van, born at Nuremberg (1 <!!>- 1 723). Grand- 
son of the preceding . and a landscape painter. His pictures are 
scarcely known outside his native- city 

Benaschi or Beinaschi, Gio. Batista, Cavaliere (1636-1688). 
An imitator, and probably a pupil of Lanfranco. Most of his works 
;:re in Naples, where lie painted ceilings and other frescoes. 



Benaschi, Angela. Daughter of the preceding, and a good 
portrait painter. 

Benazech (Benasech, Benezech, Benezeck, Benazec), 
Charles. English engraver and painter. Studied at Paris under 
Greuzc. Went to Rome in 1782. Returned to Paris, and, at the 
time of the French Revolution, revisited London, where he died. 
lie especially devoted himself to historical painting, and his best 
works are a series of four pictures of the last days of Louis XVI. 
He also left a few engravings. 

Bencovich, Federigo, called also Federighetto di Dalmazia. 
Flourished about 1 753. A native of Dalmatia, but educated in 
Bologna. He studied the style of Carlo Cignani. His works were 
good, and he painted pictures of merit in Milan, Venice, and 





Bologna. In the latter city, in the ch. of La Madonna del Piombo, 
is an altar-piece by this master, representing the " Crucifixion of S. 
Andrew." Many of his easel pictures are in Germany, where he 
resided for a time. 

Benedetto, da Majano, born at Florence (14 1'2- 1498). An 
eminent architect and sculptor. He commenced life as a worker in 
wooden mosaic or intarsiatore. His brother, Giuliano. was al><> a 
celebrated artist, and a younger one, Giovanni, was of less inqxjr- 
tance. Together they executed the ' Madonna dell Ulivo." in terra 
cotta, and a ' Pieta" in bas-relief. They stand at a wayside shrine, 
a mile outside the gate of Prato, towards Florence. "We have only 
to compare the relief of the brothers with the Madonna " of 
Benedetto, to perceive his excellence. His greatest work a< an 
architect was the Palazzo Strozzi, which was commenced in 1489. 
After the death of Filippo Strozzi the work was su>pciided. and the 
building was finished under the direction of Cronaca. In 1490 he 
made busts of Giotto and Squarcilupo in the Duomo at Florence. 
In the same year he went to Naples, where he remained two years, 
and was constantly occupied by the Duke of Calabria. He also 
executed the bas-reliefs of the Annunciation " in the ch. of Monte 
Oliveto, and, in 1491, the monument to Filippo Strox/i was erected 
in Santa Maria Novella, which he had commiaooned Benedetto 
to make before his death. It is the r/i> f'-ii'u ur/v of Majano, and 
one of the finest works of the 15th century. He also made the 
beautiful altar of S. Savino for the Cath. at Faen/.a ; a marble 
pulpit at Santa Croce, Florence ; and some works at S. Simiirmum. 
The pulpit at Santa Croce was very fine ; he supported it against a 
column, through which he carried the staircase ; the reliefs repre- 
sent M-enes from the life of S. Francis. In the I'tli/i there is a bust 
of Pietro Mellini. who commissioned Benedetto to execute the pulpit, 
and in the same Gall, a figure of S. John. 

Benedetto. See CastL'Hone. 

Beuedicto, Roque, died at Valencia, 1735. His pictures are 
sometimes taken for those of his master, Gaspar de la Iluerta. His 
he~t work represents S. Francis de Paula feeding three thousand 
people with a little bread. 

Benfatto, Luigi, born at Verona (15.") 1-1 61 1). Nephew and 
pupil of Paul Veronese. He was distinguMicd for his works in the 
public places in Venice. In the Chiesa i!i S. Marta are several of 
lii.-. pictures illustrating the life of the saint, and in the ch. of S. 
Nicholas a grand composition representing the Ascension of that 

Benefial, Cavaliere Marco, born at Rome (1684-1764). In the 
Palazzo Spada, Rome, there is a saloon painted entirely by this 
artist ; in the Acad. of S. Luke a picture of " Christ and the Samar- 
itan Woman," and in the Stimulate a - Flagellation." His merits 


have been much discussed, and his admirers give him unqualified 
approbation, while others call him feeble in all points. His monu- 
ment is in the Pantheon. 

Benso, Giulio, born at Genoa (1601-1668). Pupil of Gio. 
Batista Paggi. Soprani calls him an architect also. He painted 
history and perspective. He was a protege of the house of Doria. 
and some of his works were in their Palace. Several of his oil pic- 
tures are in the churches of Genoa. That of u S. Domenico " is 
much admired, and the " Crowning of the Virgin," in the Nunziata, 
is a fine production. 

Bent, John van der, born at Amsterdam (1G50-1690). Land- 
scape painter. Scholar of Peter Wouvermans and Adrian van de 
Velde. While he is not equal to his masters, his works are deserv- 
ing of esteem. Many of them are in England. They bear a strong 
resemblance to those of Nicholas Berghem. 

Benvenuto, Gio. Batista, called L'Ortolano, or market gardener, 
from the occupation of his father, born at Ferrara (about 1490- 
1525). A contemporary of Garofalo, the prince of Ferrarese paint- 
ers. L'Ortolano studied in Bologna under II Bagnacavallo. His 
style was severe, and his pictures curiously finished. His heads are 
weak, but his landscapes and backgrounds good, and his figures well 
brought out. His works are in S. Niccolo, S. Maria de Servi, and S. 
Lorenzo at Ferrara. 

Berchem, Nicholas, born at Haerlem 
1C 24-1 683). Son of Pieter Klaasze. The 
if /1/W reason for his being called Berchem, or 
Berghem, is not known, but he usually signed 
his works with that name. He studied with his father, Van Goyen, 
J. B. Weenix, and Jan Wils, and married the daughter of the latter. 
It is evident from his works that he went to Italy, although no ac- 
count of his having done so is given. He painted genre, battles, land- 
scapes, cattle, and portraits. His best works are his small landscapes 
with figures and cattle. He painted with great facility, and his wife 
was so avaricious that she constantly excited him to work. She also 
saw to it that his money was saved, as he liked to spend it for Italian 
drawings. Berchem is the most celebrated of the group of painters 
to which he belongs. Smith describes 417 of his works, and he left 
besides more than 50 etchings, some of which show a better feeling 
for nature than is found in his oil pictures. By their dates it is seen 
that he handled the point when but ten years of age. The galleries 
of Munich, Dresden, Vienna, Berlin, St. Petersburgh, and the 
Louvre contain the largest number of his works. Some are also in 
England, in the National Gall, and at Dulwich ; and Lord Ashbur- 
ton has one of his best productions, called " Le Fagot," from a 
bundle of wood carried by a man in the foreground. He seldom 
made large pictures, but in 1648 he painted an Italian landscape, now 



at the Hague, in which the figures are life-si/e. It was s>!d in 1*27 
for 600, but it is cold and unsatisfactory, though well drawn and 

lighted. In addition to his other work lie often painted figures and 
animals in the landscapes of other artists, such as Iluysdael. Hohbeinn. 
Jan Wils, Abraham Verboom, and Isaac Moucheron. 



Enqrnrer, AMAMKT, Jacques. Landscape, with Figures and 
Cattle. The Port of Genoa. Landscape with a Stag Hunt. The 
Female Villagers. Village Pleasures. 

Engraver, AMSTEL, Cornelius Ploos Van. A Landscape with a 
Woman riding on an Ass, with Cattle by the side of a Canal ; N. 
lierghnn, fecit, 17C4; /'. Van Amstel, fecit, 1769. 

Engraver, AVELIXE, Peter. A Landscape; fine. 

Engraver, AVRIL, Jean Jacques. The Passage of the Rhine. 

Engraver, BAS, James Philippe le. Four Plates of the Times of 
the Day. The Embarkation. 

En (/raver, CAXOT, Peter Charles. Returning from Market. 

Engraver, CHARPENTIER, Pierre Franqois. The Shepherdess. 
The Shepherd reposing. 

Engraver, COULET, Amne Philibert. The " Rendezvous k la 

Engraver, DANCKEHT or DANCKERS, Dancker. Four plates of 
Landscapes and Figures, in one of which a man is passing a Bridge. 
The best prints of Danckert. 

Engraver, DAUDET, John Baptist. Two Landscapes, with Figurss 
and Cattle. 

Engraver, DEQUEVACVILT.KR, Franpois. Noon; a Landscape 
with Figures. Evening; the etching by Weisbrod. 

Engraver, GHOEXSVELT, John. A Set of Six Landscapes. A Set 
of Four Landscapes; Berghem, del. Groenspclt, fee. Cle. de Jonghe, 
exc. : fine. 

Engraver, KOBKLL, William. Two Landscapes, with Figures and 

Engraver, LAURENT, Peter. The Passage of the Ferry Boat. 
The Shepherdess. The Fortune Teller. 

Engraver, MAJOR, Thomas. The Travellers. Two Landscapes; 
morning and evening. 

Engraver, MARTKXASIK, Peter. The Watering Place. 

Engraver, Nox, Richard Abbe de St. A Landscape with a Figure. 

Engraver, PELI.ETIKR, Jean. The Watering Place. Ruins and 

Engraver, SCIILICHT, Abel. A Landscape, with Figures and 

Engraver, VKAU, Jean Le. The Village Blacksmith. 

Engraver, VISSCTIER, Cornelius. Two Sets of Landscapes; four 
plates each. Several Peasants dancing in a Cottage, called Berg- 
hem's Ball. His finest plate. A Set of four Landscapes, the four 
times of the Day. Several sets of Landscapes, with Figures and 

Berchet, Peter, French school (1659-1720). Pupil of Charles 


de la Fosse. Went to England in 1(581. His host work is the 
ceiling of the chapel at Trinity College, Oxford, repre.-cntiug the 
" Ascension." 

Berg, Mathias Van den, born at Ypres (161S-1647). It is said 
that his father had the care of the estates of Kul>ens. and that master 
took the son into his Academy. He is known only by his excellent 
copies of the works of his master. 

Bergen, Dirk Van, born at Haerlem (1645-1689). Piq il of 
Adrian Van de Velde, and one of his most successful imi.ators. 
His earliest works are the best, and are warm and sunny in color: in 
his later ones the cattle become crude in tone, and hard in execution. 
Nos. 15 and 16, Louvre, are among his best pictures, as aie ;I!M> 
Nos. 28 and 29, Amsterdam Mus. He established himself in Lon- 
don in 1673. 

Berger, Daniel, born at Berlin, 1744. Pupil of his father. He 
became a good engraver, made a number of portraits of the royal 
family and many plates after different artists, principally those of 
his own country. In 1787 he was appointed Hector and Pr 
of Engraving at the Acad. of Berlin. 

Bergeret, Pierre-Nolasque, born at Bordeaux (1 7SO-1828 ?). 
A pnpil of David, and a distinguished painter of history and land- 
scapes. He was happy in the choice of interesting subjects. Many 
of his works were placed in the (Jail, of the Luxembourg, and other 
royal collections. He also painted four portraits for the Hall of the 
Chancellors. He designed bas-reliefs, amonir which may be men- 
tioned those on the column of the Place Vendome. Many of his 
pictures have been engraved and some of them used as illustration* 
of splendid editions of "La Fontaine." Boileau."' etc.. etc. 

Bergler, Joseph, born at Sal/.ber_ r . 17.".::: died at Prague. IS-.'!'. 
When twenty years old lie had made himself so good : name that 
Prince Firmian of Passaii sent him to Italy, with a pension. lie 
went first to Milan, where lie was the pupil of Martin Knoller. He 
remained five years in Milan, copying works of the masters, and 
executing frescoes with his teacher. From Milan he went to Koine, 
and in 1784 gained the prize of the Acad. in Parma. From this 
time he received as many commisMons ;:s he could execute. He 
remained in Rome until 1786, when he retnrr.e 1 to I'a>-au. In IM>O 
lie went to Prague to assume the place of director of the Acad.: the 
number of his oil pictures is very large. They are almost without 
exception representations of religious subjects, and may be r-ecn in 
the churches of his own country. 

Bergmuller, John George, born at Dirkheim in Bavaria < 
1762). Pupil of Andrew Wolff. Painter of history and portraits, 
but best known by his engravings, which were' from his own designs. 
Some of his pictures are in the churches of Augsburg, where In- 


Beringeroth, Martin, born at Ramelsbourg, 1670; died in Leipsic, 
1 738. An engraver who executed a great number of portraits. 

Beringeroth, John Martin, born at Leipsic (1713-1767). Son of 
the preceding, and an engraver of portraits. 

Berkheiden, Job, born at Haerlem (1628-1698). He is not known 
to have had any teacher, but when young, made sketches which were 
so much praised that he determined to become an artist. IJis pictures 
are landscapes with small figures, and sometimes represent village 
fetes, etc., with some success. He travelled with his younger brother 
Gerit, and, when he returned to Holland, was well patronized. lit- 
was employed by the Elector Palatine, when in Germany, and re- 
ceived from him a gold medal and chain. Entire pictures by him are 
rare. Repainted some portraits. No. 845, Berlin Mus., a landscape, 
has his signature. Ho was drowned in a canal at Amsterdam. 

Berkheiden, Gerit, born at Haerlem (1645-1693). His pictures 
chiefly represent the exteriors of buildings in his own country, and 
Italy. They are good, but not equal to those of Van der Heyden. 
His works are rare in public galleries. There is a fine series in the 
Hope Coll.; Amsterdam Mus., No. 26 is one of his best. The same 
is true of Dresden Gall., No. 1470. Louvre No. 28, is a view of Tra- 
jan's Column. Mr. Baring has an excellent view of a Dutch town, 
with numerous figures. 

Berkmans, Henry, born at Clunder, 1629; died at Middlebourg, 
1690. His last instructor was J. Jordaens. At first he painted his- 
tory, but his portraits were so good, and in such demand, that he 
could not fulfil his commissions. He painted many of the most distin- 
guished men of his time. His best work is a large picture of the 
Company of Archers, in the Town Hall of Middlebourg. 

Berlinghieri, Marco, Barone, and Bonaventura. These arc 
three artists of this name mentioned as signing a treaty of peace with 
Pisa, in 1228. The works of Bonaventura alone remain. They con- 
sist of a series illustrative of the Life of S. Francis, in the ch. of 
that saint at Pescia; and No. 28, a" Crucifixion," in the Acad. of 
Fine Arts at Florence. These pictures are characterized by childish 
simplicity. The angels are merely motionless half-fignres, with 
embroidered dresses, and the resoluteness with which the different 
(recurrences in the life of the saint are crudely indicated, is ludicrous 
in the extreme. The sparrows to which he talks are huge birds, 
perched on trees rising from a conical hill; and those persons whom 
lie freed from evil spirits have little devils flying out of their mouths. 

Berlinghieri, Camillo, called II Ferraresino, born at Ferrara 
(about 1596-1635). Pupil of Carlo Bononi. Painter of history. 
His works are chiefly at Ferrara and Venice. A picture of the 
" Miracle of the Manna," in the ch. of S. Niccolo at Ferrara, is a 
fine work, also that of the " Annunciation " in S. Antonio Abate. 

Berna or Barna. True name thought to have been Barna Bertini. 


Sienesc painter (died 1381 ?). In the capitular ch. of S. Gimignano, in 
the Vnldelsa, there still may bo seen some remains of the frescoes of 
this old artist. They represent stories from the New Testament, and 
have been injured by retouching. As far as can be judged, Barnrv 
combined the peculiarities of Simonc and Ugolino minute drawing, 
abundant ornament, muscular limbs, stiffened action, close-lit ting 
draperies, and a general flatness in effect. Vasari claimed praise for 
Barna on account of his having been the first to depict animals well. 
In the Berlin Mus. are three pictures, Nos. 1067, 1072, and 1142, 
which may be the works of Barna; the latter especially h::s his char- 
acteristics, and in the Chapel del Rosario at S. Dominico in 
Siena, there is a " Virgin and Child " attributed to him. He was 
killed by a fall from his scaffold. 

Bernabei, Pier Antonio, called dclla Casa, born at Parma. 
Flourished 1 550. An imitator of Correggio. The Cupola of La Ma- 
donna del Quartiere proves him to have been a good fresco painter. 
Lanzi says, equal to any of that time in Lombardy. and perhaps in 
Italy. There are also considerable works of his at the Carmelites, 
and in other places in Parma. 

Bernaerts, Nicaise, born at Antwerp (1608-1678). Pupil of 
Francis Snyders. His pictures so nearly resemble those of his master 
that they have been sold as genuine Snyders. 

Bernard, Jan (1765-1833). A copyist of Paul Potter and 
Berghem. A member of the Institute, and of the Acad. of Fine 
Arts at Amsterdam. 

Bernard of Brussels. See Van Orley. 

Bernard, Solomon, or Little Bernard. An engraver, born at 
Lyons, 1512. His best prints are those for a Bible published at 
Lyons from 1550 to 1580. 

Bernard, Samuel, born at Paris, 1615. A miniature painter and 
i'ii'_ r raver. Pupil of Simon Vouet. He attempted frescoes, but 
failed. He succeeded better in miniatures, but at last became an 

Bernini, Gio. Lorenzo, born at Naples, 1598; died at Rome, 1680. 
As early as his tenth year he had become known as a prodigy in art. 
At this time his father took him to Rome. Pope Paul V. became 
interested in him, and also Card. Barberini. who assisted him in his 
studies. Good fortune ever attended his steps, and, although he 
lived during nine pontificates, the favor of the rei'_ r niii'_ r Pope was 
always his. His fame extended to other countries, and he was 
invited to France, to which country he went when sixty-eight years 
old. accompanied by one of his sons and a numerous retinue. He 
was loaded with favors, and received large sums of money and 
valuable presents. lie held several benefices at Rome, and his son 
was Canon of Santa Maria Mag^iore. He was bin led with great 
magnificence i:i the last named ch., and left the immense fortune of 



400,000 Roman crowns. Tie had versatility of talent, remarkable 
imagination and perceptive power, and marvellous facility of execu- 
tion. It has been said that marble was like clay, or wax, beneath 
his hand. He believed and constantly said that one must be above 
rules in order to excel. There is a fascination in the sound of this 
maxim, but Bernini's own works prove that its practical application 
is hurtful, and his extraordinary executive ability often failed to 
atone for the bad taste in which he treated his subjects. In short, 
his desire for picturesque and unusual effect made him an injury 
rather than a benefit to the art he practised. Westmacott says it 
would have been better for sculpture had Bernini never lived. 

His " Apollo and Daphne " was executed when he was but eighteen 
years old ; yet he himself declared, near the close of his life, that he 
had made little progress since it was produced. Some of his most 
important works were exe- 
cuted in the time of Urban 
VIII., among which are 
the great altar of S. Peter's, 
in bronze and gilt, beneath 
the centre of the dome ; the 
pulpit and canopy of S. 
Peter's ; colossal statues of 
the Four Doctors of the 
Church supporting the chair 
of S. Peter; the Campanile; 
the circular piazza before 
the Basilica, and the Pal. 
Barberini. The beautiful 
colonnade of S. Peter's was 
executed according to his 
plans, and under his direc- 
tion. He also built the 
Chapel of S. Teresa, in the 
ch. of Santa Maria della 
Vittoria; the ch. and high 
altar of S. Bibiano; a large 
part of the ch. of S. Anas- 
tasia; the celebrated Chigi 
Pal. ; the Collegio Urbano 
di Propaganda Fide, besides 


portions of other churches 

and palaces. For Charles 

I. of England he executed a statue. For this purpose the king sent 

him three portraits by Vandyck, and the likeness was so satisfactory 

that, in addition to the 6,000 crowns paid for the statue, Charles sent 

him a ring worth as much more. The colossal equestrian statue of 


Louis XIV., executed by Bernini. was afterwards converted into 
Marcus Curtius, and was sent to Versailles. Bernini also executed 
the monuments of Urban VIII. and Alexander VII. in S. Peter's. 
and the decorations of the Bridge of S. Angelo. Among his charac- 
teristic and exaggerated works an- tin- fountain in the Piazza 
Navona ; the "Ecstasy of S. Teresa," and the "Apollo and 
Daphne " before mentioned. 

Berre, Jean Baptiste, horn at Antwerp, 1777; died in Paris, about 
1830. A painter of subjects in the manner of Weenix. His pictures 
were highly finished, are much sought for by amateurs, and bring 
large prices. He lived mostly in Paris. His works arc in several 
rich collections. 

Berreguette, Alonso, born at Parades de Nava, in Castile, alxnit 
1480. The most eminent Spanish artist of his time. He is called 
the Michael Angelo of Spain, for he was painter, sculptor, and 
architect. He studied with his father Pedro, and was painter to 
Philip I. He was in Florence in 1503, and went with Michael 
Angelo to Rome in 1505. lie devoted many years to study in Italy, 
returning to Spain in 1520. He was appointed painter and sculptor 
to Charles V. He received 4400 ducats for the high altar of the 
ch. of S. Benito el Real, in Valladolid, where he settled. When 
almost eighty years old he went to Toledo, .to construct a monument 
to Card. Tavera in the Hospital of S. John Baptist. He was lodged 
in the hospital, and there died in 1501. He left a large fortune, 
and was buried with magnificent ceremonies at the expense of the 

Berrestyn, C. V., flourished about 1050. A German engraver. 
There is one plate of a woody landscape, signed with his name and 
the above date, which is very seaive. 

Berretoni, Pietro. See Cortona. . 

Berretoni, Niccolo, born at Montefeltro, 1627. He was the best 
scholar of Carlo Maratti. In the eh. of Montesanto, at Rome, there 
is an altar-piece representing a scene in the life of S. Franci*. which 
is his best work. He became a member of the Acad. at Rome in 
1675, and died in 1682. 

Bertaud, Marie Rosalie, born at Paris, about 1 7oo. An en- 
graver, whose best works an- after the pictures of Vernet. She was 
instructed by 8. Aubin and Choffard. 

Bertelli, Cristofano, born at Rimini, \'>~i:>. We have a few 
plates bv him, stiffly executed with the graver. 

Bertelli, Ferrando, born at A'enice, 1.VJ5. lie engraved mostly 
after the Venetian painters. 

Bertelli, Lucas. A relative of the prcerdin-_ r , who engraved after 
the Italian masters. Some of his prints are very scarce. 

Berthelemy, Jean Simon, born at Laon, 1743; died in Paris. 
1811. Pupil of N.Halle. His subjects were historical and poetie;d. 


He painted ceilings in the Pal. of Fontainebleau, the Luxembourg, 
and at the Museum. He was a member of the Acad. and Director 
of the School of Design. 

Bertin, Nicholas, born at Paris (1667-1736). Son of a sculptor, 
who died while he was a boy. He studied with John Jouvenet, and 
later with the elder Boulogne. So much talent had he, that he 
gained the first prize at the Acad. when eighteen years old, and was 
sent to Rome with a pension from the king. He remained three 
years. Returning to Paris, he so distinguished himself, that he was 
made a Royal Academician in 1 703. He Avas employed by Louis 
XIV. at the Trianon. He painted in Normandy, and in the Abbey 
of S. Germain des Pres is a representation of the " Baptism of the 
Eunuch of Queen Candace," which is fine. 

Bertucci, Jacopo, called Jacoponc da Faenza, flourished about 
1530. Was best known as a copyist of Raphael, and also executed 
SOUK- good pictures at Faenza. 

Bertucci or Bertusio, Gio. Batista, born at Faenza, died 1644. 
Studied under Denys Calvart, and afterwards in the school of the 
Caracci. He painted history and imitated Guido. His drawing 
was good, but his color chalky and cold. Many of his works are in 
the churches of Bologna. 

Bervic, Charles Clement, born at Paris (1756-1822). A pupil 
of J. G. Wille. A fine engraver. A plate of the " Laocoon," made 
by him for the Musce Frai^ais, Bryan calls the best representation 
of that group ever engraved . It has been sold as high as 30. 

Beschey, Balthasar, born at Antwerp (1708-1776). A weak 
painter of history and portraits. Antwerp Mus. Nos. 496 and 497 
are his, and seem to imitate Gaspard de Craeyer. They represent 
scenes in the life of Joseph. His own portrait is No. 498 Antwerp 

Beschey, J. F., born at Antwerp (1739-1799). A copyist of Dutch 
and Flemish painters. 

Besenzi, Paolo Emilio, born at Reggio (1624-1666). An imitator 
of Albano. His best pictures are in the ch. of S. Pietro, at Reggio, 
r.nd are worthy of commendation. 

Bestard. A Sparish artist who lived at Palma at the end of the 
17th century. He ornamented several public buildings there, and 
painted a picture for the convent of Monte Sion, which was 24 
palms wide, and 15 palms high. It represents " Christ in the 
Desert attended by Angels," and is the wonder of Palma. He had 
good knowledge of drawing, color, and chiaro-scuro. 

Bettelini, Pietro, born at Lugano, 1763. A very eminent en- 
graver. Thorwaldsen so esteemed him that he employed him to 
engrave his finest works. His plate of the " Entombment," after 
Andrea del Sarto, is called his chef-d'oeuvre, and is a magnificent 
work of art. 


Betti, Padre Biagio, born at Pistoja (1545-1615). Pupil of 
Danicle da Yolterra. After the death of his master Bctti became a 
monk of the Theatine order. His works are principally in the. 
monastery of his order at Rome. 

Betto, Bernardino di. See Pinturicehio. 

Bewick, Thomas, born at Cherry Burn, 1753; died at Gateshead. 
1828. This artist is distinguished as the reviver of wood-en<rra\in<_r. 
He was apprenticed to Ralph Beilby at Newcastle, an excellent and 
painstaking master, who pointed out to him in what he could excel. 
His first considerable work was the illustration of Dr. Hut ton's book 
on mensuration. He at length became a partner of Beilby and. in 
1790, published his " History of Quadrupeds." From this time his 
fame was established. He afterwards made the illustrations for 
many fine- books, among which were li British Birds," " British 
Water Birds," Goldsmith's " Deserted Village " and " Traveller," 
etc. He had many distinguished pupils, such as Harvev, Ncsbitt, 
Hole, Ransom, and Clennell. 

Bianchi, Cavaliere Isidore, born at Milan. Flourished about 
1626. Pupil of Morazzone, and one of his best followers. His fres- 
coes were his best works, and may be seen in the churches of Como, 
and in S. Ambrogio, at Milan. 

Bianchi, Pietro, born at Rome, 1694. Pupil of Benedetto Luti. 
One of his best works is a picture of the " Conception " in the ch. 
of S. Maria degli Angeli. 

Biancucci, Paolo, born at Lucca (1583-1 653). Pupil of Guido. 
His works resemble those of Sassoferrato. A representation of 
" Purgatory" in the ch. of the Suffragio, and an altar-piece in S. 
Francisco are among his best works. 

Bicci There were three artists of this name, and there h:i- 
much confusion regarding their individuality. It now seems to he 
established that Lorenzo di Bicci married Madonna Lucia d'An^elo 
da Panzano. Their ?on Bicci was born in 1373, married in 1-11*. 
and was father of Neri di Bicci. Thus we have Lorenzo di Bicci, 
Bicci di Lorenzo his son, and Neri di Bicci his grandson. No 
pictures now remaining are positively known to be tlm-e <>t I.<vt n/.o. 
Of the works of Bicci, a few remain. No. 14. first corridor. I'Mixi 
Gall., represi-ntin^ " SS. Cosmo and Daniian," was formerly in the 
ch. of S. Maria del Fiore, executed about 1129 Some other works 
still remain in S. Maria del Fiore. and a terra cotta above the portal 
of S. Maria Nuova; the drawing of these was better than the color. 
Neri di Bicci was little more than a house-painter, but he filled 
half Tuscany with pictures. Many of these still remain in churche>. 
and there are four "Annunciations" by him in the Ac-ad, of Arts 
in Florence. These artists were among the last of the weak imita- 
tors of Giotto. 

Bigari, Vittorio, burn at Bologna. His works may be seen in 


almost every church in Bologna, and are well spoken of. In the 
ch. of the Madonna del Soccorso, there is a " Madonna and Child," 
with S. Petronio and other saints, which is much admired. 

Biliverti, Gio., born at Florence (1576-1644). Pupil of Cigoli. 
He united, in a degree, certain elements of his master, of S. di Tito, 
and of P. Veronese. A picture of the "Chastity of Joseph" by 
him is in the Florence Gall. It is much admired, and has been so 
often copied, that amateurs should be on their guard concerning it. 
Several of his works are in S. Gaetano and S. Marco. 

Biltius, Francis. An artist of the Netherlands, who flourished 
about 1650. He painted dead game, hunting-horns, pouches, nets, 
etc., in such a manner that they were often mistaken for the real 
articles. He used white backgrounds. 

IT -T-V Binck, James, born at Cologne, about 1504. A dis- 

[) tiniiiiished old engraver whose plates are highly prized. 

He is believed to have studied first with Albert Du'rer, 

and some of his plates resemble those of that master. He went to 

Rome, and, it is said, studied with Marc Antonio, and engraved 

after the works of Raphael under his guidance. From the size of 

his plates he is called a little master. His drawing is correct, his 

style neat, and he had facility of execution. He usually marked his 

plates I. B., or with those letters with C. between, forming a cipher. 

Birch, Thomas. An Englishman who settled in Philadelphia, 
where he died in 1851. He painted marine views. His pictures of 
the engagements between the U. S. Frigate Constitution and the 
British Frigate Guerriere, and between the United States and the 
Macedonian, have much historical value, and are in the Gall, of 
Joseph Harrison in Philadelphia. 

Bird, Edward, born at Wolverhampton, 1762; died at Bristol, 
1819. Son of a carpenter, he was apprenticed to a tin and japan- 
ware maker. When he became his own master he removed to 
Bristol, where he was first a drawing teacher and at length an artist. 
He succeeded in gaining a reputation rapidly, and his pictures had 
a ready sale. In 1814 he was appointed painter to the Princess 
Charlotte, and the next year was made a member of the Royal Ac;nl. 
His genre pictures were the best, and he made a mistake in attempt- 
ing historical representations. Although not equal to Wilkie, he 
painted in his style. His best works are, the " Results of the Battle 
of Chevy Chace," and the ' Surrender of Calais." He was much 
respected, and was buried with honors in the Bristol Cath. 

Biscaino, Bartolommeo, born at Genoa (1632-1657). Studied 
first with his father, Gio. Andrea Biscaino, and later with Valerio 
Castelli. His early works showed great genius, and his future was 
full of promise. Although but twenty-five, he had painted several 
important pictures when the plague devastated Genoa, to which 
both Bartolommeo and his father were victims. There are three 


pictures by this artist in the Dresden Gall. He also etched some 
plates in a free, bold manner, with good drawing and high finish. 

Biset, Charles Emanuel, born at Antwerp, 1633. This artist 
went to Paris, where his pictures, which were conversations, or 
representations of gallant assemblies, were much in vogue. lie met 
with good success, but his love of Antwerp caused him to return 
there, and he was made director of the Aead. in 1C 74. In the hall 
of the Society of Archers there is a picture of " Tell compelled to 
shoot the Apple from his Son's Head," which is the work of this 

Bisi, Michael. A celebrated engraver of Milan. He gained his 
first reputation by the " Pinacoteca del Palazxo Keale, della Scienze 
delle Arti," etc., which he published. He commenced u set of 
engravings after the works of Andrea Appiani in 1819, in which he 
was assisted by the best pupils of Loughi. Later he made plates 
after various masters, all of which were good. He also painted land- 
scapes with some success. 

Bissolo, Pier Francesco. A Venetian artist, who painted from 
1500 to 1528. He was brought up in the school of the Bellini. His 
heads arc beautiful and full of expression. His characteristics are 
gentleness, and delicacy of execution. In the Berlin Mus. then- is a 
fine work of his, representing the " Resurrection of Christ : in 
the Manfrini Gall., an "Annunciation," and in the Venetian Acad. 
kk S. Catherine of Siena, exchanging the crown of thorns for a crown 
of gold; " signed Franciscus Biwilo. 

Bissuccio, Leonardo di But one work of this artist is known 
to remain. It is the decoration of the monumental chapel to Sergiani 
Carracciolo, in the ch. of S. Giovanni a Carlxmara, at Napl- 
was built in 1433. The style of the pictures is Giottesque, but the. 
heads are more like those of Fiesole. Carracciolo was the lover and 
seneschal of the younger Queen Johanna, and one of these pictures 
represents him naked, as he was found after his murder. There are 
also scenes from the " Life of the Virgin," and pictures of several 
members of the Carracciolo family. There is an inscription which 
clearly tells the name and origin of the painter. 

Blaceo, Bernardino. An artist of Udine, in the Frioul, who 
llourished about 1 5.~>0. His works are in several churches in Udine. 

Blachernita, Michael and Simeon. These artists were painters 
of miniature* or the illuminations of MSS. Their names are upon 
the miniatures in the celebrated Menologium or Calendar of the 
Emperor Bar-ilius II. It was executed al>out 1000 A. D., and is now 
in the Vatican, No. 1613, Vaticana. It is supposed that Ludovico 
Sforza, Duke of Milan, procured it from Constantinople. There 
remain at present but five months, but these contain 430 miniatures 
on gold grounds, represent in _ f scenes in the "Life of Christ," and 
in the lives of those saints whose days occur in these months. This 


MS. was presented to Paul V. who placed it in the Vatican in 

Blackmore, John. An English mezzotinto engraver, who has 
left some well- scraped plates of portraits. Flourished 1770. 

Blake, William, born in London (1757-1828). Poet and painter, 
a man of wonderful, rather than practical genius. He was appren- 
ticed to an engraver. He lived in a sort of dream-land, and took 
what he called portraits of Moses, Homer. Milton, etc. He said of 
himself, that his business was " not to gather gold, but to make 
glorious shapes, expressing godlike sentiments." He painted but 
little. He married Catherine Boutcher, who was a devoted wife. 
He also possessed the strong friendship of the sculptor Flaxman. 
Fie loved the antique, and the works of Raphael and Michael Angelo. 
His illustrations of the Book of Job, Young's " Night Thoughts," 
Blair's " Grave," etc., are astonishing conceptions, but his published 
works are too well known to need description or criticism. 

Blanchard, Jacques, born at Paris (1600-1638). When twenty- 
four he went to Italy, and lived two years in Rome and two in Venice. 
He perfected himself in the coloring of the Venetian masters, for 
which he was much admired after his return to Paris. He has been 
called the French Titian. His pictures are agreeable, and his flesh 
tints are very good. In the ch. of Notre Dame are two pictures by 
this master, representing the "Descent of the Holy Ghost," and 
" S. Andrew kneeling before the Cross." Several of his works are 
in the Louvre. He also etched plates from his own designs and 
those of other masters. 

Blanche!:, Thomas, born at Paris, 1617; died at Lyons, 1689. At 
first he studied sculpture under Sarrazin, but abandoned it on ac- 
count of his delicate health. He went to Rome and studied under 
Andrea Sacchi. He was a friend of Algardi and Nicholas Poussin, 
both of whom advised and encouraged him. Returning to Paris, he 
painted the " Vision of S. Philip," and the "Baptism of the Eu- 
nuch," for the Cath. of Notre Dame, and was then employed to 
execute various works for the Hotel de Ville at Lyons. These last 
earned him a reputation as an historical painter. When admitted to 
the Acad. at Paris, he painted for his picture of reception, " Cadmus 
killing the Dragon." 

Blankhof, John Teunisz, born at Alkmaer (1628-1670). Pupil 
of Caesar van Everdingen. He spent some time in Raly. He ex- 
celled in marine views, and some of his best pictures represent 
storms on the Mediterranean coast, in which he imitated the scenery 
of Italy with Dutch truthfulness. 

Blanseri, Vittorio, born in Venice (1735-1775). Educated in 
the school of Cavaliere Beaumont, he was his best scholar, and his 
successor in the office of painter at the court of Turin. His principal 
works are in that city, one of which, representing " S. Luigi faint- 
ing," is in the ch. of S. Pelagio, and is much admired. 

_XP<7 C 

o^n^e^ <L/n^v^f^ J-B * 


Bleck or Bleeck, Peter Van. A Flemish engraver, who went to 
England about 1730. He engraved in mezzotinto, and his plates 
have considerable merit. 

Bles, Henri de, born at Bouvignes, 1480 ; 
died probably 1550 at Liege. A painter of 
landscapes who belonged to one of the last 
branches of the Van Kyck school. He adopted 
an owl for his monogram, and was called 
Civetta in Italy. His manner was stiff and dry, resembling thai of 
Jacob Patinier in color. He often introduced a Scripture subject in 
a landscape. No. 624, Berlin Mus., is one of his earlier works, and 
is a male portrait with a landscape background. No. 91, Munich 
Gall. Cabinets, represents the " Adoration of the Kings." In the 
Coll. of the Prince Consort at Kensington there is a " Crucifixion " 
by this master. His works are rarely for sale, and are much 

Bloemaert, Abraham, born 
at Gorcum about 1564; died at 
Utrecht, 1647. Painter and en- 
graver, a contemporary of Ku- 
bens, and the son of Cornelius Bloemaert, an eminent architect. 
He painted history, landscape, and animals. His drawing was verv 
bad. "The Wise Men's Offering," in the Jesuit ch.'at Brussels: 
a "'Nativity" at Leliendael; also Nos. 745 and 722, Berlin Gall.; 
No. 193, Munich Gall.; the " Feast of the Gods," in the Hague (Jail., 
and a " Madonna" in the Mechlin Cath. are by Bloemaert. He de- 
serves the most attention as an engraver, for his etchings are good, his 
plates in chiaro-scuro are spirited and effective, and the outlines arc- 
not cut on blocks of wood, as is customary, but etched on copper. 

Bloemaert, Cornelius, son of the preceding. Born at Utrecht. 
1603; died at Rome, 1680. A very distinguished engraver, lie 
studied first under his father, then with Crispin de Passe. In KJ.'iu 
he went to Paris, where he distinguished himself. He went to Home 
where he passed the remainder of his life. His engravings were fine, 
but he effected a change in his art, which added to his fame more 
than his works. Before his time there was an inattention to har- 
mony, and the lights were left indiscriminately clear, which had an 
incongruous and spotted effect. Bloemaert effected a gradual or 
insensible gradation from light to shade, and made a variety of 
tints in the distances. Thus he may be called the originator of tin- 
sty le followed by Poilly. Audran, Picart. and the great, French 
engravers. His works arc much prized, ami several of them have 
become scarce. He masked his plates C. BL. or COKN. Bi.o. or 
C. BLO. 

Bloemen, John Francis Van, called Ori/onti, born at Antwerp. 
1656; died at Home, 1710. He painted like an Italian, for he went 


to Italy when very youn^, and there passed his life. His works are 
in the Colonna, Doria, and Rospigliosi palaces in Rome, and also in 
the pontifical Pal. at Monte Cavallo. He painted landscapes and 
received his sobriquet from the Soc. of Flemings at Rome, on account 
of the delicate beauty with which he painted his distances. His 
pictures are very unequal. He made choice of good subjects, and 
some of his best ,are almost equal to those of Caspar Poussin, and 
although inferior to the latter he merits a rank among the best land- 
scape painters. His works are well known in England, and there 
are six in the Louvre, Xos. 33 to 38, also three landscapes in the 
Vienna Gall. 

Bloemen, Peter Van, called Standard, born at Antwerp (1649- 
1719). Brother of the preceding. He went also to Rome, but re- 
turned to Flanders, with numerous studies made in Italy. He painted 
attacks of cavalry, from which he received the name of Standard; 
also battles, fairs, caravans, etc. His figures and animals were 
drawn with great freedom and spirit, and his landscapes were 
adorned with ruins of statues, and architectural ruins. In 1G99 he 
was appointed director of the Acad. of Antwerp. In the Dresden 
Gall, there are six pictures by this artist. Xo. 993, " The Vagrant 
Family," is the best; next to it is one of Fishermen and an old gray 
Horse, and Travellers with Horses before an Inn. 

Blond or Blon, James Christopher Le, born at Frankfort, 1670; 
died at Paris, 1741. He went early to Italy, where he studied under 
Carlo Maratti. He next went to Amsterdam with B. van Overbeok. 
There he painted miniature portraits which were much esteemed. He 
went at length to England, and attempted the printing of mezzotinto 
plates in colors, so as to represent perfectly the pictures from which 
they were made. He disposed of the prints which he made by a 
kind of lottery, and published a book upon the Harmony of Coloring 
in Painting. He also conceived the idea of making tapestries from 
the cartoons of Raphael. Houses were purchased, drawings made, 
and much money expended, but the scheme failed, and Le Blon 
went to Paris, and, it is said, died in a hospital. His prints, aside 
from their novelty, have some merit. 

Blondeel, Lancelot. Flourished at Bruges about 1520 to 1574. 
His pictures have rich architectural backgrounds, often in Renais- 
sance style; executed on a gold ground. The effect is brilliant. 
His figures are in the Italian style. His flesh tones are cold, and his 
whole execution mannered. In the ch. of S. Jacques, Bruges, is a 
picture representing SS. Cosmo and Damian, dated 1523; his earliest 
known work ; in the Cath. a "Madonna" with Saints, dated 1545 ; 
and the Berlin Mus. has two of his works, Nos. 641 and 656. The 
mantelpiece in the council-hall of Bruges was designed by Blondeel, 
and is adorned with statues of Charles V. and other princes. He 
was originally a mason, hence his monogram of a trowel. 


Bloot, Peter. A painter ot Holland. Flourished about lf>:><>. 
died 16G7. He represented scenes from low life; drunken frolics, 
quarrels, etc. His characters are uncomely, grotesque, and even 
disgusting. Unlike some other artists, such as Ostade and Teniers. 
he has not attempted to reconcile us to vulgarity by ingenious 
arrangement or beautiful colors. His works are very rare and lii^lilv 
prized in Holland. 

Blooteling or Bloteling, Abraham, born at Amsterdam. 
1634. His style indicates that he studied under the 
Visschers. He became a very eminent designer and en- 
graver, and produced a large number of etchings; some plates in 
mezzotinto, and some executed with the graver. He went to Eng- 
land in 1672, and remained two years. He etched plates of the 
Coll. of gems of Leonardo Augostini, and published them in 1685. 

Blot, Maurice, born at Paris (1754-1818). Pupil of Aug. S. 
Aubin. He engraved in a neat style, and has left some plates of 
portraits and fancy subjects. 

Bobadilla, Geronimo, born at Antequerra ; died, 1080. Pupil 
of Zurbaran at Seville. He thoroughly understood perspective, and 
arranged the figures in his pictures well, but his designs were not 
good. His color was better. Murillo compared the varnish he used 
to crystal. He was one of the founders of the Acad. at Seville. He 
made a large Coll. of drawings, models, sketches after celebrated 
artists, etc. 

Bocanegra, Don Pedro Atanasio, born at Granada (1638-1 (!**). 
A pupil of Alonso Cano, he also studied color from the works of 
Pedro de Moya and Vandyck. He was a boaster, vain and arro- 
gant, disliked by all who knew him, and when he was challenged 
to prove his skill he stole away from Madrid to avoid the test. Hut 
his works were much esteemed, and no Coll. was thought complete 
without them. At the college of the Jesuits, Granada, is the " Con- 
version of S. Paul," one of his finest works , and in the Cloister of 
Nuestra Senora de Gracia a " Conception." 

Boccaccino, Boccaccio, born at Cremona (14GO-1518). Few 
facts are known in the life of this old painter. In 141)7 he had 
painted a series of frescoes in S. Agostino, and had a school at 
Cremona, from which Garofalo ran away in 1499. His compositions 
are scattered ; his perspective bad ; but there is a certain grace and 
spirit in his figures. His remaining works are frescoes in the Cath. 
of Cremona ; at S. Quirico in Cremona, a panel much in the Vene- 
tian style of painting ; an early tempera on canvas in the Bishop's 
Pal. at Cremona; No. 132, Venice Acad., and an altar-piece at S. 
Giuliano at Venice. There are others that are supposed to be his 
in various collections, which are attributed to Perugino, Pinturicchio, 

Boccaccino, Camillo, born at Cremona (1511-154$). Son of 


the preceding. At the time of his early death he was the most 
promising artist of the Cremonese school. The " Raising of Laz- 
arus," and the " Adulteress before Christ," at Cremona, are well 
esteemed, and he painted the " Four Evangelists," in S. Sigismondi, 
in a style which showed great knowledge of perspective and fore- 

Bocciardo, Clemente, called Clementone, born at Genoa (1620- 
1658). His principal works are at Pisa, and a "Martyrdom of S. 
Sebastian," in the ch. of the Carthusians, is one of the best. 

Bocciardo, Domenico, born at Genoa, 1686. In the ch. of S. 
Paolo, Genoa, there is a picture by him of S. John baptizing several 

Bockhorst, John Van, called Langen Jan, born at Munster, 
1610. His family removed to Antwerp, and he became a pupil of 
Jacob Jordaens. He painted much in the style of Vandyck. His 
portraits were excellent, and his historical pictures rank among the 
best productions of the Flemish school. They are in many Flemish 
churches. In the ch. of S. James, at Ghendt, there is an altar-piece 
representing the Martyrdom of the Saint, and in the ch. of the 
Beguines, at Antwerp, a "Resurrection;" both fine works by this 

Boedas. Third son of Lysippus, the great sculptor of Sicyon. 
Nothing is known of Boedas but that he made a statue of a praying 
figure. Many believe the " Praying Boy " in bronze, in the Mus. of 
Berlin, to be his work. Of course there is no way of proving this, 
but the whole style points to the school of Lysippus. 

Boece, C. F. See Boetius. 

Boehm. See Beham. 

Boel, Pieter, born at Antwerp (1625-1680). He studied under 
Francis Snyders, but completed his education under his uncle, Cor- 
nelius de Wael, at Genoa. He was very nearly allied to the manner 
and excellence of Snyders, and considered a fine painter. His 
pictures are rare. At Antwerp there is a series called the "Four 
Elements." Munich Gall., No. 327, represents two sporting dogs 
guarding dead game ; very fine. His etchings were also fine, and 
take place among the rarest works of the kind. A series of six plates 
of Birds, and a " Wild Boar Hunt," merit special notice. 

Boethus of Chalcedon. We have an account of three statues of 
boys by this sculptor. The "Boy with a Goose," in the Louvre, is 
copied from one of them. 

Boetius or Boece, Christian Frederick, born at Leipsic, 1706. 
Lived chiefly in "Dresden, and was made professor of the Electoral 
Acad. in 1 764. He engraved several plates from the pictures in the 
Dresden Gall., for the volumes published in 1753 and 1757. He also 
engraved some portraits, and other subjects. 

Boeyermanns, Theodor, born at Antwerp (1620-1678.) An 


excellent painter, and imitator of Vandyck. Was made a member 
of the Antwerp Guild in 1654. His pictures are scarce. Either he 
did not put his name on them, or it has been removed in order to 
pass them as Vandyck's. The Antwerp Mus. has two of his pictures : 
No. 403, called " L'Ambassadeur," and No. 404, ' The Pool of 
Bethesda," a large composition dated 1675. His works are also in 
the ch. of S. James, and the Convent of the .Jacobins at Antwerp, 
but his chef-d'ceuvre is a representation of " S. Francis Xavier con- 
verting an Indian prince " in the Jesuit ch. at Ipres. 

Boissieu, Jean Jacques de (1736-1810). An 
iJ7o eminent engraver, who has left about sixty charm- 
ing plates. They are of landscapes and other 
subjects, both from his own designs and those of other artists. He 
marked his plates D. B., with the date. He also painted some por- 
traits, and a few pictures of subjects similar to those of Ostade. 

Boizot, Louis Simon (1743-1809). French sculptor. His father 
was a designer, and at the age of nineteen Louis had sained the 
grand prize of the Royal Acad. , and was sent to Rome, by the king. 
The group of allegorical figures in the Place du Chatelet is his best 
work. There are two busts executed by him in the Gall, of Fontaine- 

Boizot, Marie Louise Adelaide, born at Paris, 1748. She was 
instructed by J. J. Flipart, and engraved with neatness both por- 
traits and other subjects. 

Bol, Ferdinand, born at Dortrecht, 1609 ; died at Amsterdam, 
1681. A pupil of Rembrandt, whose style he followed but for a 
time. His historical subjects are not skilful in composition, and las 
heads have a tiresome sameness, while his color was too yellow. 
The force of his pictures is astonishing, and yet they lack refine- 
ment. His portraits were his best efforts; they were painted in full 
lights, and his flesh tones were truthful, while the expresMon was 
animated and life-like. One of his fine early works is a portrait 
painted in 1632, Berlin Mus., No. 810. His best work is probably 
that in the " Leprosenlmys,"' at Amsterdam, in which a doctor is 
recommending an infected boy to the Regents. The heads are 
masterly, and the hands are finely painted. In the ' Iluyssittcn- 
huys " there is a picture of the same kind. Mr. Barin<_j has a scene 
from Guarini's Pastor Fido," and a couple of fine portraits. No. 
42, Louvre, is also a portrait. In the town-house at Leyden tin-re is 
an allegory of " Peace," and in the Dresden Gall., No. 1203 repre- 
sents "Joseph presenting Jacoti to Pharaoh," and No. 120.">, "David's 
Letter concerning 1'riah." The>e la>t an- of the best of his 
later works. Bol was also an engraver, and his etchings, though not 
equal to those of his master, are highly esteemed. His lights and 
shadows are good, and his style with the point is bold and free, 
rather than light and tasteful, like that of Rembrandt. 


( Bol, Hans, born at Mechlin, 1535; died at Amsterdam, 

I t IJ 1593. An engraver and painter. At first he attempted 
large pictures in size colors, but afterwards confined him- 
self to miniatures. His execution was good, as was his drawing also, 
and his animals, flowers, etc., are truthfully represented, as well as 
his portraits. He used his pictures for the decoration of books, an 
example of which may be seen in the Imperial Library at Paris, 
No. 708. His pictures are also in the cabinet of engravings at 
Berlin, and the cabinet of miniatures at Munich. He etched some 
plates too, from his own designs, which have considerable merit. 

Boldrini, Joseph Nicolas. A wood engraver. 
tf There is much difference in the accounts of this artist, 
but his plates are mostly after Titian, and it is thought 
that he studied under that great master. His plates are rare. 

Bologna, Gio. or Gian, born at Douai (1530 7-1608). Called II 
Fiammingo. His father wished him to be a notary, but his taste for 
sculpture was early so decided, that he placed him with an artist 
named Beuch, who had studied in Italy. From this master he went 
to Rome, and at length settled in Florence. He founded his style 
upon the study of Michael Angelo, and was undoubtedly the best 
sculptor of his time ; but his works show the decline of art, when 
compared with those of the fifteenth century. He most excelled in 
the representation of abstract ideas, which gave an opportunity for 
the display of his great technical skill. In the treatment of religious 
subjects, which he rarely attempted, he was less successful. Among 
his best works may be mentioned the group of the " Rape of the 
Sabines;" the equestrian statue of Cosmo I., in the Piazza della 
Signoria ; and a Mercury, in the Uffizi. A group of "Hercules 
and Nessus," which stands near that of the Sabines, in the Loo^ia 


de' Lanzi, is good, but not equal to the latter. A fountain in the 
Boboli gardens; a Venus, at the Villa of Petraca; a S. Luke, at Or 
S. Michele, and a representation of Victory in the Palazzo Vecchio, 
are all works of more than ordinary merit. These are but a small 
portion of the works of Bologna. The " Rape of the Sabines " is 
considered his chef-d'ceuvre, and copies of the Mercury are to be seen 
in many galleries and museums of art. Flaxman says that his 
" Venus coming from the Bath," both standing and kneeling, " are 
remarkable for delicacy and grace." 

Bolognese, n. See Grimaldi. 

Bolognini, Gio. Batista, born at Bologna (1612-1689). One of 
the best pupils of Guido Reni. His works are in several churches 
of Bologna. He also etched some plates after the works of Guido, 
which are done in a slight and spirited manner. 

Bolognini, Giacomo, born at Bologna (1664-1734). A nephew 
and pupil of the preceding, he became a painter of history. His 
pictures are in some Bolognese churches, and have considerable 


Bolswert or Bolsuerd, Boetins Adam, 
born at Bolswert in Friesland. 15SO. Where 
he studied engraving is not known, but he 
became eminent in th:it branch of Art. He 
followed the manner of Cornelius Bloemacrt. 

He settled with his brother Scheltius in Antwerp, as a print-seller 
and engraver. He used the graver only. His finest plates arc- 
after Rubens, and have more color and finish than his others. 

Bolswert or Bolsuerd, Scheltius A., 
born at Bolswert, 1586. A very eminent 
engraver; in truth, one of the most so of 
his country. His plates embrace all classes 
of subjects, but he was especially happy in representing tin- finest 
works of Rubens and Vandyck. It is said that Rubens often re- 
touched his proofs with chalk, and he made the corrections with the 
graver. He never used the point. Some of these proofs are in the 
portfolios of lovers of the curious. 

Bombelli, Sebastian, born at Udina (1635-1685). Pupil of Guer- 
cino. Especially distinguished as a portrait painter and a copyist 
of Paul Veronese. Boschini says that in his imitation of Veronese. 
he could not be excelled. In early life he painted some historical 
pictures which gave promise of excellence, but portrait painting 
promised him greater rewards, and he confined himself largely to 
that branch of painting. He travelled through Germany and painted 
portraits of many eminent persons at different courts. 

Bonacina, Gio. Batista, born at Milan, 1G20. An engraver who 
imitated Cornelius Bloemaert, without equalling him. His style is 
neat, but dry and stiff. 

Bonasoni, Giulio, born at Bologna about 1498. A 

j 1 n painter and very cmiment engraver. Some of his 

/ \J pictures are in the churches of Bologna, but it is as an 

engraver that he demands attention. He was instructed 

by Marc Antonio, and although he did not equal him, he executed 

pi ites after the works of some of the best masters with great facility 

an 1 elegance. He used the graver almost entirely. The distribution 

of lights and shadows, and breadth in the masses are especial points 

of excellence in his plates. He engraved after M. Angelo, Raphael, 

Giulio Romano, Parmegiano, etc., and also several plates from his 

own designs. 

Bonatti, Gio., born at Fcrrara, 1635; died at Rome, 1681. Pupil 
of Guercino, and a protege of Card. Carlo Pio. Later, in Rome, he 
studied with P. Francesco Mola. In the Gall, at the Capitol there 
are works of his, and in the churches of Santa Croce in Gerusa- 
lemnie, and Chiesa Xuova. 

Boncuore, Gio. Batista, born at Abruzzo (1643-1699). Pupil of 
Francesco Albano. His l>c>t characteristic is force and vigor of effect. 
One of his best works is in the Chiesa dc^li Orfa-u-lli at Ilo:ne. 


Bone, Henry, born at Truro in Cornwall (1755-1834), He was 
a manufacturer of china, but became an eminent enameller. He 
was first distinguished by his copies of the " Sleeping Girl " by Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, but his greatest work was the " Portraits of the 
Illustrious Men and Women of England," which he reproduced in 
enamel. Since his death they have been bought by collectors of the 
beautiful. He was a member of the Royal Acad. 

Bonesi, Gio. Girolamo, born at Bologna (1653-1725). Scholar 
of Gio. Viani. He imitated Carlo Cignani. His works may be seen 
in the churches of S. Marino, S. Biagio, the Certosa, and othir 
public edifices of Bologna. 

Bonfanti, Antonio. An artist of Ferrara, called II Torrieella. 
His pictures are in the public edifices of that city. The most 
esteemed are the " Holy Family," in the ch. of La Santis; ima 
Trinita, and " Christ in the Temple," at S. Francesco. 

Bonfigli, or di Buonfiglio, Benedetto, born at Perugia (1420?- 
1496?). He was superior to all the Umbrians of his time, except 
Piero della Francesca, and must have been acquainted with the 
classic art of Florence. His works were considered the greatest 
ornament of Perugia. His largest work was the Hall of the Palazzo 
Comunale, which he decorated with scenes from the lives of S. Louis 
of Toulouse and S. Ercolano. They were commenced in 1454, and 
wei'e not finished in 1496. The progress of painting in his time is 
well illustrated in the works of Bonfigli, and they prepare the way 
for the excellence of Perugino. Besides the Hall already mentioned 
he undertook the chapel of the " Magistrate," and a Brutus in the 
refectory of the Priori in the Palazzo Comunale. For S. Domenico 
he painted an " Adoration of the Magi," now No. 18, Perugia 
Gall. ; for the company of S. Bernardino, a banner, 1465 ; a 
" Virgin of Mercy," 1478, and many works which testify to his great 
industry. Vasari says that Pinturicchio was the assistant and friend 
of Bonfigli, and Lanzi says that Perugino was his pupil. Whether 
these artists were associated with him or not, they undoubtedly 
profited by his example, and were indebted to him for giving a 
consideration to Perugian art, which had not before belonged to it 

Boni, Giacomo, born at Bologna (1688-1766). Pupil and as- 
sistant of Marc Antonio Francesehini. Said also to have studied 
under Carlo Cignani, whose style is imitated in some of his frescoes, 
such as the ceilings of S. Pietro Celestini at Bologna, and S. Maria 
della Costa at S. Remo. A picture of the " Infant Jupiter," and a 
saloon at the Palazzo Pallavicino, by this master, are much admired. 

Bonifaccio, Francesco, born at Viterbo, 1637. Pupil of Pietro 
da Cortona. His works were in the public edifices of Viterbo, and 
possessed considerable merit. In the Palazzo Braschi is his picture 
of the " Woman taken in Adultery." 

Bonifazio, Veneziano (1491-1563). A pupil of the elder 


Palma, and an imitator of Titian. In color lie approaches tin; last- 
named master, and is altogether an eminent example of what patient 
application can do even when pi-eat talent is wanting. There are 
many works of his in Venice. His most pleasing pictures are those 
of simple arrangement, such as Saints and Holy Families. " The 
Rich Man's Supper," in the Acad. at Venice, is one of his best 
works. His latest pictures are weak and mannered. 

Boningtoii, Richard Parkes, born at Arnold, Nottingham (1801- 
1828). A fine landscape and marine painter. He copied in the 
Louvre, was a student in the jficole des Beaux Arts, and occasionally 
attended the studio of Baron Gros. He visited Italy, and painted 
tome pictures in Venice. He exhibited a few pictures at the Hoval 
Acad. before his death, but since the International Exhibition of 
1862, he has been more appreciated in England. 

Bonone, Carlo, born at Ferrara (15G9-1G32). Pupil of Giuseppe 
MftCKUoli. He visited Bologna, and so admired the. works of the 
Caracci, that he copied some of their principal pictures; he went to 
Venice, and to Parma, where he studied the excellences of Paul 
Veronese and Correggio. His small pictures are in the style of the 
Caracci, but his larger works are more akin to those of Paul 
Veronese. Many of his works are in the public edifices of Ferrara. 
and some of the best Ferrarese painters were his pupils. 

Bonsignori, Francesco, born at Verona (1455-1519). Little is 
positively known of this old master, although many of his works 
remain in Verona and Mantua, and specimens are to lie seen in many 
of the large galleries of Europe. Vasari calls him a pupil of Man- 
tegna, but this seems improbable, upon a careful examination of his 
works, as a change in his manner about indicates that he came 
under the influence of Mantegna at that time. He was patronized 
by the Marquis Francesco Gonzaga, who gave him a salary and a 
house in 1487. 

Bonvicino, Alessandro, called II Moretto di Brescia, born at 
Brescia (1500-1547). At first he imitated Titian, but afterwards 
studied the Roman school, and produced a manner full of grace. 
stateliness, and simple dignity. His oil pictures were better than liis 
frescoes, and his best works were quiet altar-pieces, for he did not 
succeed in the action necessary to historical painting. lie has left 
fine works in his native city, and his pictures are to be. seen in 
Vienna, Frankfort, Berlin, the Louvre, etc. A large altar-piece. 
representing " The Virgin between SS. Anthony and Sebastian." 
in the Stadel Institute, Frankfort, is worthy of notice. A colossal 
" Adoration of the Shepherds," Berlin Mus., is excellent. In the 
Imp. Gall., Vienna, there is a line picture of S. Justina, with the 
Duke of Ferrara (called a Pordenone) kneeling beside her, which 
has been engraved by Uahl. His portraits have, been likened to 
those of Titian, and he was the matter of Moroni. Tim National 




Ruili Mus. 

Gall, has a portrait, and a picture of S. Bernardino and other saints, 
which is very fine. His works are numerous. 

Boonen, Arnold Van, born at Dortrecht (1669-1729). Pupil ot 
Schalken. He painted portraits and yenre pictures. He is not 
equal to his master, whom he closely imitated. His pictures are 
taken frequently by candle-light. In the Dresden Gall. No. 1579, 
two young men, one smoking, is truthful and full of feeling. Nos. 
1570 to 1582 are also by Boonen. He executed some large pictures 
for the different companies of Dort and Amsterdam, and the portraits 
of many distinguished personages. 




Beivedere, Vienna. 

Bordone, Paris, born at Trevigi (1500-1570). His portraits 
were his best works, and for them lie is distinguished. lie was of 
noble family, and well educated before he entered the school of 
Titian. Many of his female portraits are in the I'ilixi: the Manfrini 
Coll., Venice; the Belvedere and Kstcrha/y galleries, Vienna: and in 
other places. All his heads are fine, and some of them closely 
resemble Titian. Two of his larger works are in the Herlin Mils., 
but the best of this class is in the Acad. of Venice, and represents 
the fisherman presenting the ring of S. Mark to the Doge; it is 



splendidly executed. Bordone was invited to France by Francis I. , 
and painted the portraits of the king and many of the nobility. 

Borgani, Francesco, born at Mantua. Flourished in the middle 
of the 17th century. Scholar of Domenico Feti. Lanzi says this 
artist merits more attention than he receives. His works are in the 
churches of Mantua. 

Borgiani, Orazio, born at Rome (1 57 7-1 G 15). Studied with his 
brother called Scalzo. Copied the works of the masters of Rome. 
A man of violent temper. Riding one day in a coach, at Rome, he 
saw some artists, among whom was Caravaggio, laughing at him; he 
sprang from the carriage, seized a bottle of varnish from the shop of 
a druggist, and threw it at the heads of the offenders. He passed 
some years in Spain, where he was well received and patronized, and 
on his return to Rome was employed by the Spanish ambassador. 


In S. Simpliciauo, Milan. 


His works may be seen in some churches of his native city, and he 
also left a few plates etched in a free, bold manner. 

Borgognone, Ambrogio. Flourished about 1500, born at Milan. 
His pictures are by no means excellent, but his heads are gentle and 
meek in expression; and sometimes they have a peculiarly austere and 
mournful look. His works may be see in Milan, especially in the cli. 
of S. Ambrogio; in Pavia the frescoes in the Carthusian Convent, 
formerly ascribed to Bramante, are by Borgognone. In the Berlin 
Mus. there are. two works by this artist, one of which, an " Enthroned 
Madonna," has a high reputation. 

Borras, Nicholas, torn at Cocentayna, 1530; died at Gandia, 1G10. 
A priest, monk, and painter. He studied with Joancs at Valencia. 
and was his most eminent disciple. He took orders and lived as a 
priest in his native town, continuing to paint meanwhile. At length 
he went to the convent of the Jeronymites at Gandia, to paint some 
pictures for their high-altar. When his work was ended he refused 
all payment, and desired that the habit of their order should be uiven 
him. This was done and he remained in the convent three, years. 
but hoping to find a stricter discipline, he went to a Franciscan 
monastery near Valencia. He did not remain long, and returning to 
Gandia, passed the rest of his life there. His industry was wonder- 
ful, and the number of his works immense. He not only gave his 
time and skill to his convent, but also devoted goodly sums of money 
for the comfort and elegance of its appointments. He hired sculptors 
and decorators at his own expense, and came to be considered a 
benefactor to his community. While he lived fifty masses were said 
yearly for his soul. The Mus. of Valencia has more of the pictures 
of Borras than of any other artist. There are about fifty of them, 
mostly on panel. His style is similar to that of his master: his heads 
are often striking, and his accessories fini>hed with great care and 
minuteness. His coloring is colder than that of Joancs. 

Borrekens, John Peter Francis, born at Antwerp (1747-1827). 
A painter of landscapes, which were often ornamented with figures 
and cattle by other masters. 

Borrekens, Matthew, born at Antwerp, 1615. An engraver. 
who was chiefly employed in copying the plates of eminent engravers 
for print-x'llers. lie worked entirely with the graver, and imitated 
Pontius without equalling him. 

Borsum, Abraham van. A painter of landscapes, birds. 
animals, etc. His pictures resemble Rembrandt's in color. His 
drawings are highly esteemed in Holland, and sell for lari_ r e sums. 

Borsum, Adam van. Flourished 1066. A painter of animals 
who imitated A. Vandermeer and Paul Potter. His color is good, 
and his drawing free and spirited. 

Borzone, Luciano, born at Genoa (1590-1645). Pupil of his 
uncle, Filippo Bertolotti. Painted history, but excelled most in por- 


traits. In the ch. of S. Spirito, Genoa, there is a " Baptism of 
Christ," and in S. Domenico a " Presentation in the Temple," by 
this master. He fell from his scaffolding in the Chiesa della Nunzi- 
ata, arid was killed. Soprani says his house was the resort of culti- 
vated people, and he himself a man of great attainments. lie left a 
few plates etched from his own designs. His three sons, Gio. Ba- 
tista, Carlo and Francesco Maria, were all painters, and the latter 
excelled in landscapes. 

Bos or Bosche, Jerome, born 

^- > ^ r y at Bois le Due, 1470. A painter 

<S> -> Li O 5* an< ^ engraver. He represented 
very singular and grotesque sub- 
jects, such as devils, spectres, etc. 
These are treated with wonderful ingenuity. He sometimes painted 
more serious subjects, such as the " Flight into Egypt," and " Christ 
bearing his Cross." A very singular picture of his represents " Christ 
delivering the ancient Patriarchs from Hell." Judas attempts to 
escape also, and is seized by devils, who suspend him in the air. 
There are so many works by this artist in Spain, that it has been 
thought he must have gone there. At the Royal Gall., Madrid, there 
are the " Fall of Lucifer and the Angels ; " " Adam and Eve driven 
from Eden; " and the " Triumphs of Death," which is a very singu- 
lar picture. Death, scythe in hand, gallops on his white horse, driv- 
ing multitudes to the land of shades. The entrance is fortified by 
coffins, and guarded by skeletons. Behind Death follows a sort of 
dead-cart, to take up the slain. In the foreground there is a com- 
pany of revellers, and a king falls dead. The plates of this artist 
represent the same fantastic subjects. They are in the stiff Gothic 
style, and arc much prized by collectors. 

Bos, Lewis Janssen or John, born at Bois le Due (1450-1507). 
A painter of small portraits, flowers, fruits, etc. He finished with 
extreme nicety, and the insects on his plants were painted with 
surprising truth. 

Bos, Gaspar van den, born at Hoorn (1634-1GGG). A painter of 
marine subjects. His storms and calms, with ships, have consider- 
able merit in color and finish. 

Bosch, Hieronymus. His real name was Agnen, but he was 
called Bosch, from his birthplace, Herzogenbusch. Died 1518. He 
represented fantastic ideas with a demoniacal manner. He founded 
a style which was followed by others. His execution was careful 
and sharp. Berlin Mus., No. 563, " The Last Judgment; " Antwerp 
Mus., No. 41, " Temptation of S. Anthony." 

Bosch or Bossche, Balthasar van den, born at Antwerp (1681- 
1715). Painted interiors with great success. His pictures were 
very popular. He also succeeded in small portraits. The Duke of 
Marlborough was attracted by his fame, and sat to him for his 


picture. He was represented on horseback, and the horse was done 
by Peter van Bloemen. His pictures were well arraiitred. his heads 
had life and expression, and his color was warm. Antwerp Mus., 
No. 448, u Reception of a Burgomaster of Antwerp in the younger 
Guild of Cross-bow Shooters." 

Boschaert. Nicholas, born at Antwerp, 1696. A fine painter of 
flowers and fruits. 

Boschi, Fabrizio, born at Florence (1570-164-2). A pupil of 
Domenico Passignani. At nineteen he surprised the artists of his 
day by his excellence. The " Martyrdom of SS. Peter and Paul." 
painted for the Certosa at Florence, and an " Assumption of the 
Virgin " in the ch. of the Convent of S. Lucia, are among his best 

Boschi, Francesco, born at Florence (1619-1675). An excellent 
portrait painter. 

Boschini, Marco, born at Florence, 1613. Pupil of Palma. and 
an imitator of II Tintoretto. His " Last Supper." in the Sacristy of 
S. Girolamo, at Venice, is one of his best works. He was a dis- 
tinguished engraver, and wrote a book called " La Carta del Nave-jar 
Pittoresco." He signed his plates Marc UK lliixrliintn*. 

Boscoli, Andrea, born in Florence (1550 Y-l 606). Scholar of 
Santo de Titi. Painted history with some merit, also portraits with 
good success; that of himself is in the Florentine Gall. 

Boselli, Antonio, flourished about 1500. Little is known of his 
life. He was a sculptor and painter. At Bergamo, believed to have 
been his native place, in the ch. of S. Cristoforo, there is a picture 
of " SS. Peter, Paul, and Luke," inscribed. Ifor ojm* Anioniuiii *<:!/<> 
}>inzi<se Bosellum, die 23 Februarii, 1509. In the ch. of the Augus- 
tines there are other works of his. 

Boselli, Felice, born at Piacenza (16.50-1732). He copied the 
old masters to perfection, and his copies are numerous, but are 
seldom attributed to him, as they pass for originals. He attempted 
historical painting, but afterwards painted birds, animals, etc. 
These pictures are much esteemed in Piacenza, and are in the best 

Bosio, Francis Joseph, born at Monaco (1 769-1845). Pupil of 
Pajou, but he formed bis style by the study of the antique, lie wa> 
chief sculptor of the King of France, and his most beautiful works 
are in Paris. He executed many busts of the royal family and men 
of note. The bas-reliefs of the column in the Place Vciidome were 
from his designs. 1 Hercules stru-jglin-j with Achelous transformed 
into a serpent, in the Garden of the Tuileries (bronze) ; the eques- 
trian statue in the Place des Victoires: the .statues of France and 
Truth, at the grave of Malesherbes; the figure of the King of Rome; 
and the triumphal chariot of the arch in the Place du Carrousel : the 
nymph Salmacis, and a Hyacinth, in the Gall, of the Luxembourg, 

1 A portion by Basio; others by Bcrgeret. 


are some of his best works. In 1830 Bosio completed tlie monument 
of the Countess Demidoff. He was also engaged on the monument of 
Louis XVI. Bosio was a Knight of the Legion of Honor, and tin- 
Order of S. Michael; and a member of the French Institute and 
Royal Acad. of Fine Arts at Berlin. 

Bosschaert, Thomas Willeborts, born at Bergen-op-Zoom, 
1613; died at Antwerp, 1656. Pupil of Gerai'd Segers. He went to 
Italy and remained four years. His pictures were fine and bear 
comparison with those of the first masters of his country. His 
picture of the " Martyrdom of S. Basil " is in the ch. of the Capu- 
chins at Brussels; the '' Martyrdom of S. James " in the ch. of that 
saint at Bruges; and in the House in the Wood at the Hague is his 
emblematical picture of "Peace and War." He was a member of 
the Antwerp Acad. 

Bosse, Abraham, born at Tours, 1610. He wrote a treatise 
callen " La Maniere de Graver a 1'eau forte, et au Burin." He 
left a good number of plates, principally from his own designs. 
They are bold and masterly, etched with unusual spirit and freedom. 

Both, Jau and Andries. These brothers were so united in life 
that no separate story can be told of them. They were born at 
Utrecht about 1609-1610. Their father painted glass; they were 
pupils of Abraham Bloemaert, and went to Italy, where Jan, 
charmed by the scenery, gave himself to landscape painting, while 
Andries ornamented his pictures by figures, and painted some other 
subjects by himself. Of these last, No. 1214, Dresden Gall., is a 
good example. He also left etchings (ten), which are especially 
good. Jan succeeded in both large and small pictures ; the most 
apparent fault in them is their sameness. So much in harmony did 
the brothers paint, that one would not imagine their works not done 
by one hand. The National Gall., No. 71; the Louvre, No. 43; 
Amsterdam Mus., Nos. 37 and 38; and Nos. 17 and 18 at the Hague, 
are all good examples of their style. The ten landscapes etched by 
Jan are equally as good as his pictures. He also well engraved the 
" Five Senses," designed by Andries. Andries was drowned in a 
canal in Venice in 1645 ; and Jan returned to Utrecht, but did not 
survive his brother more than five years. 

Bottala, Gio. Maria, born at Savona, 1613; died at Milan, 1644. 
Went to Rome and studied under Pietro da Cortona, whom he 
always imitated, although he was called Raffaellmo, from his love 
for the works of the great master. His works are principally in the 
churches of Naples and Genoa. One of his best pictures, the 
' Meeting of Jacob and Esau," was placed in the capitol by Bene- 
dict XIV. Card. Sachetti was the friend and patron of Bottala. 

Botticelli, Sandro. Real name Alessandro Filipepi, called 
Botticelli from his first master, a goldsmith. Born in Florence 
(1447-1515). Scholar of Fra Filippo Lippi, and twenty-two years 


old at the death of that master. Vasari says that at that time 
Botticelli was the best artist in Florence. His religion* pictures are 
wanting in deep feeling, but have a certain sweetings and warmth 
which appeal to the heart more than the colder works of other 
artists, and even those of Ghirlandaio may be included in the list. 
In historical works he displayed his fanciful conception of his sub- 
ject, united with the impetuous energy of Filippo. He endeavored 
to raise his subjects above the ordinary mode-, and also represented 
myths and allegories. About 1474 he was employed in the Sjstine 
Chapel, and painted three large pictures, besides twenty-eight figures 
of Popes between the windows. The large works are full of action, 
the figures are expressive, and the landscapes beautiful. Of his 
allegories, that of " Calumny," at the Ufh'zi, is most remarkable. 
The " Birth of Venus," in same Gall., is naively sweet. These 
works prove him to have been a student of ancient architecture, and 
antique, classical statuary. His later works were finer than his 
earlier ones, and he received many honorable commissions. Lorenzo 
de' Medici was his employer ; he was of the number consulted re- 
garding the placing of Michael Angelo's " David," ami his name is 
frequently met in Florentine papers of his time. During the very 
last of his life he degenerated, and his pictures of that period are 
poor and weak. He died in comparative poverty. His works are 
very numerous. There are many in Florence, some in Rome and 
other Italian cities, and they are to be seen in the Louvre, tin- 
Nat ional Gall., the galleries of Berlin, Dresden. Vienna, Munich, 
etc., and in private collections. Botticelli also engraved a number 
of plates. 

Bouchardon, Edme, born at Chaumont, 1698 ; died at Paris, 
1762. Studied first with his father, and then at Paris, under Cous- 
ton. He obtained the first prize of the Acad. and went to Koine. 
\\here he diligently copied from the antique and executed a bust of 
Pope Clement XII. He made a copy of the " Barberim Faun," now 
' in the Gall, at Munich. His most celebrated works were the " Foun- 
tain of Grenelle," and the equestrian statue of Louis XV. in the 
Garden of the Tuileries, upon which Bouchardon labored for twelve 
years, and which was destroyed in 1 7!)2. Some of his works may 
be seen in the gardens of Versailles and Choi-y. and in the choir of 
the eh. of S. Snlpice. We have also a few etchings by this artist. 

Boucher, Francois, born at Paris (1701-1770). One of the 
most mannered of French painters. Wornum says he appeared 
" to have discovered a new race of human beings." lie went to 
Italy, was a member and director of the French Acad.,. and ap- 
pointed principal painter to Louis XV. in 1 705. He was also super- 
intendent of the tapestry manufactory at Beauvais. His pictures are 
of a decorative type. He painted all subjects in one manner. In 
his own style he could scarcely be equalled, not to say surpassed, and 


his influence was bad, on account of the numbers who became his 
imitators. His form and color were at fault, and yet, for decoration 
on tapestry, his works have much beauty. His pastoral subjects 
were his best, and he thoroughly mastered the mechanism of art. 
He left several slight etchings. 

Boucquet, Victor, born at Furnes (1619-1677). His works arc 
found in many Flemish towns. He painted history, and his pictures 
are well composed and well colored. The best altar-piece in the ch. 
at Ostend represents the " Descent from the Cross," and is by 
Boucquet; and in the great ch. and Town Hall of Newport are somo 
of his best works. 

Boulanger, John, born at Troves, 1613. An engraver who 
adopted and improved upon the manner of John Morin, in finishing 
flesh with dots, which gave a very soft appearance. The draperies 
and background were harsh in contrast with the other parts, but his 
plates are well esteemed and have a good degree of merit. 

Boullongne, Louis, the Elder, born at Paris (1609-1674). A 
painter of history, professor of the Acad., and painter to the king. 
His best works are in the Cath. of Notre Dame, at Paris. He 
etched three plates: the "Miracle of S. Paul at Ephesus; " the 
11 Martyrdom of S. Paul ;" and the " Rape of Helen," after Guido. 

Boullongne, Bon, born at Paris (16407-1717). Son of the 
preceding. He gained a prize at the Paris Acad., and received a 
pension from the king with which to go to Rome, where he re- 
mained five years, and then visited other parts of Italy. Louis XIV. 
employed him at Versailles, where he worked under Le Brun. He 
also painted in several churches in Paris. He excelled in Pastici, or 
the imitation of other artists, without being actually a copyist. He 
left several etchings. 

Boullongne, Louis, the Younger, born at Paris; died 1734. Son 
of Louis the Elder. Having taken a prize, was sent to Rome. On 
his return was made painter to Louis XIV., and was employed at 
Fontainebleau and in the Chateau of Meudon. Some of his best 
works are in Notre Dame. His pictures are correct in drawing, 
vigorous in color, and his heads have character and expression. He 
used the point also, and left eight etchings of religious subjects. 

Bouman, P., born at Dort, about 1 764. A painter of landscapes 
and similar subjects whose works are much esteemed. 

Bourdon, Sebastian, born at Montpelier (1616-1671). After 
studying in Italy, he established his reputation by a picture of the 
" Crucifixion of S. Peter," now in the Louvre; he was one of the 
original twelve anciens of the Acad.; he went to Sweden for several 
years, but returned to Paris, and was Rector of the Acad. of Painting 
when he died. His landscapes were his best works, and resembled 
those of Salvator Rosa. He also painted a few genre pictures, and 
two portraits of himself, which are in the Louvre, in one of which 


he was assisted by Rigaud. The National Gall, has a fine picture 
by Bourdon. He was skilful in handling the point, and his plates 
are valued by collectors. 

Bourgeois, Sir Francis, born in London (1756-1811). His 
familv were Swiss. Pupil of De Loutherbourg, whom he did not 
perfectly imitate. He was a close student of nature, ami painted 
very exactly from his subjects. This is especially seen in his half- 
dead trees and gnarled roots. His cottages are very good, similar to 
those of Barker, and his pastoral scenes well arranged. His gypsies. 
cattle, etc., are grouped in the manner of Gainsborough. He was 
invited to Poland, and although he did not accept the invitation. 
was appointed painter to the king, and made a knight of the Order 
of Merit. He was a friend of Mr. Desenfans, who bequeathed him 
valuable paintings, which he gave at his death to Dulwich College. 

Bousseau, Jacques, born at Chavaignes-en-Poitou, 1671; died at 
Madrid, 1740. Pupil of Nicolas Couston. He rapidly rose to the 
rank of professor of sculpture in the Royal Acad. There are several 
statues by him in the Cath. of Notre Dame; and he executed the 
grand altar of the Cath. at Rouen, and the Tomb of Cardinal 
Dubois in S. Honore. He was invited to Spain and appointed 
principal sculptor to the king. He lived many years at Madrid, and 
executed several fine works. 

Bout, Pieter and Nicholas, or Anton Frans Boudewyns. 
Natives of Brussels who flourished about 1700. They executed to- 
gether a great number of pictures which are midway between land- 
scapes and genre subjects. Boudewyns painted the landscapes, and 
Bout the figures, which were generally about an inch and a half 
high, dressed in gay colors, and full of character. Their compo- 
sitions were small, the skies bright, and the colors, which were doubt- 
less brilliant at first, are now dark and brown, especially in the 
landscapes. Bout also painted alone, and chose fairs, Flemish wakes. 
merry-makings on the ice, etc., for his subjects. In the Dresden 
Gall, there are six pictures by these artists, and at Vienna, two. 

Boydell, John, called Alderman Boydell, born at Darrington 
(1719-1*01). An engraver, and pupil of Toms. lie deser\es 
especial praise for what he did for art. He not only so raised tin- 
works of British engravers that they were sought by all Europe, but 
he undertook the illustration of Shakespeare, by plates from pictures 
painted by English artists. In his efforts he spent 350,000, and 
in 1789 his Shakespeare Gall, was opened to the public. There 
were 170 pictures, all by English painters. In 1 SM,~> it was necessary 
to dispose of these, on account of the pecuniary embarrassment 
which had resulted from his endeavors to relieve the artists of his 
own country, from the rivalry of others. They were sold by lottery. 
By the plates which he published, he also gave much employment to 
engravers. Boydell was, in addition to all this, a designer and painter 


in water-colors, and made a good sketch of the interior of his Gall., 
which is now known as the British Institution. In 1774 he was 
elected alderman, and in 1791 held the high office of lord mayor. 
In 1789 at the dinner of the Royal Acad., Sir Joshua Reynolds pro- 
posed his health as " The commercial Maecenas of England." The 
company, including the Prince of Wales, joined heartily in the 

Braccioli, Gio. Francesco, born at Ferrara (1698-1762). His 
works were done for the churches and convents of his native city. 

Brakenburg, Regnier, born at Haerlem (1650-1702). Pupil of 
Hendrik Mommers. He represented scenes from low life, usually in 
the open air. He resembles Adrian van Ostade in color. His 
greatest fault is his incorrect drawing of the figure. He had great 
facility in execution, and understood chiaro-scuro; his pictures 
appear to be highly finished. At Windsor Castle there are two 
pictures of the Studios of Artists, by Brakenburg. His works are 
in the galleries of Berlin and Vienna. 

Bramante d'Urbino. The real name of this great architect was 
Donato Lomazzo. The place and time of his birth are disputed, but 
his family were of Castel Durante in the Duchy of Urbino, anil he 
died in 1514, about seventy years old. He first studied painting, 
and executed portraits and other subjects in a style resembling that 
of Andrea Mantegna. A few of his frescoes remain in Milan and 
Pavia. But it is as an architect that he was important. He was 
employed on the following works in Rome: the cloister of the monks 
delta Pace; the fountain of Trastevcre; a large portion of the 
Palazzo della Cancellaria; the arrangement of the space between 
the Vatican and the Belvedere; and the Basilica of S. Peter. He 
was appointed pontifical architect by Alexander VI. and Julius II. 
After his death the plan of S. Peter's was changed and the only 
remnants of his workmanship are the four great arches, supporting 
the tower of the dome. At first his style was cold and stiff, but it 
became majestic and elegant. He had great fertility of invention 
and undoubted genius. The work on S. Peter's advanced with 
wonderful rapidity under his superintendence. He had little regard 
for the works of antiquity, and his destruction of some such at Rome 
was notorious. He was a bitter opponent of Michael Angelo, both 
for himself and on account of Raphael, who was his nephew, and for 
whom he was jealous of Buonarotti as a painter, as he was for him- 
self as an architect. The dislike of Michael Angelo for Bramante 
was also most cordial, and at one time they had a violent scene in 
the presence of the Pope. Julius appreciated them all, and retained 
all in his service. In a letter written long after Bramante's death. 
Michael Angelo used the following words, which are valuable when 
we know the feeling which existed between them: " Bramante was, if 
any one deserves the name, one of the most able architects since the 


days of the ancients. And, as it is evident now, whatever the stand- 
ard of beauty, whoever departs from his idea, us Sun Gallo did, de- 
parts from the very rules of art." Bramante was interred in S. 
Peter's with great honors. In 1756 his writings in prose and verse 
were discovered, and published in the coll. of Opusculi, at Lilian. 

Bramaiitiiio. Sec Suardi. 

Brambilla, Gio. Batista. A Piedmontese painter who flouri-hed 
about 1770. He acquired a good reputation. Some of his best 
works are in the churches of Turin. 

Bramer, Leonhard, born at Delft, it is said, in 1596. Ku<rler 
says he has reason to believe that he was born much later. His 
works are poor imitations of those of Rembrandt, although, us thev 
are very unequal in their excellence, some are well esteemed. No-. 
1067, 1068, and 1069, Dresden Gall., are by Bramer. Bryan praises 
this artist, and says that his works were much esteemed at Florence 
and Venice. 

Brauwer or Brower, Adrian, born at Haerlem, 1608; died at 
Antwerp, 1640. Pupil of Frank Hals, of whom we are reminded in 
his laughing or grinning pictures, such as those of Avuritiu" and 
Invidia." Most of his pictures were small interiors, although he 
painted some landscapes. It is said that Rubens praised Brower. 
and his works are excellent enough to warrant the fact. lie espe- 
cially excelled in painting hideous faces. Like Hals lie was dissi- 
pated, and in consequence died young. His pictures are sean-e and 
valuable. The Munich Gall, has nine. >ix at which are among his 
best. No. 1147, Dresden Gall., is by him. He also left a few etch- 
ings, full of spirit and character. There are various anecdotes con- 
nected with this artist. He was the son of a woman who sold 
bonnets and handkerchiefs to the peasants, and it was the deMirns 
he drew for these, which brought him to the notice of Hals, who 
offered to employ him. When the muster knew the full power of 
the pupil, he locked him up by himself, made him work hard, and 
sold his paintings for good prices. Adrian van Ostade, another 
pupil of Hals, advised Brower to run away. He did so, but the 
lart_ r e price he received in Amsterdam for his first picture was a mis- 
fortune, for he immediately plunged into dissipation and only worked 
when necessity required it. When the States-General were at war 
with Spain he attempted to go to Antwerp without a passport. He 
was seized and imprisoned in the citadel where the Duke of Arem- 
hei"_ r was a captive. Through his interference Brower was furni>hcd 
with colors, etc., and made a picture which was shown to Rubens. 
He recognized it as the work of Brower, whose fame had preceded 
him. and succeeded in getting him liberated. Rubens took him to 
his own house, but its order did not please Brower. He went awav. 
fell into his disorderly habits, and died in a hospital and was ob- 
scurely buried. Rubens hud him removed to the eh. of the Carmelites, 
and interred with resju-ct uiwl solemnity. 


Brea, Ludovico, born at Nice. Flourished from 1485 to 1513. 
Is considered one of the founders of the Genoese school. Some of 
his works remain in the churches of Genoa, and are remarkable for 
their freshness. He painted small pictures principally. 

Brebiette, Peter, born at Mante, 1596. A painter and engraver, 
but best known as the latter. He engraved, in a spirited and 
masterly manner, some plates from his own designs, and some after 
Italian masters. 

Breda, John Van, born at Antwerp (1683-1750). Son of Alex- 
ander Van Breda, also an artist, and student of the works of Philip 
Wouvermans, which he copied industriously. His pictures became 
the fashion ; but he never apppoached the excellence of the master 
he imitated. He visited England with Rysbrack, the sculptor. 
When Louis XV. visited Antwerp in 1746, he bought four of Breda's 
pictures, and his courtiers engaged all he could finish, at good 

Bredael, Jan Peters, born at Antwerp, 1630. Painted landscapes 
with figures in the manner of Jan Breughel. He introduced Italian 
architecture in his backgrounds. His color is heavy and dark, but 
his composition and execution are good. 

Bredael, Jan Fraus Van, born at Antwerp (1683-1750). An 
inferior imitator of Wouvermans. Nos. 1707 and 1681, Dresden 
Gall., are by Bredael. 

Bree, Matthew Ignatius Van, born at Antwerp (1773-1839). 
Pupil of W. Schalken. He painted large historical subjects, and 
acquired a high reputation in Flanders. He Avas first professor at 
the Acad. of Fine Arts in Antwerp, and was teacher of some of the 
most eminent Flemish painters of his time. 

Bree, Philippe Jacques Van, born at Antwerp (1786-1840). 
Brother and pupil of Matthew, he also studied at Paris and Rome. 
The government of Belgium purchased his view of the interior of 
S. Peter's at Rome, and in addition to the price gave him a gold 

Breenberg, Bartholomaeus, born at Utrecht 
(1620-1663?). Lived for some years in Italy. 
His pictures are mostly small, and he was fond 
of painting on copper. Some of his works will 
bear to be examined with the glass, and the figures are finished with 
delicate dots or touches. He succeeded in his historical subjects. 
That of " Joseph selling Bread during the Famine in Egypt," No. 
1326, Dresden Gall., is a specimen, and the same subject is repeated 
life-size in the Emmaus ch. at Prague. He often enlivened his land- 
scapes with groups of figures illustrative of Scripture, mythology, or 
Boccaccio. The greatness of this artist was lessened by the cold- 
ness of his tones; his drawing, perspective, and execution were good. 
His works are in the National Gall., No. 208; Louvre, Nos. 50-55; 


Munich Gall. Cabinets, No. 508, and in the Vicuna Gall. His 
etchings were even better than his paintings, and he left thirty-one, 
most of which represent Roman ruins in landscapes. These plates 
are much esteemed, and good impressions of them an- scarce. 

Brekelenkamp or Breckeleiicamp, Quirin Van. Flourished 
about 1650. A good painter of home scenes. His best works are 
finished with great delicacy. He was a pupil of Gerard Douw, but 
his style is a mixture of Rembrandt's with that of his ma.-ter. Hi^ 
works are much esteemed in Holland, where they are found in the 
best collections. 

Bresang, Hans. A German engraver who flourished about 1504- 
1519. A contemporary of Hans Baldung, and believed by Zani to 
be the same artist. His works are mostly wood-cuts; he left but few 
copper-plates. The following are attributed to Bresang : 

Christ bound to the Pillar, with the cipher, 1504. 

The Dead Christ, with the Maries. 

The Dead Christ, stretched on a linen, supported by Angels. 

Christ and the Apostles, 1519. 

The Three Fates; 1513; very scarce. 

Breughel, Pieter, the Elder, called Peasant Breughel, born at 
Breughel, 1520 (?). Visited Rome. ].V>:: and died at Antwerp. 
1569 (?). He represented scenes from peasant life, and was the first 
to apply himself especially to those subjects. His mode was coarse, 
and sometimes vulgar. He also painted Scriptural sci-no. and >ome- 
times incantations and ghosts, like Jerome Bosch. He made skilful 
sketches when travelling. He also etched, and there are some 
wood-cuts from his designs. The Gall, at Vienna has a line Coll. 
of his pictures. 

Breughel, Pieter, the Younger, called Hell Breughel, from the 
nature of his subjects. Verv inferior to his father. Antwerp Mns.. 
No. 255. Berlin Mus., No. '721. 

Breughel, Jan, called Velvet Breughel, born at Antwerp (1568- 
Ui2.'))- The most gifted of his family. He had versatility of talent. 
and painted land>capf>. peasants, Scriptural scenes, and hellish or 
demoniacal subjects. His coloring was clear and strong, his finish 
.rood, and his c fleets of ILdit well arranged. There are number* of 
his works in the galleries of Dresden. Munich, and Berlin. We 
have four small etchings () f his, marked. ,/. Sm/i-!i-r. exc. 

Breukelaar, Henri, Junior, born at Amsterdam (1809-1830). 
His work.- are few. but were of great excellence for his a _'(. His 
picture of " Van Spyck at the Tomb of De Ruiter" is much admired 
by his countrymen. 

Breydel, Karel, born at Antwerp KJ77 (?) : died at Ghent. 
1744(?). Pupil of Peter Ry>hrack. Painted views on the Rhine, 
and military Mibjects. One of his pictures is in the Gall, of the 
Duke of Aremberg at Brus.-els. 


Bridell, Frederick Lee, born at Southampton (1831-1863). A 
painter of landscapes of great excellence. He painted much in (he 
style of Turner's second period. He failed most in his skies. Four 
of his pictures were sold at Christie's at prices ranging from 200 to 
670 guineas. 

Briggs, Henry Perronet, R. A., born at Norfolk, 1792; died at 
London, 1844. He painted historical subjects, but at length devoted 
himself to portrait painting, in which he had great success. His 
chief excellence was in color. 

Bril, Matthew, born at Antwerp, 1554; died at Rome, 1580. He 
was employed in the Vatican in the time of Gregory XIII., and had 
a pension. His early death prevented the perfection of his talents. 

Bril, Paul, born at Antwerp, 1556 ; died at Rome, 1626. Brother 
of Matthew, whom he joined in Rome, and with whom he studied. 
A new era in his branch of art may be dated from the time of this 
artist, and he influenced beneficially Rubens, Annibale Caracci, and 
Claude Lorraine. He left many works in oil and fresco. After the 
death of Matthew, Paul was continued in the Vatican with his 
brother's pension. He was much patronized by Clement VIII., and 
painted in several Roman churches. For Sixtus V., too, he had done 
many works, in the Sistine Chapel, in the Scala Santa, and S. Maria 
Maggiore. His "Building of the Tower of Babel," Berlin Mas., 
No. 731, displays his power to represent the fantastic. No. 744, 
same Mus., is a fine landscape of his later style. The Louvre has 
some of his best works, especially Nos. 67, 71, and 73. 

Brinckman, Philip Jerome, born at Spires, 1 709. Pupil of J. 
G. Dathan. Painter to the court, and keeper of the Gall, at Mentz. 
He painted landscapes, history, and portraits ; in some of the latter 
he imitated Rembrandt. He also left some plates etched in a pleas- 
ing style, with spirit. 

Briosco. See Riccio. 

Broederlain, Melchior. An old Flemish painter who flourished 
about 1400. There are some very curious works of his in the Mus. 
of Dijon. The pictures were on the wings of an altar-chest, and 
painted at the command of Philip the Bold. This work combined 
painting, sculpture, and architecture. The carving was done by 
Jacques de la Bnerse. A description of it would require too much 
space, but it is very interesting in its relation to the art of its time, 
of which we have comparatively few such examples. 

Brompton, Richard, died 1 790. Pupil of Raphael Mengs and 
Benjamin Wilson. The Earl of Northampton was his patron, and 
took him to Venice when ambassador to that republic. After his 
return to England, Brompton did not receive the encouragement 
which he desired, and went to St. Petersburgh, where he was well 
received and fully employed as long as he lived. 

Bronkhorst, John Van, born at Utrecht (1603-1680?). He was 


first a painter on glass, and studied under John Verburg. He exe- 
cuted the fine windows in the new ch. at Amsterdam. AVhen thirtv- 
six years old he became acquainted with Cornelius Poelemberg, and 
abandoned glass painting. He did some pictures in imitation of 
Poelemberg, which were much admired, and also etched landscapes 
from his own designs and those of Poelemberg. 

Bronkhorat, Peter Van, born at Delft (1588-1661). Excelled in 
painting interiors, into which he was accustomed to introduce Croups 
of small figures illustrating historical subjects. In the town-hon-e 
at Delft there are two of these works, large, and representing the 
" Judgment of Solomon," and " Christ driving the lloney-changen 
from the Temple." 

Bronzino, Angiolo, born at Monticelli, 1502; died at Florence, 
1572. Pupil of Pontormo, friend of Vasari, and the devoted ad- 
mirer of Michael Angelo. His works were very unequal, and some- 
times almost disgusting from their bad taste, but he had remarkable 
ability in drawing and painting. He was employed in many impor- 
tant works, and after the death of Pontormo, finished the Chapel of 
S. Lorenzo at Florence. His frescoes which remain are much in- 
jured, but he was most important as a portrait painter, and painted 
many illustrious persons of his time. His portraits have green hack- 
grounds, and in style might be called Italian Holbeins. He was 
fond of rich garments, furs, etc., but managed them so as not to 
interfere with the dignity of the portrait. He was much in the 
habit of throwing a strong light and a golden tone on the face, while 
he kept the rest dark. In the Berlin Mus. is his portrait of Bianca 
Capella, and others. In the National Gall, are " Sensual Love." 
and a "Knight of S. Stephen." His most celebrated oil picture is 
the " Limbo," in the Uffizi. The larger part of his works are in 
Florence and Pisa, although there are a few of his pictures in most 
large collections in Europe. 

Brown, Mather, died 1810. A portrait painter who was well 
patronized by English families of distinction. His works are not 
above mediocrity. He sometimes painted historical subjects; one 
of these, the "Marriage of Henry VII.," was sold in 1S28 for 

Browne, John, born at Oxford, 1719. An eminent engraver 
of landscapes. He copied the works of great masters, and his plates 
were executed in a masterly manner. 

Bruges, John of. An old painter of 1371. lie was patronized 
by Charles V. of France, for whom he decorated a translation of 
the Vulgate, now in the \Vestrenen Mus. at the Ha^ue. He is 
<leM'_ r nated as "Pictor." which would indicate that he executed 
larger works, as " Illuminator " was the title used for the miniature 

Brim, Charles Le, born at Paris (1(3 19-1690). Son of a sculptor 


who was employed by Chancellor Seguier, he attracted the attention 
of that nobleman, who placed him under the instruction of Simon 
Vouet. When only fifteen ho painted his picture of " Hercules 
destroying the Horses of Diomedes." When he was twenty-two his 
patron sent him to Italy and recommended him to Nicolas Poussin. 
He spent six years in Italy and returned to Paris with but one com- 
petitor to fear, Le Sueur. Le Brun, from the favor of the chancellor, 
became the favorite of the court, and was employed in large and 
important public works. He was made painter to the king and 
received the Order of S. Michael. He used his opportunities for a 
good purpose; no less a one than that of persuading his patrons 
and the king to the founding of the Royal Acad. at Paris in 1648. 
His pictures of the battles, etc., of Alexander rendered him very 
famous in his own country. He was especially successful in his 
pictures of the Holy Family. He could paint a round arm, a bit 
of delicate lace, or express a dimple wonderfully well. He succeeded 
as a portrait painter. In the Louvre there are twenty-six pic- 
tures by Le Brun, including the battles of Alexander. In Notre 
Dame, his " Stoning of S. Stephen," and " Martyrdom of S. An- 

Brunelleschi, Filippo, born at Florence (1377-1446). A great 
architect. He may be called the father of the Renaissance. His 
father, Filippo Lapi, intended him for a lawyer or physician, but his 
love for mechanical pursuits was so great that he was placed with a 
goldsmith. He gradually came to be an architect, and was the first 
Florentine who applied geometrical rules to that branch of art, 
according to the usage of the ancient Greeks. Masaccio and Bene- 
detto da Majano profited by his example in the application of the 
rules of perspective to their pictures and mosaics. It is said that 
Brunelleschi spent much time in Rome studying the remains of 
ancient architecture and making drawings from them. In 1420 
the Signoria of Florence called together the architects of all coun- 
tries, to consider the completion of the dome of the Cathedral. Bru- 
nelleschi presented himself, armed with well-digested plans, and, 
although sneered at, and opposed, the work was at length committed 
to him. He completed it, and, in spite of great trials and hindrances 
of every possible kind, he produced one of the greatest and boldest 
masterpieces of the world in any age. The ch. of S. Lorenzo (1425) 
is a specimen of his designs, where he commenced from the begin- 
ning: and the Capella Pazzi, in the courts of Santa Croce, is a proof of 
his ability to design the graceful and elegant. The Badia of Fiesole, 
and the Hospital of the Innocenti, are also fine. In secular archi- 
tecture he excelled, as may be seen in the Palazzo Pitti, which has 
not been surpassed, but has served as a model to the present day. 
Grimm says: "As an architect, he was not exactly the originator of 
the new style which supplanted the Gothic ; but he was certainly the 


master who, by his great power, stamped its superiority as a fact." 
Brunelleschi was also a sculptor and a worker in bronze. It is said 
that at one time Donatello had made a crucifix for the ch. of Santa 
Crocc with great care, and yet, when he showed it to Brunelleschi, 
the latter did not express his admiration. Donatello bcgir-'d him to 
tell him his real thought of it. Bruncllochi replied that the figure on 
the cross was like a day-laborer, whereas Christ was of the greatest 
possible beauty. Donatello answered: " It is easier to criticise than 
to execute; do you take a piece of wood and make a better crucifix." 
Brunelleschi proceeded to the work, and when it was done invited 
Donatello to dine with him. He had placed the crucifix in a con- 
spicuous place in his house, and after buying various eatables he 
gave them to Donatello, and asked him to go on to his house, where 
he would soon join him. When Donatello entered he saw the 
carving, and was so overcome with admiration that he allowed the 
parcels of eggs, cheese, etc., to fall on the floor. When Brunelleschi 
came and found him still standing before it he said: "Yon have 
spoiled everything; on what are we now to dine? " " I." answered 
Donatello, "have had quite dinner enough for this day. You, per- 
haps, may dine with better appetite. To you, I confess, belongs 
the power of carving the figure of Christ; to me, that of represent ing 
day-laborers." This crucifix is now on the altar in the Chapel of 
the OJondi. 

Brussel, Paul Theodore Van, born at Zuid, Polsbrock ; died 
early in the present century. One of the best fruit and flower 
painters of his time. He studied under Jean Augustine and II. 
Meyer, and was first employed in a tapestry manufactory. His 
latest works are much the best, and are found in the finest, collec- 

Bruyn or Bruin, Abraham, born 
at Antwerp. 1">I<>. An engraver, 
I A j and one of the little masters. His 

portraits and small friezes of hunting and hawking are his best works, 
and are esteemed for their neatness. He worked with the graver 

Bruyn or Bruin, Nicholas, born at Ant- 

|\.t< /\ [ L/\ werp, l.">7(). Son of the preceding, under 

1 XlX 1 W> \JJ whom lie studied. He is an imitator of 
Lucas von Leyden. His plates possess con- 
siderable merit for the times in which he worked. 

Bruyn, Bartholomew de, flourished at Cologne from l.VJo to 
1 .')<;<>. Hi' executed the wings of the lar^e shrine on the hi^h-altar 
of the ch. at Xanten in !.">:! I. His portraits, No. .~>ss, Berlin Mns.. 
and one in the Cologne Mils., painted I."). 1 ;."), so much resemble those 
of Holbein as to be. generally attributed to him. Xos. 1 1_>, I l.'l, and 
114, Munich Gall., representing the "Descent from the Cross,' 3 


with wings, is a good work. Berlin Mus., No. 639, is a work of his 
later time, in which he deteriorated; it is a "Madonna and Child," 
adored by the Duke of Cleves. He attempted in his last works 
to adopt an Italian style, greatly to his disadvantage. Some of these 
pictures are in the Cologne and Munich galleries, and are often 
attributed to Martin Van Hemskcrk. 

Bry or Brie, Theodore de, born at Liege, 1528 ; died at Frank- 
fort, 1598. An eminent engraver. He imitated Sebald Beham. 
He worked almost entirely with the graver. His style was neat and 
free, and especially suited to subjects in which there are many 
figures, such as he frequently chose. He gave great spirit and ex- 
pression to his heads. He engraved the plates for the first four 
volumes of Boissard's "Roman Antiquities;" the two others were 
finished by his sons, John Theodore and John Israel. In Frankfort 
Bry was a print and book seller. 

Bucklaer, Joachim, flourished 1550-1570. Pupil of Pieter Aerts- 
zen. whom he imitated closely. His kitchen and market scenes were 
very popular. " Christ before Pilate," No. 78, Munich Gall., is by 

Buffalmacco, real name Buonamico Christofani. Vasari says he 
was born in 1262 and died in 1340; that he was a pupil of Andrea 
Tafi : and Ghiberti bears out his statement that he was an excellent 
painter and able to outdo all others when he set his mind to it. 
Vasari' s account of him is very interesting. He seems to have been 
rlu- wit and practical joker among the artists of his day. His fame 
has outlasted his works, for it is a matter of great doubt if any of 
these remain. Kugler says his existence is doubtful, and his life by 
Vasari a mere tissue of whimsical stories. Lord Lindsay, in his 
' Sketches of the History of Christian Art," says: " A merry wag, 
a careless spendthrift, living for the day without a thought of the 
morrow, and (as the phrase is) ' nobody's enemy but his own,' he 
drained the cup of pleasure to the lees and found misery at the bot- 
tom, dying, at the age of seventy-eight, a beggar, in the Misericordia, 
without a paul in his pocket to buy a coffin for his corpse or a 
mass for his soul, the type and mirror of a whole class of artists, 
whose follies and vagaries throw discredit on genius, while a certain 
kindliness of heart renders it impossible not to pity while we blame 

Bugiardini, Giuliano, born near Florence (1471-1554). Pupil 
of Mariotto Albertinelli. Michael Angelo formed a friendship for 
him in the gardens of S. Marco, and he is one of those whom the 
groat master attempted to employ as assistants in the Sistinc Chapel. 
Bogiardini worked so long in an humble capacity, copying the 
drawings of others on panels, that Avhen he came to work indepen- 
dently his powers of composition were dwarfed, and he could only 
master the simplest subjects. He sometimes seemed to imitate 


Leonardo. His portraits were as good as any of his works, and it is 
said Michael Angelo once sat to him. The. Portrait is supposed 
to be in the Louvre, No. 526. Many of his works remain. The fol- 
lowing are some of them: Uffizi, No. 220; Leipzig Mas.. Xo. 143; 
Bologna Pinacoteca, No. 26; Berlin Mus., Nos. 248 and 28.3, etc. 
There are many of his panels in Bologna; in the Colonna Pal., 
Rome, there arc some, and a few in England, besides many in Italy 
not mentioned. 

Bolster, Philip, born at Brussels (1595-1688). After studying 
in his native city he went to Paris, where he was somewhat distin- 
guished. He executed several sculptures for the park at Versailles. 
and the tomb of Cardinal De Rochefoucauld. This last was his 
principal work, and has been placed in the Musee des Monuments 

Bullinger, John Balthasar, born at Zurich (1713-1793). Pupil 
of John Simler, and later at Venice he studied with Tiepolo. He 
became an eminent landscape painter. He spent some time in Am- 
sterdam, and studied the best works there. He also executed several 
plates of considerable merit. 

Bunel, Jacques, born at Blois, 1558. Studied under Federigo 
Zucchero at Rome. One of the best French painters of his time. 
Some of his best works were for the churches of Paris. 

Buonacorsi. See Vaga. 

Buonamici. See Tassi. 

Buonarotti, Michael Angelo, born in the castle of Caprese, 
March 6, 1475. His father was Ludovico Buonarotti, and his homo 
was in Florence, but at the time of the birth of this son he held the 
office of podesta or governor of the towns of Caprese and Chiusi. 
His mother, also of good family, was called Francesca; and his 
grandmother, so well known as Madonna Alexandra, was still living 
at the time of his birth. When Ludovico Buonarotti returned to 
Florence, the child, Michael Angelo, was left at Sctiignano, upon 
an estate belonging to his family. His nurse was the wife of a stone- 
mason, and, for many years, pictures were shown on the walls of 
the house in which he had grown up which he had drawn as soon as 
he could use his hands. At the proper age he was placed in a 
grammar-school at Florence, where he became acquainted with 
Francesco Granacci, a noble youth, five years older than himself, 
and a pupil of Ghirlandajo. (Iranacci became his most intimate 
friend. Ludovico had desired this son to be a scholar, and, to- 
gether with his uncles, harshly opposed his inclination to become an 
artist. But Michael Angelo was so determined that lie carried his 
point, and, in 1488, was engaged to the Ghirlandaji for three years. 
At this time Domenico Ghirlandajo, who was one of the liest mas- 
ters of Florence, was engaged in the restoration of the Choir of S. 
Maria Novella. Michael Angelo came, therefore, at the first, into 


the midst of great work. One day at the dinner hour Michael 
Angelo drew a picture of the scaffolding and all that belonged to it, 
with the painters at work on it. When Domenico saw the paper 
he was so astonished that he exclaimed, " He understands more than 
1 do myself." His rapid progress soon excited the jealousy, not 
only of his fellow-pupils, but of Ghirlandajo himself. Michael 
Angelo's first picture was an enlarged copy of Schongauer's plate 
of the " Temptation of S. Anthony." This plate is well known. In 
order to perfect himself in the representation of the fishy parts he 
constantly visited the fish-market, and made drawings there. He 
produced an excellent work, of which Ghirlandajo claimed the 
merit, as it was painted in his atelier. This picture is said to still 
exist in the Gall, of the Bianconi family at Bologna. Others believe 
that it is in the possession of M. de Triqueti, at Paris. The scholar 
soon proved that he knew more than his master, for it was the cus- 
tom for the pupils to copy the drawings which Ghirlandajo had made. 
Michael Angelo, one day, took one of these from the hands of a 
fellow-pupil, and with thick strokes corrected the lines of the master, 
in a manner which could not be objected to; after this he was 
refused the plates when he asked for them. About this time Michael 
Angelo made the acquaintance of Lorenzo del Medici, then at the 
head of the government in Florence, and admittance was soon 
obtained for himself and Granacci to the gardens of S. Marco. In 
these gardens the art-treasures of the Medici were placed. There 
works of sculpture were arranged, and cartoons and pictures were 
hung, in buildings erected for the purpose. Numbers of young 
people were instructed there, and the old sculptor Bertoldo was their 
master. Michael Angelo's attention was now diverted from painting, 
and, making friends with the stone-masons, he obtained a piece of 
marble and some instruments. He first copied the mask of a Faun, 
but did not adhere closely to the original, for he opened its mouth 
so much, that the teeth could be seen. When Lorenzo visited the 
garden he praised Michael Angelo, but he also said, " You have made 
your Faun so old, and yet you have left him all his teeth ; you should 
have known that, at such an advanced age, there are generally some 
wanting." The next time he came, he found a gap in the teeth of 
the Faun, so well done that he was delighted with the work. (Now 
in the Uffizi Gall.) He sent immediately for the father of Michael 
Angelo. Ludovico, who had felt it a sufficient trial that his son 
would be a painter, was in despair at the thought that he might 
become a stone-mason. He refused to see the Duke. Granacci at 
length prevailed upon him to go to Lorenzo, but it was with the 
determination to agree to nothing. The manner of Lorenzo soon 
overcame him, and he returned home declaring that not only his 
son, but he himself, and all that he had, was at the service of the 
Duke. Michael Angelo was at once taken into the palace ; he was 


properly clothed, and had an allowance of five ducats a month for 
pocket-money. It was the custom of the Duke to give each day ;;n 
entertainment. lie himself took the head of the table. Whoever 
came first sat next him, and it often happened that Michael Angelo 
had this place. He was beloved by all the household, and Lorenzo 
often sent for him to show him stones, coins, and other valuable 
things, and to talk with him of his own studies. Poliziano also 
advised him, and gave him the marble for his bas-relief of the 
'Battle of Hercules with the Centaurs." This work surprised 
every one, and is still to be seen in the palace of the Buonarotti 
family. Bertoldo, for his part, instructed him in casting in bronze. 
He executed a "Madonna" in the style of Donatello, and made 
drawings in the Brancacci chapel after the works of Filippo Lippi. 
Life in Florence, at this time, was almost the perfection of life. 
" Whatever great things happened in the world were known, dis- 
cussed, and estimated there. What was indifferent was crushed 
under the abundance of what was excellent. Excellence itself was 
not blindly accepted according to outward signs, but it was tested 
by understanding before it was admired. Stirring social life mingled 
uninterruptedly with the most serious tasks, and, as a wholesome 
contrast to the sweetness of this existence, came the keen, critical 
judgment of the Florentine public, who allowed themselves neither 
to be deceived nor bribed in matters of culture. This state of societv 
was only to be met with in Florence, and chained the Florentines 
to their native city, where alone they found the true, healthful recog- 
nition of their own refined minds.'' Loren/o was the head of 
Florence, and Florence the head of art, poetry, philosophy, and 
religious movements. Thus, in the house of the Medici, Michael 
Angelo, when his mind was pliant, and his character still to In- 
formed, received an education than which, for an artist, none could 
have been better: and, at that time, among the Romanic nations. 
young people were free from the embarrassment which often attends 
that age, and were accustomed to conduct themselves with ease 
under all circumstances, knowing nothing of the awkward, silent 
manner of the youth of more northern nations. The morals of 
Florentine society were as low as its cultivation was high, and in the 
same year in which Michael Angelo was admitted to the palace. 
Savonarola came to preach his crusade against the crimes of this 
wonderful city, and in the Lent of 1 192 Loren/o became suddenly 
ill. It was at this time that the eflect of the preaching of Savonarola 
had reached its height, and even the great Duke felt that lie could 
not die until he had seen this mighty preacher. It is probable, that 
Michael Angelo was one of those who surrounded the bed of Loren/o 
in his last hours. lie was astounded by the death of his patron. 
He left the palace and arranged an atelier for himself in his father's 
house. At this time he executed a " Hercules " which is now lost. 


After a time he was taken again by Piero Medici into the palace, 
his old rooms were assigned to him, and he was received at his table. 
But Florence was no longer what it had been, and before long 
Michael Angelo, in the midst of political troubles, made his escape 
to Venice. There he met Gianfrancesco Aldovrandi, the head of a 
noble house of Bologna, who. when he heard that Michael Angelo 
was a sculptor, invited him to that city, lie remained there nearly 
a year, during which time he executed the figures on a sarcophagus 
which contains the bones of S. Domenico in the ch. of S. Petronio. 
Tliis commission, given to a foreign artist, but twenty years of age, 
so aroused the hatred of the Bolognese artists, that they threatened 
vengeance on him. Michael Angelo returned to Florence. Dur- 
ing his absence everything had been changed. The name of the 
Medici was only heard coupled with curses. The pictures and 
statues of the garden of S. Marco had been scattered over the world. 
Many artists had left, and those who remained were struggling to 
decide whether their exquisite works were the results of a God-given 
genius or of the power of the Devil. Michael Angelo was depressed 
by all this, but Florence was his home. He prepared to remain 
there, and again found a Medici, called Lorenzo also, who became 
his patron. He was one who, having been persecuted by Piero, had 
fled to France, and returned in the train of Charles VIII. Condivi 
says that at this time Michael Angelo worked upon some statues 
for Lorenzo, and also executed for himself a Cupid in marble. 
This statue led him in an unexpected manner to Rome, for, when it 
was finished, Lorenzo advised him to give it the appearance of an 
antique, and said he would himself send it to Rome, and obtain a 
large price for it. Michael Angelo did this and received thirty 
ducats. The secret of its origin, however, was not kept. The 
Cardinal who had purchased it sent a nobleman of his household 
to Florence, to investigate the matter. This man pretended to be 
in need of a sculptor, and invited Michael Angelo, among others, to 
visit him. He came, and when asked what work he had done, 
enumerated among others a " Sleeping Cupid." It was now ex- 
plained to him that in place of the thirty ducats which he had 
received, the Cardinal had paid two hundred for the work. 
Finding himself deceived, as well as a deceiver, he went with the 
nobleman to Rome. The latter promised to receive him into his 
own house, and assured him that he would find a large field for his 
labor, and one in which much money could be obtained. The oldest 
writing in the hand of Michael Angelo is the letter which he wrote 
to inform Lorenzo del Medici of his arrival in Rome. At this time 
he was twenty-one years old. In this letter he speaks of the beau- 
tiful things he has seen, but what these were we can scarcely tell, 
for the Rome of that day was not the city which we know. The 
first important work which he executed in Rome was the statue of 


the " Drunken Bacchus," now in the Uffizi Gall. It was executed 
for Jacopo Galli, for whom he also made the Cupid now in the 
Kensington Mus. But the work by which he passed from the 
standing of a good artist, to that of the most famous sculptor in 
Italy, was "La Pietk. " It is almost impossible to judge of this 
where it now stands, in a chapel of S. Peter's. It is placed so high, 
and the light is so bad, that no satisfactory judgment of it can In- 
formed. But Condivi says that from the time it was fini.-hed lie 
was the first master in the world. This was done when he was 
twenty-four years old. In the same year, or the following one, he 
returned to Florence. During his absence other great changes had 
taken place. Florence had joined with Venice, and matters seemed 
to be prosperous. Michael Angelo's first work after his return was 
a ' Madonna," now in the ch. of Notre Dame at Bruges. It is life 
size, and one of his finest works. Another work of this period is a 
painting now in the Tribune at Florence, representing the " Holy 
Family." There was in Florence, at this time, an immense block 
of marble, which had been intended for a statue of a Prophet, to 
be placed outside the dome of S. Maria del Fiore. It had lain 
many years in the court-yard of the work-shops of the Cathedral. 
It had been offered to Donatello, but neither he nor any other 
sculptor had wished to undertake to make anything of it. Now 
Sansovino, lately returned from Portugal to Florence, desired to 
have this marble, and intended to join other pieces to it. The 
consuls would not consent until they had asked Michael Angelo if 
he would not make something good out of the block. He had just 
undertaken to execute fifteen marble statues for the funeral vault 
of the Piccolomini family in Siena. But when he saw the magnifi- 
cent block at Florence he left the work for Siena, and declared him- 
self ready to undertake it without any addition. Accordingly the 
order was issued on the 16th of August, 1501. He was allowed two 
years for his work, and was to receive six gold florins a month, 
while the additional sum to be paid was left to the decision of those 
who had ordered the statue when it should be finished. On Mon- 
day the 13th of September, furnished with a little wax model which 
he had moulded, now in the Uffizi, very early in the morning, lie 
commenced his work. From first to last he executed the entire 
work, and in February, 1503, it was half completed. In the 
mean time another important political movement had taken place, 
which had thrown another work in the hands of Michael Angelo, 
for the Kepublie had received additional favors from France, on 
account of which they felt obliged to comply with the request of 
the Duke de Nemours, to have a bronze copy of the " David," by 
Donatello, which stood in the court of the Palace of the Government, 
and in the summer of 1502, Michael Angelo undertook the work. 
One hindrance after another prevented its completion for years, and 


when it was finished it was presented to another French noble, and 
at the present day nothing is known of it. In the spring of 1503 he 
also contracted with the consuls of the wool-weavers guild for twelve 
Apostles, each eight and a half feet high. It had been found by 
this time that the master was not to be depended on, in regard to 
the time when his work should be finished. Therefore it was stipu- 
lated that one Apostle should be finished every year; that he should 
go himself to Carrara and choose the blocks, at the expense of the 
consuls; and that the price to be paid for the statue should be 
settled by arbitration. They also completed an atelier especially 
for him ; and on the completion of each statue he was to receive a 
twelfth part of this house; so that, when the whole were done, it 
should fall entirely into his possession. Although no contract could 
have been more promising, nothing was ever accomplished but the 
coarse sketch of Matthias, now in the court of the Acad. in Florence. 
With regard to the " David, ",he was enthusiastic, and so devoted to 
his work, that at the beginning of 1504 it was done. A meeting 
was called of the first artists of Florence, to consider where it 
should be placed. They met in the atelier before the statue, un- 
veiled for the first time. After much discussion, it was decided that 
the statue should stand wherever Michael Angelo himself desired. 
He chose the place next the gate of the palace, where the " Judith " 
of Donatello then stood. The statue weighed 18,000 pounds. The 
scaffolding to remove it was devised by Cronaca, and consisted of 
a wooden frame-work within which the statue was suspended. The 
whole thing was laid upon oiled beams and drawn along by pulleys. 
On the 14th of May, at evening, the wall of the atelier was broken 
down, and the statue drawn into the open air. It took three days 
to move it, and during the night a watch was required, because 
stones were thrown at it, and there seemed to be a determination to 
destroy the work. Even the watch was attacked, and eight persons 
were arrested and thrown into prison. On the 18th of May it was 
successfully lodged in its place. The question of its removal has 
sometimes arisen because it has been thought that it should be pre- 
served by having a roof over it. But the Florentines consider it a 
good genius of their city, and would regard its removal as an evil 
omen. Grimm says, " The erection of this David was like an occur- 
rence in nature from which people are accustomed to reckon. We 
find events dated so many years after the erection of the Giant. It 
was mentioned in records in which there was not a line besides respect- 
ing art." At this time the rivalry between Michael Angelo and Leo- 
nardo da Vinci commenced. Nothing could be more dissimilar than 
these two men. Michael Angelo was so temperate that he truly 
said of himself in his old age, " Rich as I am, I have always lived 
like a poor man." Leonardo loved to surround himself with lux- 
ury. Michael Angelo was bitter, ironical, and inclined to solitude. 


Although unwilling to injure the feelings of others, and even gentle 
in some aspects of his character, he was determined to be acknowl- 
edged as the first where he felt it to be due to him. and in matters of 
art would allow none to interfere with his rights. Leonardo loved 
admiration, and kept a retinue of flatterers about him. He was not 
less self-willed, but seemed to play with his talents, and to seek for 
something which would entice him to exert his powers. In personal 
appearance Leonardo was very handsome. His fine and expressive 
eyes and magnificent beard gave him an imposing presence. The 
head of Michael Angelo was broad, with projecting forehead, while 
the lower part of his face seemed too small for the upper portion. 
His eyes were small and light, and his nose, which hail been crushed 
bv Torri<nano in the garde us of the Medici, seriouslv disfigured him. 


It has been said concerning this occurrence that Michael Angelo 
provoked him, but others regarded it as the result of mere envy. 
Torrigiano fled from Florence, for Michael Angelo was carried home 
for dead. In February, 1504, Leonardo had received the order to 
paint one wall of the hall of the Consiglio Grande. In spite of the 
fact that he had painted almost nothing. Michael Angelo deter- 
mined to compete with Leonardo, and secure the commission for the 
second wall. It was in this year that Raphael, attracted, it is >aid, 
by what he had heard of Leonardo and Michael Angelo, came to 
Florence. Thus the three greatest artists of modern times were, 
met together. Rooms were assigned to Michael Angelo and Leo- 
nardo in which to prepare their cartoons, but in the midst of his 
work, the former Avas summoned by Julius II. to Rome. This was 
probably at the beginning of 1505. The Pope's attention had been 
called to Michael Angelo by Giuliano di Sangallo. But although he 
had commanded him with haste, it was some time before Julius gave 
him his first commission. This was for a colossal mausoleum to be 
built for himself. Michael Angelo sketched a design. Julius ap- 
proved it, and the Pope commanded him to select a place for its 
erection in the Basilica of S. Peter. A new Tribune bad been com- 
menced, and he advised that it should be finished and the monument 
placed within it. The order was given to Sangallo. and Michael 
Angelo sent to Carrara to secure the marble for his great work. 
After many difficulties the marble was brought to the square and 
the whole city was amazed at the blocks. The Pope was delighted, 
and had a passage made by which he could pass from the palace to 
the atelier of the sculptor without bein^ seen. Just at this time, in 
1506, the "Laocoon" was found and occupied the minds of all Home. 
Michael Angelo was now considered the first sculptor in Home, and 
other artists be^an to be jealous of him. During his second absence 
in Carrara. Bramante influenced the I 'ope against him. and declared 
it to be an evil omen for him to build his tomb while living. It had 
been the custom for Michael Angelo to be admitted, unannounced, 


to the Pope at any time. He now found a change. His new marble 
had arrived, also the workmen whom he had hired in Florence. The 
Pope urged him no longer, neither would he give him money which 
he greatly needed. The master determined to understand matters, 
and to enter the palace. He was refused admission, and told by the 
servant that he had express commands that he should not come in. 
He went home, and wrote thus to the Pope: " Most Holy Father, I 
was this morning driven from the palace by the order of your Holi- 
ness. If you require me in future, you can seek me elsewhere than 
in Rome." He gave this letter to the cup-bearer of the Pope. He 
commanded one of his workmen to find a Jew to sell all he possessed, 
and to follow him with the money to Florence, while he mounted his 
horse, and rode without stopping until he was on Florentine ground. 
The Pope sent quickly for him, and commanded that he should be 
brought back by force. But he was a Florentine citizen, and he 
threatened to have the messengers slaughtered if they touched him. 
They used every means to induce him to return, but he replied that 
he would neither return then, nor ever; that he had not deserved to 
be treated as a criminal; that he considered himself released from 
his former engagements with his Holiness, and that he would make 
no others. When he reached Florence he returned to his work upon 
the cartoon. The Pope immediately wrote to the Signiory, urginn- 
the return of Michael Angelo, and promising that he should be 
received into full favor. But the master doubted the truth of the 
Pope, and waited until another letter came. Then the gonfalonier 
sent for him and insisted that he should return to Rome, saying, 
" You have treated the Pope in a manner such as the King of France 
would not have done," and declaring that they would not risk a war, 
and the safety of the state, on his account. Michael Angelo, mean- 
time, had received offers from the Sultan to go to Constantinople, 
and was inclined to accept. A third letter came from Julius, and at 
last it was arranged that lie should go in the capacity of an am- 
bassador, for then he would be protected by the Florentine Republic. 
Just at this time, however, Julius left Rome to begin a war, during 
which Michael Angelo completed his cartoon in Florence. Tt was 
the well-known representation of the "Bathing Soldiers," and fur- 
nished studies for a generation of artists, although it was never 
painted. There is, at the present day, but a small copy; and an 
engraving, by Marc Anton, giving a group of the figures; and another, 
by Agostino Veneziano, representing a still larger part of the whole. 
As for Leonardo's painting, it had perished before it was finished, 
for he had used oils, instead of painting alfresco. He had disagreed 
regarding the price that should be paid him, and had entered the 
service of the King of France. Michael Angelo remained victor in 
this conflict. In November, 1506, upon the taking of Bologna, there 
came a letter requesting that Michael Angelo should be sent at once 


to the Pope. Arriving at Bologna, he went first to the ch. of S. 
Petronio, to hear mass. A servant of the Pope recognized him and 
took him immediately to his Holiness. Julius \v;is at table. I nit, 
ordered that he should be admitted. When he saw him he could not 
entirely control his anger, and said, harshly, " You have waited thus 
long, it seems, till we should ourselves come to seek you." Michael 
Angelo kneeled down and begged his pardon, but added that he had 
remained away from no evil intention, but because he had hern 
offended. Julius looked doubtful, and one of tluj ecclesiastics, fear- 
ing the result, interposed. He said the Pope must not jud^e the 
artist too severely, for that he was, like all of his profession, a man 
of no education, and ignorant of everything excepting art. 'Ilie Pope 
now turned furiously upon him, exclaiming, " Do you venture to say 
things to this man which I would not have said to him myself ? 
You are yourself a man of no education, a miserable fellow, and this 
he is not; out of my sight with your awkwardness." The poor man 
was so stunned that the servants were obliged to carry him from the 
hall, and the anger of the Pope being satisfied, he beckoned gra- 
ciously to Michael Angelo, and commanded him not to leave Bologna 
without his instructions. He soon gave him an order for a colossal 
statue in bronze to be erected in Bologna. Some of the letters which 
he wrote at this time, now in the British Mus., give much informa- 
tion regarding his life. He seems to be the centre of his family, to 
be depended upon for advice, and the upholder of all the others. 
He said his dwelling was mean, and had but a single bed in it, in 
which four people slept. In February, 1~><>7, the Pope saw the. 
model and approved it. It was at this time that he left Bologna for 
Home. The first cast of the Mat ne failed, and it was not ready to 
be placed in its position, before the portal of S. Petronio, until the 
21st of February, 1508. The Pope was represented in a sitting 
attitude three times as large as life; the ri<j;ht hand was raised, and 
in the left were the keys of S. Peter. The work being finished, 
Michael Angelo returned to Florence. In considering his more 
private life, he seems to have been especially alone. Other artists 
shunned him, not only from jealousy, but because they disliked his 
reproofs. He asked the son of Francia. a beautiful boy, to tell his 
father that his living figures succeeded better than those he put in 
his pictures. One reason for this severity was. that he so exalted the 
mission of an artist, and so faithfully adhered to his idea of duty, 
that he despised those who accepted an order for what they could 
not worthily fulfil. He assisted mo.-t cordially those who claimed his 
help, and it is possible that, he wounded, without intending it, those 
whom he considered unfaithful in their art. At Florence he had 
much to do : the cartoon should be painted, the bron/e " David," and 
the " Apostles" finished, and it was desired that he should make a 
colossal statue for the square, before the Palace of the Government. 


But Julius summoned him to Rome in March, 1508, and insisted 
that he should paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. The task did 
not please him. He said he had painted nothing in colors, and must 
have other work. But the Pope only became more obstinate* and the 
master undertook the work. The first difficulty to be overcome was 
the arrangement of a scaffolding. This was done by Michael Angelo 
'himself, and then came another obstacle, in the choice of assistants. 
After some time he selected a half dozen, and commenced his work. 
He soon found that he could not employ them. He had not the 
heart to tell them so, and so he went suddenly away, and when they 
came to work they found the chapel closed. They understood what 
he meant, and returned to Florence. He destroyed all they had 
done, and for the future arranged that no one but his color-grinder 
and the Pope should come upon the scaffolding. Julius soon became 
impatient, and tormented him with his haste. Between the spring 
and autumn of 1509, half the ceiling was completed. The Pope 
insisted that the scaffolding should come down, and what was done 
should be shown to the Romans. In order to ascend the scaffolding 

O ' 

the Pope was obliged to climb on ladders, and to take the hand of 
the artist for the last step. He came one day and said, "When 
will you come to an end?" " When I can," replied the master. 
" You seem indeed desirous," thundered the Pope, "that I should 
have you thrown down from this scaffolding." The master took 
(he hint, and consented that his work should be shown. Even in 
the dust which filled the chapel, when the beams were removed, the 
Pope remained, admiring the work; and on All Saint's Day the 
whole of Rome crowded there to gaze upon the painting which had 
grown like magic. The ceiling of this chapel may be called the 
beginning of modern painting. Before this, arched ceilings had 
been divided into different compartments, but Michael Angelo ig- 
nored the dome; arranged his pictures as if the space were open 
above, and built an architecture out into the air, all by means of 
perspective delusion; and united the imaginary walls, to which he 
had given a magnificent cornice, by airy arches, extending from one 
marble breastwork to another. The spaces between the arches were 
filled with paintings drawn in perspective. The figures, which only 
serve to decorate the architectural part of the painting, are almost 
endless. Colossal slaves are seated by the arches at the edge of the 
cornice; bronze medallions appear inserted in the marble; figures 
like caryatides seem to support the edge of the cornice, etc. There 
is not a spot left unpainted. To describe the paintings, or even to 
enumerate their subjects, would require more space than we can 
allow ourselves. The Creation of the World, of Adam and Eve, 
the Expulsion from Paradise, the Sacrifices of Cain and Abel, the 
Deluge, Sibyls and Prophets, the Death of Hainan, the Serpent in 
the Wilderness, the Death of Goliath, and Judith and Holofernes, 



are but a part of the subjects represented. At this time Michael 

Angelo stood alum; in 
Rome. Raphael was also 
painting in the Vatican, 
and they appeared as 
the heads of parties. 
The Pope was on the side 
of Michael Angelo; the 
artists flocked around 
Raphael. The ditler- 
ence between these two 
masters was as <rreat as 
that 1 iet ween Leonardo 
and Michael Angelo. 
We can only think of 
Raphael as young, beau- 
tiful, and happy, with 
an inexhaustible power 
enabling him to work 
always; a power ap- 
parently unaffected by 
change of time or cir- 
cumstance. Michael An- 
gelo, on the other hand. 
was animated or re- 
tarded by the course of 
events. He could not 
forget the interests of 


From the Sistine Chapel. 

his family or those of 
his country; and if his 
life is considered in its whole, he seems involved in everything of 
importance that occurred about him: while the life of Raphael can 
be told as a separate tale, scarcely including any but himself, and 
the mistress whom he loved. Yet we know that the works which 
Raphael produced in Rome are wonderfully above his former ones. 
May not the fact that here he was opposed to Michael An'.rr!o have 
developed his strength to the utmost ? Branianle, too. now appeared 
as an opponent of Michael Angelo. and there were many attempts 
made to dislodge the great master from his favor with the Pope, and 
his employment in the Sistine Chapel. lie now began the paintings 
of the second half, which were the most magnificent of his works. 
When the Pope had insisted upon removing the scaffolding, the pic- 
tures lacked retouching and gold. Julius now wished these wants to 
be supplied, but Michael Angelo dissuaded him from this, from his 
anxiety to commence his new works at once. " But it looks so poor," 
objected Julius. "They are only poor people," replied Michael 


Angelo, " whom I have painted there, and did not wear gold on their 
garments." This satisfied the Pope, who urged him on as of old, and 
would not allow him to go to Florence, although his presence was 
necessary there. His bronze " David " was finished by another sculp- 
tor, and many other affairs required his attention. At midsummer, 
1510, he insisted upon leave of absence. The Pope demanded when 
he could be ready, in that case, with his chapel. " When I can," 
replied he. "When I can! When I can!" repeated the Pope 
angrily, and struck the artist with his stick. Michael Angelo went 
home, and the Pope sent his favorite page after him with money. 
His stay in Florence was short, and after his return the painting 
went rapidly on ; and the second half of the chapel was finished in 
the same time that the first had required, only twenty months 
being given to the whole work. Grimm says, " It needed the meet- 
ing of these two men ; in the one such perseverance in requiring, and 
in the other such power of fulfilling, to produce this monument of 
human art." In 1512, another revolution took place by which Flor- 
ence came again under the dominion of the Medici. Michael Angelo 
was in Rome, but his letters show how much he and his family suf- 
fered ; and his father writes him that he is thought to be opposed to 
the Medici. His position in Rome was not a happy one. He could 
not obtain the money which the Pope owed him, and Raphael's influ- 
ence was increased, while his own was lessened. A separation 
seemed to have come between himself and the Pope, and he went for 
a time to Florence. On the 21st of February, 1513, Julius died. 
Almost immediately Michael Angelo resumed his work upon the mau- 
soleum. The Pope had mentioned this in his will, and his heirs were 
anxious that it should be completed. A new plan and contract were 
made. It was at this time that he worked upon the " Moses," and 
probably, also, upon the two chained youths now in the Mus. of the 
Louvre. For three years he worked continually at the mausoleum. 
He resided a part of this time in Florence, but he had been released 
from all his engagements there. The twelve Apostles had been dis- 
tributed among younger sculptors, and his cartoon had been mali- 
ciously destroyed in 1512. Leo X. had succeeded Julius, and the 
first matter in which he employed Michael Angelo was in the erection 
of a facade to the oh. of S. Lorenzo in Florence. This was a great 
work, and he raised many objections against undertaking it; the 
principal one being that he was bound by contract to work upon the 
mausoleum, and had already received money for it. But the Pope 
overcame all difficulties, promised to satisfy his employers, and also 
to allow him to go on with the mausoleum ; and, for this purpose, 
promised that the marble should be conveyed to Florence at his own 
expense, which promise was not fulfilled. During the winter of 1517- 
18, while Michael Angelo was breaking up his home in Rome, in order 
to remove to Florence, he executed a painting. It is not positively 


known what this work was, but there is good reason for bettering 
it to have been one from which Sebastian del Piombo painted the 
" Scourging of Christ," in a chapel of S. Pietro, in Montorio. On the 
25th of February, 1518, Michael Angelo was again in Carrara for 
the purpose of obtaining marble, which he needed in Florence. 
Upon his arrival he found that the contracts which he had made had 
not been carried out. He had much trouble, and at length, in order 
to show the people of Carrara that he could do without tlu-in. he 
opened quarries at Seravezza and Pietrasanta, situated on the Flor- 
entine territory. But these things involved him in great dilliculty. 
and several months after, he writes that he is tempted to leave, every- 
thing and return to Carrara, for they had called him back with as 
many entreaties as if he were Christ himself. At length he went 
and ordered his blocks sent to Florence, and afterward divided his 
time between Carrara, the new quarries, and Florence, where they 
were laying the foundation for the fa9ade. In August he bought the 
land on which to build a house. All this year he had nothing but 
trouble. In the new quarries there was much sickness, and the men 
were idle and unfaithful in every way. In October he was himself 
ill ; but at last, during the winter, he succeeded in conveying a num- 
ber of pillars and blocks to the sea-shore, to be shipped to Florence, 
when, in the spring, a command came from Rome to leave every- 
thing. The building was postponed, and no payment ! Although 
Michael Angelo complained to the Medici in this matter, the circum- 
stances by which they were surrounded compelled them to this 
course of action. For a time Michael Angelo was much disheartened. 
At last he commenced again upon the mausoleum. Card. Medici 
now wished to erect a monument to his family in the form of a 
chapel, in the ch. of S. Lorenzo. This was commenced in 1520. 
In 1520 also, Raphael died ; Leonardo had died in France a year 
before; and soon after came the sudden death of the Pope. The 
Medici had little money, and their work progressed slowly ; and 
Michael Angelo was left free for the mausoleum and some incidental 
labors. Adrian, who had succeeded Leo, did not live a year in 
the Vatican. His simplicity, and his mode of life, had not suited 
the people, and he died unlamented. Card. Medici now became 
Pope, and the building of the Sacristy was resumed, besides which 
it was resolved to erect a library of S. Lorenzo. Michael Angelo 
received fifty ducats monthly, and commenced his work upon tin- 
statues of the Dukes of Nemours and Urbino, two of the noblest 
monuments that sculpture has produced. In the spring of 1524, the 
Card, of Cortona made his entrance into Florence as regent, and 
two months later Ippolito and Alessandro, in whose name he reigned, 
followed him. In 1525, Clement VII. summoned Michael Angelo 
to Rome. The heirs of Julius II. complained of the delay in the 
completion of the mausoleum, but it was agreed that the matter 


should be left to the Pope, and he decided that, on account of his 
own need of Michael Angelo, the other work should be given up. 
Bandinelli was at this time the favorite of Clement VII. He hated 
Michael Angelo, and desired to obtain the commission for a statue to 
be placed at the gate of the Palace, opposite the " David." With the 
new Pope he succeeded, and the marble for the statue arrived at 
Florence in 1525. The citizens felt that Michael Angelo had been 
unjustly treated; and when the marble fell from the vessel into the 
Arno, a lampoon, written in rhyme, was circulated, in which it was 
said that the marble, sorry to have been taken from Michael Angelo, 
would have drowned itself in order to escape Bandinelli. The dis- 
grace was all the greater when we consider that Bandinelli was 
nothing. Had he been a great master, the trial would have been 
lessened, both for the citizens and their sculptor. The cupola of the 
new Sacristy was completed in 1525. This year and the two following 
ones were times of great political agitation, both in Florence and 
Rome; and, at length, on the 17th of May, 1527, the Medici had 
departed from Florence, and the Consiglio Grande was to assemble 
on the following day. Michael Angelo was in Florence. Little 
progress had been made in the Sacristy, which was now, of course, 
given up. There is no doubt but Michael Angelo sat in the Consig- 
lio. Capponi was elected gonfalonier. At this time Clement was 
imprisoned in the Castle of S. Angelo. In December he obtained 
his freedom, and went to Orvieto, where he opened negotiations with 
Capponi. Little is known of Michael Angelo at this time ; but in 
August, 1527, the new government transferred the block of marble 
to him. With the year 1529, a fierce strife of parties began in Flor- 
ence. Capponi was forbidden by the state to communicate with the 
Medici. It was discovered that he did so, and his office was imme- 
diately taken from him. Carducci was appointed in his place. In 
1529, Michael Angelo was appointed superintendent of the fortifi- 
cations of Florence and the Florentine territory, and the govern- 
ment of Carducci demanded an activity that his power for labor 
could scarcely satisfy. He first turned his attention to the fortifica- 
tion of S. Miniato, and the works went on with wonderful rapidity. 
Pisa. Livorno, Cortona, and Arezzo were to be made defensible, and 
in the early part of 1529 Michael Angelo was sometimes in Florence, 
and sometimes in these other cities. Ferrara was at this time the 
real military state in Italy, and its duke was regarded as the best 
soldier and politician of the time. Michael Angelo was sent by the 
government to confer with him, and to see the fortifications, and 
arrived at Ferrara the 2d of August. He remained more than a 
week, and was awaited at Florence with great anxiety. During his 
absence tidings arrived of the peace at Cambray, and it was plain 
that Florence must now depend upon herself alone. On the 8th of 
September Michael Angelo had been required to give his advice at 


Arezzo. He soon after this became suspicious of Malatesta, to 
whom the height of S. Miniato had been assigned. He wont to 
the palace to express his apprehensions* He was sun.' that Malatesta 
was a traitor. At the palace they listened with scorn, and were 
offended. Leaving it in great agitation he met a friend, Rinaldo 
Corsini, who assured him that the following day the Medici would be 
in the city. They decided to fly. They tried one gate after another 
which they found closed. At length they came to the I'orta di 
Prato. Michael Angelo gave his name as superintendent of fortifica- 
tions, and they were allowed to pass. Nothing can free him from 
reproach in this matter; but justice requires that the motives by 
which he was influenced should be considered. He saw plainly what 
must occur. He was unable to arouse those in authority to tin- 
truth. He would not witness the destruction of Florence. His aged 
father and his family depended upon him, and he must preserve his 
life. After many adventures he arrived in Venice, Corsini having 
been separated from him. It was thirty years since he had seen 
that city, and during that time its art had been perfected. The 
nobles wished to take advantage of this opportunity to retain Michael 
Angelo in Venice, but he declined. He contemplated going to 
France. While he remained, he lived quietly in a hired house. Tho 
30th of September, 1529, a proclamation of proscription was pub- 
lished in Florence against thirteen citizens, who were declared to be 
rebels unless they returned before the 6th of October. The name of 
Michael Angelo was the eighth upon the list. The great master had 
always admired Dante, and it was natural that at this time he should 
think of him. For he, too, had gone into exile, on account of politi- 
cal views. Grimm thinks that his sonnets on Dante must have been 
written at this time. I give a single quotation : 

" I speak of Dante, him whose mighty mind 
Was ill-conceived by that ungrateful race 
With whom the great no recognition find. 
Oh ! were I he, then the same fate were mine, 
His exile and his power alike to share; 
Happiest of all that earth could me assign." 

Soon letters began to come which showed him how much they 
wanted him in Florence. At length he was summoned to Ferrara. to 
meet the Florentine ambassador there, and after much negotiation, in 
the middle of November he returned once more to his native city. 
It was on this journey that, in Modena, he met Begarelli. This 
artist knew not how to use marble ; but his statues in clay were won- 
derful, and Michael Angelo is said to have exclaimed, " Alas for 
the statues of the ancients, if this clay were changed into marble ! " 
The winter which followed his return was one of fearful suffering in 
Florence. In January the supreme command was given to Malatesta 
Baglioni. The imperialists kept up a close siege, and between the 


15th of March and the 15th of April, 5,800 persons perished. Great 
scarcity prevailed. Meat almost disappeared, and sickness was in- 
creasing. Hope and fear alternately swayed the city. The history 
of the city must be the history of Michael Angelo. He was much 
occupied upon the fortifications, especially those of S. Miniato. 
There were, however, days when the danger seemed less, which he 
spent in quiet among his marbles. He took up his brush, neglected 
for nearly twenty years, and commenced the " Lcda with the Swan," 
for the Duke of Ferrara. This picture has disappeared, but engrav-. 
ings and copies remain. That in the Dresden Gall, gives a good 
idea of the design and painting. At length a gleam of hope passed 
over the city. Francesco Ferrucci appeared without the walls. He 
demanded reinforcements from Florence. They went to him, and 
from the 24th of March until the 3d of August he was engaged in 
brave attempts to deliver the city. On that day he was killed. 
Hope and courage seemed dead, and on the 8th of August, 1530, the 
freedom of Florence was ended, and the followers of the Medici 
ruled. Many of the citizens fled, others were concealed. Michael 
Angelo was among the latter. But his name was too great for any 
harm to come to him ; and at length, freedom, and the continuance 
of his old commissions were offered him, if he would come forward. 
He did so, and resumed his labors in the Sacristy. He seemed to 
endeavor to kill himself with work, and within a few months, the 
four colossal figures, which lie on the coffins at the foot of the stat- 
ues of Lorenzo and Giuliano, were placed in niches. They repre- 
sent Morning, Evening, Day, and Night ; and, although none are fin- 
ished, they have excited wonder and admiration, and are considered 
by many as the greatest works of this great man. These statues 
and those of the two Dukes seem to have been carried on equally. 
The artist was treated with consideration, and money was paid when- 
ever it was required. This expressed to him that his political past 
was to be forgotten. But he never denied his views. When the 
statue of Night was first exhibited, verses were affixed to it ac- 
cording to the custom of the tune. Among these Avas the following : 
" Night, whom you see slumbering here so charmingly, has been 
carved by an angel, in marble. She sleeps, she lives ; waken her, 
if you will not believe it, and she will speak." The word angel, here, 
referred to the Angelo of the sculptor's name. He made the statue 
reply thus : " Sleep is dear to me, and still more that I am stone, 
so long as dishonor and shame last among us ; the happiest fate is to 
see, to hear nothing ; for this reason waken me not I pray you 
speak gently." The anger expressed in these lines is as great as 
the courage, which dared thus publicly to utter them. This was 
probably written in the spring of 1531. In September, 1531, the 
first notice of Michael Angelo after the conquest of the city occurs. 
It is a letter addressed to Baccio Valori, in Rome, written by an uncle 


of Antonio Mini, who was in Michael Angelo's service. His friends 
had become alarmed, and they desired that the Pope should know 
of his situation. He was now almost sixty, and the letter pictures 
him sick and sorrowful, unable to sleep, having no appetite, and 
wilfully working in a cold, damp place. And in the midst of all 
this wretchedness he had produced his wonderful " Aurora." His 
mind was tormented, too, about the mausoleum of Julius. He had 
received money, but had not completed the work. He feared that 
he should die, and that his heirs would be entangled in a lawsuit ; 
and he begged the Pope, as well as the Duke of Urbino, that a set- 
tlement should be made. His friends and the Pope undertook to 
assist him, and he went to Rome where the matter was satisfactorily 
arranged. On the 30th of April, 1532, he returned to Florence to 
continue his work at the Sacristy : and now, for the first time, he 
employed assistants. He worked steadily until September, when he 
went again to Rome, and made the drawing, according to which the 
mausoleum was at length finished. We have no information of him 
from this time until September, 1534, when Clement VII. died. 
Michael Angelo then left his work at S. Lorenzo, never to resume 
it. He had incurred the displeasure of Alessandro, who reigned in 
Florence ; but the protection of the Pope had sufficed to preserve him 
from insult. Now Clement was dead he would return to Florence upon 
no condition. Other things in Florence had pained him. A citadel 
had been built by Antonio di San Gallo, and Bandinelli's group had 
been placed opposite the "David." Just thirty years elapsed be- 
tween the erection of the two statues, and those years may bo said to 
have witnessed the rise, progress, and early decline of Italian art. 
The world had almost ceased to reckon Michael Angelo among its 
painters, when he again entered the Sistine Chapel, and commenced 
his " Last Judgment." When first this task was proposed to him he 
declined it. After this a discussion arose between himself and Se- 
bastian del Piombo as to whether oil or fresco painting should he 
used. Michael Angelo declared oil painting was for women, and 
men should paint in fresco. Paul III., the new Pope, thoroughly 
appreciated Michael Angelo, and in his intercourse with that master 
his character appears in its best light. In 1513, when Card. Far- 
nese, the master had made for him the designs for two candelabra 
which still remain in the Sacristy of S. Peter's. When he first sent 
for the sculptor, and requested him to enter his service, he was 
told that it was impossible, on account of his engagement with the 
Duke of Urbino. The Pope answered angrily, " It is now thirty 
years that I have had this desire ; and, now that I am Pope, shall I 
not be able to effect it? Where is the contract, that I may tear it ! " 
Hut Michael Angelo remained firm, and even contemplated removing 
into the territory of Genoa, in order to escape the Pope. One day, 
Paul appeared in his atelier with eight cardinals, and desired to see 



his sketches of the " Last Judgment." The sculptor was at work on 
the " Moses," and thev declared that that one statue was sufficient 


3. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome. 


for a monument to Pope Julius. The end of all was, that the Pope 
satisfied the Duke of Urbino, and Michael Angelo began to paint the 
chapel. He worked at this six years without assistance. Of all the 
frescoes of the sixteenth century, perhaps none has suffered more 
from the ravages of time, and at the hands of men, than this paint- 
ing. Copies and engravings make it possible to imagine what was 
once there. But the overpowering effect which its first M_dit 
should produce is lost. The sentiments of the world, too, are so 
changed that such a representation cannot appeal to us as it must 
have done to those to whom Michael Angelo preached with his 
brush. In this work he gave form, and presented to the sight what 
Dante had pictured to the imagination. Like everything else which 
is symbolic, it is meaningless if we cannot supply its meaning from 
our own souls. " As we look, however, at the ' Last Judgment,' on 
the wall of the Sistine Chapel, it is no longer a similitude to us, but 
a monument to the imaginative spirit of a past age, and a strange 
people, whose ideas are no longer ours" Much of importance to 
the world occurred during the painting of this picture. The Flor- 
entines in Rome endeavored to regain their old liberty. The Refor- 
mation was at work in Germany, and a circle of distinguished men 
surrounded the Pope, and conferred unusual lustre upon the society 
of the Vatican. Among these men was Michael Angelo; not that 
he mingled constantly with them, for he gave himself no rest, but he 
knew their thoughts and hopes, and sympathized with those who 
would have brought about a reconciliation between the Lutherans 
and the Church. In 1537 or 1538, the old Ludovie died, and Mi- 
chael Angelo was shaken in his very soul by this sorrow. It was 
on this occasion that he wrote his beautiful sonnet commencing, 

"Already had I wept and sighed so much 
I thought all grief forever at an end, 
Exhalt'd in sighs, shed forth in bitter tears." 

This poem gives us an insight into the religious belief of Michael 
Angelo. He makes no reference to purgatory, but urges the grace 
of God (la f/r<t;i>i />/>/;KI), and speaks of the certainty of the perfect 
happiness of his father. This involved the question which was 
agitating the Christian world, yet in his thought he seems not to 
recoi_'ni/e the pos>ibility of a doubt. Before this, when his brother 
had died, be wrote, " Although all those sacraments which the Church 
enjoins were not administered to him, yet if lie showed true repent- 
ance and resignation to the will of God. that is sufficient for his 
eternal blessedness." At another time he wrote to his brother to 
inquire out some case where he could do good secretly: for he wished 
to do something for the welfare of his own soul, but desired that it 
should be known to no one. From all ibis the healthiness of his 
nature appears. There was no sentimentality or overstraining, but 
a -.rustful and obedient dependence upon God. The Sistine Cli;r-l 


was opened and the " Last Judgment" exposed to the view of the 
people at the Christmas festival of 1541. During the summer before 
the Inquisition had been established in Rome, and a panic had spread 
throughout Italy. Michael Angelo had given the face of the master- 
of-ceremonies to the infernal judge, Minos. The Pope jestingly said 
that he could do nothing, as even Popes could not release others from 
eternal suffering. It had been proposed to represent the Fall of the 
Angels upon the opposite wall. This was now spoken of no more, and 
soon the " Last Judgment " was abused from the pulpits. During 
the time between 1536 and 1541, Michael Angelo had been especially 
happy in the friendship of Vittoria Colonna. All his life he had loved 
children, and his poems show that he had loved women. But ho 
had kept himself so much alone that he had seemed as if he had 
wished for no friends. He was more than sixty years old when he 
met Vittoria. Descended from Fabrizio Colonna. and the widow of 
Pescara, she was equal to the first nobles in Europe. She was 
received by the Pope with great honors, and the Emperor visited 
her. Her most intimate friends were the Cardinals Pole and 
Contarina. It is not known how Michael Angelo made her acquaint- 
ance. Francesco d'Ollanda, a miniature painter, sent by the King 
of Portugal to Italy, describes two Sundays which he passed 
with Vittoria and Michael Angelo. The meeting was in the little 
church of S. Silvestro, opposite the Quirinal, on Monte Cavallo. 
The description of these meetings is of extreme interest, and presents 
the friendship of the sculptor and the lady in a charming light. 
Vittoria, though no longer young, was beautiful, cheerful, and en- 
dowed with the highest intelligence. She exercised over Michael 
Angelo a gentle authority. For the first time he experienced the 
happiness of yielding to love and respect for a woman, and there is 
little doubt that these years were the happiest of his life. But even 
she fell under the suspicion of the Inquisition, and left Rome in 1541. 
To the two following years belong the letters and poems which passed 
between herself and Michael Angelo. It is said that he wrote her so 
often that she asked him to restrict himself a little. She feared that 
he could not go to his work at a proper time in the morning if he 
wrote so much at night, and she was prevented by his letters from 
passing her evenings with the nuns in whose convent she lived. But 
one letter of hers is known, which was written to thank him for the 
design for a crucifix. He had sent it for her approbation, intending 
to execute it if it pleased her. This it did so perfectly that she de- 
clined to return it. saying that nothing more perfect had ever pre- 
sented itself to her, and with graceful tact declares ' ' I would rather 
that he who did this drawing should execute something else for me." 
The poems written by Michael Angelo to Vittoria contain most 
beautiful testimony to her influence over him. The sonnets of Vit- 
toria were at this time read by all Italy, and she was accustomed to 


send them, when written, to Michael Angelo. In the autumn of 1542 
they again met. She had been ill, her family was ruined, and not 
one remained in Rome. She withdrew to a convent when- .-lie spent 
her few remaining years. To this time her portrait by Marcello 
Venusti probably belongs. Many believe this to have been sketched 
by Michael Angelo. In 1547, she died. He was with her to the 
last, and years afterward declared, that he repented nothing so much, 
as that he had only kissed her hand, and not her forehead and 
cheeks in that last hour. The loss which he sustained can scarcely 
be conceived. He was seventy years old, liis own strength was failing, 
and he anticipated no joy but that of death. When the " Last Judg- 
ment " was completed he had desired to return to the mausoleum. But 
Paul III. would not yield him. He had added a. new chapel to the 
Vatican which was named for himself, and he was determined that 
Michael Angelo should adorn it with frescoes. The Duke of Urbino 
hated the Pope, and insisted upon his rights. But it was at length 
decided that the painting should be done. It consisted of two large 
pictures representing the " Crucifixion of Peter " and the '' Conver- 
sion of Paul." They were finished within eight or nine years. In 
the cleaning and restoration they have undergone, most of the original 
work has disappeared, and their first appearance can be best imag- 
ined from old engravings. These were his last paintings. The affair 
of the mausoleum caused him great suffering, for reports were circu- 
lated against him, and Aretino, a powerful writer of that time, ac- 
cused him of ingratitude to Pope Julius, and represented him as a 
thief and a foe to Christianity. Great as Michael Angelo was, and 
insignificant as was Aretino in comparison, this had cast a stain upon 
him of which he could not rid himself. In the year which followed 
the death of Vittoria, the hope which he had always cherished for 
the freedom of Florence was crushed. Cosmo, secure in his power, 
endeavored to induce Michael Angelo to return to Florence, and 
even offered to make him one of the forty-eight] the highest honor 
for a Florentine. He declined this with courtesy, for he remembered 
his relatives in Florence, and did not wish to injure them with the 
Duke. Ilis health continually failed, his sadness increased, and his 
poems show how the thought of Vittoria was ever with him. It would 
seem that he had done enough to render his fame above rivalry; but 
there were nearly twenty years, and much work before him. when at 
the end of 1546, he was made director of the building of S. Peter's, 
the only condition of his acceptance bein^j, that he should receive no 
salary. S. Peter's had been commenced in 1500, by Bramante, who 
had been followed by Raphael, Fra Giocondo, Giuliano di San Gallo, 
Peruzzi, and Antonio di San Gallo; and yet when Michael Angelo 
undertook the work, he was able to construct it as he pleased, and 
his plans were so far carried out that he may be considered as the real 
architect of the church. San Gallo's model, and Michael Augelo's 


plan may now be compared, for they remain almost side by side. 
Although he was its architect, he saw nothing of the S. Peter's of our 
day, for the facade, the colonnades, the obelisk and fountains have 
been added by subsequent architects. And yet he had before his 
mental eye a S. Peter's more mighty than we have seen, and one that 
was never completed. He also superintended the erection of the 
statue of Marcus Aurelius, and completed the Farnese Pal. He had 
in mind many improvements which he wished to make in Rome, but 
it would seem, as we review his life, that it had been decreed that he 
should finish nothing. lie acquired the name even among his con- 
temporaries, of ''II gran Michel Angelo," but when his unfinished 
works are compared with his original designs, how insignificant they 
appear in comparison with what he might have done. We have a 
single instance of the restoration of an antique statue by Michael 
Angelo, and it is not positively known that this was his work. It is 
credited to him only because no other could have done it. It is the 
right arm of the " Dying Gladiator." In his old age Michael Angelo 
came to be authority in Rome. He had rivals no longer. If any- 
thing important was to be undertaken his advice was sought, and his 
decision respected. He sat like a Pope, and to him the artists came 
as for a blessing. His household was small and simple. His servant 
Urbino, and a maid, served him. He dined alone, and at noon. 
Anatomy was his passion. He dissected animals of every kind, and 
was happy when a human subject could be obtained. He always had 
younor men working in his house. Condivi was one of these. In 
his old age, like a child, he formed many friendships, and Tommaso 
dei Cavalieri was especially dear to him. To him he addressed a 
flattering sonnet. Although his great works had ceased he still 
amused himself with brush and chisel. He drew a life-sized portrait 
of his young friend, and had in his atelier a marble group of Christ 
lying dead on his mother's lap, and Joseph of Arimathea standing by, 
upon which he continued to work. But he wished no one to see this, 
and when Vasari once came to him in the evening he let fall his lantern 
so that he should not see the work, and said, "lam FO old that 
death often pulls me by the coat to come to him, and some day I shall 
fall down like this lantern, and my last spark of life will be extin- 
guished." When he could not sleep he would work on this statue, 
and had a pasteboard cap in which a candle was fixed, that he 
might have a good light. But he discovered a flaw in the marble, 
and intended to break it in pieces. He gave it, instead, to one of his 
younir men. and it is now under the dome of S. Maria del Fiore 
in Florence. After his appointment to the control of S. Peter's his 
authority there was supreme. From his age his death was constantly 
expected, and there were some who anticipated succeeding him in 
his office. While Paul III. lived, the rights of Michael Angelo were 
unquestioned. The Pope died in the autumn of 1549. In the spring 


of the same year Michael Angelo had been very ill, and after his re- 
covery had devoted himself with eagerness to his office . Julius III.. 
the new Pope, projected many new works. Artists of every kind had 
full employment, Michael Angelo was wanted even where. He 
undertook no commission, but he drew designs, and was consulted 
on every plan. A new trouble arose in regard to S. Peter's. 
Under the other architects this building had been a source of wealth 
to many. Michael Angelo dismissed some and reduced the want's of 
others. He could do this the more easily because he received no pay 
himself. Paul III. once sent him a sum of money, which was imme- 
diately returned. Complaints were made against him. and at length 
Julius III. called a council and required the sculptor to defend him- 
self. Many accusations were brought, and a special one was that in 
a certain part there would be too little light. Michael Anirelo de- 
manded that those who originated the reproof should come forward. 
Two Cardinals presented themselves, to whom he said, " I intend plac- 
ing three other windows above those already there." " You never 
gave a hint of that," answered the Cardinals. - Nor was I bound 
to do so," replied the sculptor, " nor will I bind myself to give your 
lordships or any one else information of my intentions. Your office is to 
furnish money, and to take care that it is not stolen ; as regards the 
building plan, that concerns me alone." He then said to the Pope, 
" Holy Father, you know what I get for my money, and that if my 
work does not tend to the saving of my soul, I shall have expended 
time and trouble in vain upon it." Julius placed his hand on his 
shoulder and said, "Your eternal and temporal welfare shall not 
suffer from it; there is no fear of that." Thus the matter was 
ended, and while Julius lived the sculptor was not again disturbed. 
From time to time Michael Angelo was urged to return to Florence, 
and when Julius III. died, in 1555, the request was again repeated. 
One of the Cardinals whom he had so severely ascended 
the Papal chair. He at once deprived Michael Angelo of his pension, 
and sent him each month a salary, which he each month returned. 
There were plots against him, and it was reported that he had become 
childish, old, and weak. At this time the Florentine offers became 
more honorable and urgent, but he would not go. Paul IV. appears 
monstrous in history. He cared nothing for art, but he wished 8. 
Peter's church to be finished. He therefore continued Michael 
Angelo in office. When the Spaniards approached Home, his faith- 
ful Urbino had just died. It would have seemed the time for him to 
go to Florence, but instead, he went to the mountains of Spoleto. It 
was almost the first time that he had thoroughly enjoyed nature, and he 
afterwards wrote, " I have left more than half my soul there, tor truly 
there is no peace but in the woods.'' From this time he answered the 
urgent requests from Florence by saying that it would be a sin for him 
to go, that he must persevere in the work which he had begun in 


God's name. At length they ceased to urge him, and in the last year 
of his life the Duke visited him in Rome and showed his reverence for 
him. In 1558 the Pope died, and Pius IV., his successor, was be- 
sieged by new attacks upon Michael Angelo. But he listened to noth- 
ing, and restored his pension to him. He knew he should not live to 
i-ee the dome completed, and he made a model in clay, so accurate in 
its proportions, that when the dome was commenced many years later 
it was only necessary to copy it on a colossal scale. Pius IV. was a 
friend to the arts and to Michael Angelo. Paul IV. had wished to 
destroy the *' Last Judgment," and had employed Daniele da Volterra 
to cover the figures with drapery. It seems that Michael Angelo was 
asked to do the work, and had answered ironically, " That is soon 
done. The Pope has to put the world in order ; it is but a small 
trouble as regards pictures, for they keep still." When in his eight v- 
sixth year he wrote a letter to Cardinal di Carpi which proves how 
little his mind had failed. Soon after, the committee appointed to 
inspect the building dismissed a young man whom he had employed. 
Upon this he declared that he would visit the building no more. That 
was just what his enemies desired. Nanni Bigio had long wanted 
his position, and it was given him. At first Michael Angelo took the 
matter easily, but when they began to change his plans, he roused 
himself. The Pope was on the square of the Capitol. Michael 
Angelo went to him and made so much noise that they were obliged 
to take him into the palace, and the end of all was that the Pope 
issued a brief decreeing that for the future they should not depart 
from the plans of Michael Angelo in the smallest particular. This 
does not seem like the act of a dying man. At this time, too, he 
made plans and was consulted respecting important works in Florence. 
His last work in Rome was to make a church from an immense hall 
in the baths of Diocletian. A year before his death Michael Angelo 
was appointed to the honorary directorship of the Acad. of Arts iu 
Florence. In the beginning of 1564 it was apparent that his end was 
near, and on the 18th of February he died, in the ninetieth year of 
his age. He had desired that his body should be carried to Florence. 
Opposition from the Romans was feared. Funeral services were 
held in the ch. of S. Apostoli, and afterwards the coffin was con- 
veyed as merchandise out of the gates, it arrived in Florence on 
the llth of March, and was earned privately to S. Piero Magiiiore. 
The following day was Sunday. The Duke seems to have desired 
that he should be buried silently. Towards evening the artists as- 
sembled in the church, the body was covered with a black velvet pall, 
embroidered with gold, and a gold crucifix placed upon it. A pro- 
cession was formed. The older artists carried torches, and the 
younger ones took the bier upon their shoulders, and proceeded to 
Santa Croce. A rumor had spread through Florence of what was 
occurring, and a great multitude quietly followed the procession. In 


the Sacristy the coffin was opened, and though ha had been dead 
three weeks he appeared as if he had just died. The crowd became 
so great that it was impossible to close the tomb. But it was ni^ht 
and at length they were dispersed. The Duke evidently feared that a 
public funeral might create a political commotion ; but it was thirty 
years since he had left Florence, and those who stood around him 
scarcely remembered his connection with their city. In July magnili- 
cent funeral ceremonies were held. The ch. of S. Lorenzo was 
splendidly decorated, and Varchi delivered the oration. His nephew 
Leonardo had a monument erected in Santa Croce, and the Duke 
gave the marble. In the same church are the monuments of Dante, 
Alfieri, and Macchiavelli. In the court of the UfHzi his statue stands 
with those of other great Florentines, with no especial prominence. 
His house in the GUibelline Street still remains, but his paintings and 
other works are not there ; they are in the possession of his family. 
" All Italians feel that he occupies the third place by the side of 
Dante and Raphael, and forms with them a triumvirate of the greatest 
men produced by their country, a poet, a painter, and one who 
was great in all arts. Who would place a general or a statesman by 
their side as equal to them? It is art alone which marks the prime 
of nations." 


Engraver, ALBERTI, Chertibino. The Crucifixion. S Jerome 
meditating on the Crucifix; 1575. S. Andrew bearing his Cross: 
1580. Two Figures from the Last Judgment ; 1591. Charon, with 
two other Figures; 1575. Prometheus devoured by the Vulture; 
1580. The famous Pieta. 

Engraver, BARTOLOZZI, Francesco. Prometheus devoured by 
the Vulture. 

Engraver, BEATRICI, Niccolo. The Annunciation, with the 
name* of Michael Angelo and Beatrici. The Good Samaritan ; 
Hfirhele Angela, inv. The Mater Dolorosa. N. B.; Roma?; 1547. 
The Conversion of S. Paul: M. Angelo, pinx., etc. ; N. B. Tbe 
Prophet Jeremiah, with names of painter and engraver. The Last 
Judgment; 1562; in nine sheets. Ganymede, inscribed, Ganimedes 
jucenis, etc. The Fall of Phaethon. Titius devoured by a Vulture; 
Ant. Salamancha, ex. Silenus carried by Children; 2V. Beatrice, fee. 

Eiujruwr, BOXASOXI, Giulio. The Creation of E\e. The Last 
Judgment; inscribed. .Julin.t Jiniiaxoniu* Hi/none propria Michcelis 
Anfjf/1, etc. Solomon, David, and Jesse, from Sistine Chapel; Julio 
Bonasone imitando, etc. The Fall of Phaethon. Three Female 
Figures with Veils. 

C.xi'KM.Axr, Antonio. The Creation of Eve; from 
Chapel. Adam and Eve driven from Paradise. 


Engraver, CARACCI, Agostino. The Pieta, after the sculpture 
of M. Angelo. 

Engraver, CAUAGLIO or CARALIUS, Gio. Giacomo. The Carry- 
ing up of Ganymede. 

Engraver, CAVALLERIIS, Gio. Batista. The Virgin, called " The 
Silence." The Dead Christ in the Lap of the Virgin. The Con- 
version of S. Paul. The Martyrdom of S. Peter. 

Engraver, CORT, Cornelius. The two Tombs of the Medici. 

Engraver, CuxKGO, Domenico. Three Subjects from the Crea- 
tion; Sistine Chapel, engraved for the Schola Italica of G. Ham- 

J-lngraver, FULCARUS or FURCK, Sebastian. The Last Judgment. 

J^i/graver, GHISI, Giorgio. The Prophets and Sibyls of the Sis- 
tine Chapel; six large plates. The Last Judgment; ten large plates. 

Engraver, GHISI, Adamo. Dead Christ in the Lap of the Virgin, 
after celebrated sculpture of M. Angelo: 1566. 

Engraver, JODE, Gerard de. The Crucifixion; a large print in 
three sheets, marked, G. de Jade. 

Engraver, KARTARITS, Marius. The Last Judgment. 

Engracer, KILIAX, Lucas. The Pie: a. 

Engraver, Musis, Agostino de, called Agostino Veneziano. 
Hercules strangling Antaeus. 

Engraver, PEKAC, E\ienne du. The Last Judgment. The 

Engraver, POTRELLE, Jean Louis. Portrait of Michael Angelo. 

Engraver, RAIMOXDI, Marc Antonio. The Holy Family, in the 
Sistine Chapel. Adam and Eve driven from Paradise, from the 
Sistine Chapel. Hercules strangling Antaeus. 

Engracer, SCHIAVOXKTTI, Luigi. The Cartoon representing the 
Surprise of Soldiers on the banks of the Arno. 

Engraver, SERICCUS, SOYE or SYTIUS, Philip. The Virgin with 
the infant Christ sleeping; 1566. Philippua Sericcus. The Cruci- 
fixion. A Pieta. 

Engraver, STEEX, Francis van der. Michael Angelo's Dream. 

Engraver, Vico, Vicus or VlGHl, Enea. Jupiter and Leda. A 
Bacchanalian subject. 

Engraver, ZUCCHERELLI or ZCCCARELM, Francesco. Etching of 
the Statue of Victory, after the Sculpture. 

Buoni, Buono de, born at Naples; died 1465. One of the best 
painters of his time. Some of his works are still in the churches of 

Buoni, Silvestro de', lx>rn at Naples (1420-1480). Son and 
pupil of the preceding. He afterwards studied under Solario, called 
Zingaro. Buoni was an attractive painter. His pictures are in the 
Mus. and churches o* Naples. The best, which is a very interesting 
work, is in the old basilica of S. Restituta. It represents that saint 


with the Virgin and the Archangel Michael. A warm, beautiful 
tune pervades the- whole; the figures are dignified and not mannered; 
it seems to unite the style of the Umbrian with the animated cheer- 
fulness of the Venetian school. 

Burghers, Michael. A Dutch engraver who settled at 
Oxfor(1 aftcr thc taking of Utrecht by Louis XIV. Al- 
though his plates were not especially good, he is esteemed 
for having preserved many remains of antiquity which would other- 
wise have been lost. 

Burgkmair, Thoman. Kugler says the family of this name 
are next important to the Holbeins in the history of art in Augs- 
burg, where some of Burgkmair's works still remain in the Catli. and 
Gall. The former were presented in 1480. lie is inferior to the 

-, Burgkmair, Hans, born at Augsburg (1473-1559). 

1/\ Son of the preceding, and in his day the most im- 
TJ A portant artist of Augsburg. He was realistic, and 
TT succeeded in actual representations of common life 

and portraits, and yet was not without feeling for beauty. He had 
great versatility of talent; he painted religious subjects, and knightly 
or courtly representations in addition to the subjects before men- 
tioned. He also made many designs for wood-cuts, which are full of 
spirit. He imitated no one master, but rather formed a style of his 
own. Many of his works remain and are in Augsburg, Dresden 
Gall., Nuremberg, Munich, Vienna, etc. He had two distinct 
periods; the first extended to 15<>8, and in it he was German en- 
tirely; later, his tendency is to the Italian order, and is charactcrixed 
by fuller forms, changed draperies, and more delicacy of treatment. 
That he painted landscapes well may be seen in No. 65, Munich 
Gall., a " S. John at Patmos." 

Byzes of Naxos, invented the cutting of marble tiles about the 
50th Olympiad, or 580 B. c. 


Cabel or Kabel, Adrian van der, born at Ryswick, 1631 ; died at 
Lyons, 1695. Pupil of Van Goyen, whom he left with the intention 
of visiting Italy. When he reached Lyons his works were so much 
admired, that it is said he remained there until his death. But we 
are also told that the associated painters at Rome called him 
Corydnn and Geestigkeit, which would prove that he studied there. 
He painted landscapes with cattle and figures. :uid seaports. Sonic 
of these were fine, but his habits wen- irregular, and his pictures 
consequently very unequal. 

Cabezalero, Juan Martin de, born near Cordova (1688-1678). 
Pupil of Don Juan Carreno. He had great reputation as a painter 
of history. His principal works are in the churches of Madrid. 


Caccia, Guglielmo, born at Montabone (1568-1625). Called II 
Moncalvo, from his long residence in that place. He painted in 
fresco and oil. His coloring was gay, his style of form taken from 
Raphael; he especially studied his landscape backgrounds. The 
Chiesa de' Conventuali, at Moncalvo, has a full coll. of his works. 
They were also known and prized in Milan, Pavia, Turin, Novara, 
and other cities. He had five daughters, two of whom were painters, 
Ursula and Francesca. The works of the latter were mistaken for 
those of her father. He or the daughter Ursula founded a convent, 
into which the sisters retired. In this convent there are many 
pictures by Ursula, who died in 1678. Francesca died when fifty- 
seven, but the year is not known. 

Caccinoli, Gio. Batista, born at Castle Budrio (1G35 ?-1675). 
Pupil of Domenico Maria Canuti. A painter of history of good 
reputation. Many of his works were for the churches of Bologna. 

Caffa, Melchiore, born at Malta, 1631; died at Rome, 1687. 
Studied under Bernini, and is said by some to have equalled his 
master. He executed various works for the Roman churches. The 
most esteemed is a marble group of " S. Thomas distributing Alms," 
in the Chapel of S. Agostino. 

Cafileri, Filippo, born at Rome (1634-1716). His family were 
from Naples, and were allied with many noble houses of Italy. 
Caffieri went to Paris, at the request of Card. Mazarin, in 1660. He 
was employed in works for the royal palaces, and Colbert gave him 
apartments at the Gobelins. He was afterwards made sculptor 
and naval-architect to the king, and inspector of the marine at Dun- 

Caffieri, Jacques (1678-1755). Son of the preceding. His best 
works were busts in bronze. 

Caffieri, Jean Jacques (1723-1792). Son of the preceding, 
whom he much excelled. He executed many fine works. Among 
his larger one's may be mentioned a group of " Melpomene and 
Thalia," and a S. Silvia at the Invalides. His busts were better 
than his statues. Those of Corneille and Piron, at the Theatre 
Francais, are by him. 

Cagliari or Caliari, Paolo, called Paul Veronese, born at Verona 
(1528-1588). Son of a sculptor, and pupil of Antonio Badile, 
his uncle, and a reputable painter. He lived mostly in Venice, 
and imitated Titian in color. He did not equal the latter in 
the perfection of his flesh tones, but that which particularly dis- 
tinguished him was the vitality and poetic feeling which he infused 
into his works. His gorgeous draperies, grand architecture, splendid 
vases and ornaments, varied costumes, and the representation of 
imposing scenes rendered his works most effective and masterly. 
Even his religious pictures have all these features, and are admirable 
scenes of earthly pageantry. Some of his more serious subjects, 



however, are thrilling in their deep feeling and expression. Magnifi- 
cent effect seems to have been his chief aim, and this was attained 
by representing crowds of figures gorgeously attired, apparently in 
full enjoyment of happy prosperity. His pictures appeal to the 
senses more than the spirit, and his costumes are often indecent. 
Few of his early works are known. The eh. of S. Sebastiano, in 
Venice, where the master is buried, is rich in his works; there are 
.almost innumerable pictures by him on its walls and altars; of these 
three are very large and represent scenes connected with the Mar- 
tyrdom of S. Sebastian. In the Louvre is the colossal ' Marriage i'.t 
Cana." This is 30x20 feet in size, and among its many faces air 

the portraits of the artist and cither prominent pel-sous. Another 
lanre work in the Louvre is the " Magdalen washing the Feet of 


Christ." The " Feast of the Levite," in the Acad. at Venice, is 
also large and rich in color, but less excellent than the others. In 
the Gall, at Dresden is the " Adoration of the Kings," which is 
extremely beautiful. The Holy Family are arranged on one side, 
while on the other, the kings, arrayed with purple and gold, adoringly 
worship the Divine Child. The harmonious coloring, the noble life, 
and dignity of the figures, and the whole arrangement of the compo- 
sition, render it a masterpiece. Veronese decorated the Pal. of the 
Doge with many mythological and allegorical designs. He left a 
great number of works. Many of them are in the Louvre, Brera, 
Dresden, and other European galleries, and the National Gall, has four 
of his pictures. His portraits were of high merit. He left two etch- 
ings ; they are slight, but masterly, and represent, 

The Adoration of the Magi : Paolo Veronese, fee. 

Two Saints sleeping ; no mark. 

Liibke says, " He entered, indeed, upon Titian's heritage, and by 
his grand creative power and noble beauty upheld the banner of Ve- 
netian art, until the end of the century." Wornum remarks, " Paolo 
Veronese was the real master of Rubens. His works, however, have 
their defects: he was, as Algarotti observes, careless in design, and 
in costume extremely licentious ; but these faults are completely con- 
cealed by the absorbing magnificence of his coloring, which, added 
to his noble fancy and inexhaustible invention, render his defects as a 
grain of sand in the balance." His son Carlo was his pupil, and 
seemed to have inherited his talents, but died when twenty-six years 
old, in 1596. 


Engraver, AUBIN, Au^ustin de St. Jupiter and Leda. 

Enyracer, AURRAX, Benoit, the younger. Pilgrims of Emmaus. 

Ef/rarer, BARTOLOZZI, Francesco. The Judgment of Solomon; 
after a dratcinr/. 

Engraver, BEAUVARLET, Jacques Firmin. Venus lamenting 

Engraver. BLOKMAERT, Cornelius. The Resurrection. 

Engraver, BRKBIETTE, Pierre. The Martyrdom of S. George. 

Em/raver, CARACCI, Agostino. Holy Family with SS. Anthony 
and Catherine. The Virgin taking two Monks under her protection. 
The Marriage of S. Catharine. The Crucifixion. Christ's Body, 
supported by the Virgin and an Angel. Martyrdom of S. Justina ; 
two sheets. 

Knyraofr, COLEMANS, Jacob. A Poet conjuring up Fortune. 
Portrait of P. Veronese. 

Enyracer, DESPLACES, Louis. La Sagesse Compagne d'Hercule. 

Engraver, DUCHANGE, Gaspar. The Entombment ; fine. 


Engraver, DCJFLOS, Claude. Christ and the Disciples at Emmnus. 

Engraver, DUPUIS, Nicholas Gabriel. Adoration of the Magi. 

Engraver, GOLTZ or GOI.T/II*S, Ileinrich. The Last Supper. 

Engracer, GROEXSVKLT, John. Adoration of the Magi; J. (iroenx- 
nelt, fee. 

Engraver, HAXSKTANGL, Franz. Susanna. Adoration of the 
Magi. Marriage at Cana. Christ bearing the Cross. The Concilia 
Family before the Madonna. 

Engraver, HEXRIQUKZ, Benoit Louis. Finding of Moses. 

Engracer, HOXECK. The Presentation in the Temple. 

Engraver, HOUBKAKKN, Jacob. Portrait of Daniello Barbaro. 

Engracer, JACKSON, John Baptist. The Presentation in the Tem- 
ple. Marriage of S. Catherine. 

Engraver, JACOB, Louis. Rebecca and Eliezer. 

Engrarer, JEAURAT, Edme. Finding of Moses; fine. 

Engraver, JOUILLOX, Francois. Apollo and Marsyas. Mercury 
turning Aglauros to stone. 

Engraver, KII.IAX, Lucas. The Resurrection. 

Engraver, KILIAX, Wolfgang. Baptism of Christ. 

Engrarer, KILIAX, Philip Andrew. Adoration of the Magi. 

Engraver, LASNK, Michel. Christ in Glorv, with SS. Pe.ter and 

Engraver, LOREXXIXI, Fra Antonio. The Annunciation. Bap- 
tism of Christ. Raising of Lazarus. 

Engracer, MAXXL or MAKXXL, Jacob. Judith leaving the Tent 
of Ilolofernes. Child holding a Dog. 

Engraver, MATIIAM, James. Visitation of the Virgin. 

Engraver, MATIIAM, Theodorus. Marriage of S. Catherine, S. 
John presenting the Ring. 

Engraver, MITELI.I, Giuseppe Maria. The Rich Man and La/.ar::s. 

Engraver. MOYRKAU, Jean. Rebecca and EUezer. 

Kngrdver, l'r/.7.i, Luigi. The Feast at the House of Simon. 

Engraver, PKKISI.KU, Johaun Martin. Christ bearing his Cross. 

Engraver, PIJEVOST, Zacharias. Marriage, at Cana. The Feast in 
the House of Simon. 

Engrarer, RAIXALDI, Francesco. The Rape of Europa. 

Engraver, RAVKXET, Simon Francois. Venus and Adonis. 

Engraver, SAEXRKDAM, Jan. The Feast at the House of Simon. 

Engracer, SAITER, Gottfried. Marriage at Cana. 

/Engraver, SCOTTO, GIROI.AMO. Feast at the House of Simon. 

Engraver, TKKWKS n \, Angustin. the Elder. Finding of Moses. 

Engraver, TIIOMASSIX. Henry Simon. Christ and the Disciples 
:' Kminaus. 

Engraver, VAXXI, Gio. Battistn. Marriaire at Cana. 

Engraver, VKXDRAMINI, Gio. Vision of S. Catherine. 


Engraver. TILLAMKXA, Francesco. Presentation in the Temple ; 
this plate was commenced by Agostino Carracci ; it is rare. 

Engraver, VISSCHER. Cornelius. The Ascension. 

Engraver, VOLPATO, Gio. The Feast in the House of Simon. 

Engraver, VORSTERMAX, Lucas. S. Helena seeing the Cross. 

Enf/raci.-r. WAGNEK, Joseph. Enthroned Madonna with infant 
S. John and other saints. 

Engraver, Zuccm, Andrea. S. John the Baptist. 

Cagnacci, Guido, born ait Castel Durante (1 600-1 C80). Pupil of 
Guido Reni. He merits honorable mention among Bolognese artists. 
He avoided all hardness, and so blended his tints as to soften and 
round the limbs of his figures. The Emperor Leopold I. was his 
patron, and he spent much time at Vienna. His works arc better 
known in Germany than in Italy. 

Cairo, Cavaliere Francesco (1598-1674). Pupil of Morazzone, 
he became enamored of Venetian coloring, and studied the works of 
Titian and Paul Veronese. The result was an admirable style. One 
of his best works is the S. Theresa in S. Carlo iu Venice. His pic- 
tures are also at Milan and Turin. 

Calabrese. See Preti. 

Calabrese. See Cardisco. 

Calandra, Gio. Batista. One of the first mosaists who wrought 
in the Vatican. On account of the injury to oil paintings in S. 
Peter's, resulting from dampness, it was determined during the reign 
of Urban VIII. to replace them by copies in mosaic. The first altar- 
piece was a S. Michael after Cesare d'Arpino, executed by Calandra. 

Calcar, Hans Von. Real name, Hans Stephanus (1510-1546). 
Of the Italian School of painting. In 1536-37 he resided in Ven- 
ice, and studied under Titian, whom he so imitated that it is 
sometimes difficult to distinguish their respective works. No histori- 
cal work known to be his remains. His portraits are fine and rare. 
Berlin Mus. No. 190; a man with a letter in his hand, at Vienna; 
and one in the Louvre, which has been ascribed to both Paris Bor- 
done and Tintoretto. 

Caldara, Polidoro, called Caravaggio from his birthplace (1495- 
1543). This painter began life as a mason and was employed at the 
Vatican, where, in 1512, he became acquainted with Matturino^ of 
Florence, who instructed him in drawing and made him his assistant 
in the decorative works in which he was employed. Together they 
executed fresco chiaro-scuri which wore much praised, even by Ra- 
phael. These are known now only by the engravings from them by 
Cherubino Alberti, Galestruzzi, and others. In 1527, the sack of 
Rome interrupted their work, and the two painters were separated. 
Polidoro went to Naples, and from there to Messina, where he es- 
tablished a good reputation as an artist. In 1543. having made a 
comfortable fortune, he prepared to return to Rome, but was mur- 


dered by his servant for his money. His body was placed on the 
steps of the house of a lady he had often visited. The servant was 
suspected and made to confess by means of the torture. His princi- 
pal work was done at Messina, and represented " Christ bearing his 
Cross." This with several small pictures of sacred subjects i- now in 
the Studj Gall., at Naples. His works have power, life, and passion, 
and he may be said to have originated the style which in later tiin, 1 
formed the basis of the Neapolitan school. 

Calendario, Pilippo. Flourished at Venice about 1334. His prin- 
cipal work was executed for the Republic, and consists of the Por- 
ticos surrounding the Square of S. Mark. He was largely rewarded 
by the state, and the Doge gave him one of his daughters in marriage. 
He did other good works in Venice, but was at last executed as a 

Caleiise. Ceaare. Flourished about 1690. lie attained a reputa- 
ble rank as a painter. His knowledge of chiaro-scuro was good, and 
his style graceful. In the ch. of S. John Baptist, at Naples, is a " De- 
scent from the Cross " by this artist, which is fine. 

Caletti, Giuseppe, called Cremonese. born at Ferrara (1600?- 
1660). An imitator of Titian. He spoiled his pictures by inappro- 
priate arrangements of design. Lanzi says, " lie placed wild boars in 
the sea, and dolphins in the forests." Two of his best works are in 
the ch. of S. Benedetto at Ferrara. 

Call, John Van, born at Ximeguen (1655-1703). After copying 
the works of some of the best artists of his own country, he went to 
Rome, where he made a large collection of drawings of all the most 
picturesque views of the country surrounding that city. He settled 
at length at the Hague, where he died. His drawings are more pri/ed 
than his pictures, and bring large prices in Holland, Avhere they arc 
placed in the best collections. 

Callcott, Sir Augustus Wall, born at Kensingtcn (1 77!>-i sj.j). 
A pupil of Hoppner, he at first practised portrait painting, but later 
devoted himself to landscapes. He has been called the English 
Claude. In 1837 he exhibited a picture of " Raphael and the Forna- 
rina," which was quite out of his usual style. " Milton and his 
Daughters" followed in 1*40. The Queen conferred knighthood 
upon him in !S.'i7, an I iu 1.S14 he was appointed Conservator of the 
Royal Pictures. 

Calleja, Andrea de la, l>orn at Rioja (1 7o. r )-i ;*_>). A Spanish 
painter of good reputation. Mis l>e<t works are in the churches of S. 
Philippe le Royal, S. C'roix. the Treasury chapel, and the convent of 
S. Francis. 

Callet, Antoine Francois (1741-1823). One of the best 
French painters of his time. In the Louvre, there is a lar^e repre- 
sentation of the "Four Seasons" executed by him for Louis XVI., 
and intended to be worked in Gobelin tapestry. Part of the ceiling 


of the Gall, of Apollo in the Louvre, and that of the Luxembourg, 
were by him. He also painted portraits of Louis XVI., Louis XVIII. 
and Count d'Artois. 

Callimachus. A Greek sculptor said to have invented the 
Corinthian capital. The story is that about 550 u. c. a virgin died 
at Corinth, and her nurse, according to custom, placed a basket on 
her grave containing the viands that she loved best. It happened 
that the basket was placed upon an acanthus, the leaves of which 
grew up about it with so much grace as to attract the attention of 
Callimachus, and suggest to him that design which has been for cen- 
turies a prominent beauty in architecture. Pausanias describes a 
golden lamp which he made for the service of Athens, which would 
burn exactly a year without going out. He is also called the inventor 
of the art of boring marble, but it is believed that he perfected it 
only, as it must have been known before his time. His fault was 
that he could never be satisfied with his works, and elaborated them 
until he spoile 1 them. On account of this he was called KaKi^ore^vof. 

4 Callot, Jacques, born at Nancy (1 593-1 G35). 

WUU/fvt'jPec. An eminent designer and engraver. He was of a 
noble family from which he met great opposition 
in his pursuit of art. Twice he ran away in order to study. At 
length he was allowed to go to Rome in the suite of the envoy sent to 
the Pope by the Duke of Lorraine. He speedily arrived at eminence 
in his profession. He did not succeed with the graver, and confined 
himself to the use of the point. Louis XIII. employed Callot to 
engrave the principal battles and sieges of the French. Richelieu 
desired him to engrave the siege of Nancy, but Callot declared 
he would sooner cut off his right hand, than thus to record the calam- 
ity and disgrace of his prince and country. His prints number more 
than 1500. His drawings are much prized. His plates with small 
figures are the best. He often made several drawings of the same 
subject before he satisfied himself. Watelet had seen four different 
sketches for his celebrated '' Temptation of S. Anthony." A com- 
plete list of his works is given in M. Heineken's " Dictionnaire des 

Calvart, Denis, born at Antwerp (1555-1619). From the as- 
sociations of his life he may be considered as an Italian painter. 
He was one of those who, at Bologna, turned the attention of artists 
to landscape painting. He founded in that city the celebrated school 
in which Albano, Domenichino, and Guido studied. His excellence 
was such that he may be regarded as the restorer of the Bolognese 
school, especially in color. His designs had many faults, were 
mannered, and his figures sometimes indecorous. He was of a turbu- 
lent and fiery disposition and temperament. He was, however, a 
most earnest and devoted teacher. His pictures may be seen in the 
churches of Bologna. He inscribed his name sometimes as DioxisHO 


Camassei, Andrea (1601-1648). Pupil of Domeniehino and 
Andrea Sacchi. His works may be soon in many public edifices at 
Rome: "Triumph of Constantino," Baptistery of the Lateran ; 
" Assumption of the Virgin " in the Rotonda, and a " Pieta " at the 

Cambiaso, Luca, called also Luchetto da Genova, born near 
Genoa (1527-1585). Pupil of his father, Giovanni, whom lie soon 
surpassed. He painted both in oil and fresco, and it is said that his 
impetuosity was so great that he sometimes executed his works with- 
out cartoon or sketch of any kind. His drawings are much esteemed. 
He was fruitful in invention and there is novelty in his designs. His 
Cupids and infant angels are boldly outlined, and suggest tin- >tudy 
of Michael Angelo. His color is. sometimes brilliant, but too fre- 
quently brown and dull. Some of his best works are in Genoa and 
that vicinity. His fame reached Spain, and Philip II. invited him 
to Madrid, where he went with his son Orazio in 1583. He was 
employed in the Escorial and received 12,000 ducats for his fresco of 
" Paradise " on the ceiling of the choir of S. Lorenzo. Probably this 
was the largest sum that had then been paid for any modern work of 
art. After the death of Luca, Philip continued to employ Orazio, 
and settled a liberal pension on him. 

Cambio. See Arnulfo. 

Camerata, Giuseppe, born at Venice (17247-1803). An en- 
graver and painter in miniature who was invited to Dresden, where 
he assisted in engraving the plates for the Gall., and was made en- 
graver to the court. 

Camilo, Francisco, born at Madrid, of an Italian family ; died 1671. 
Palomino praises him immoderately. He was the scholar of Pedro de 
las Cuevas. His works may be seen in various Spanish cities. His 
most celebrated one is his " Xuestra Senora de Helen " in the ch. of 
S. Juan de Dios at Madrid. 

Campagnola, Giulo. A Paduan who flourished about 1500. lie. 
is most entitled to notice as an engraver, and there has been much 
discussion concerning him. Some of his plates are peculiarly <l<>iie. 
The background is expressed by dots, and the figures, strongly out- 
lined, are finished by dots within. These plates prove this style not 
modern, as it is generally supposed to he. 

_. _^ Campagnola. Domenico. Son of the preceding. A 

-o pupil of Titian, he aroused the jealousy of that ma>- 

^*<* ' ter. His frescoes in the Scuola del Santo, and oil 
pictures in S. M. del Parto established his right to good consideration. 
His more important works are at Padua; there are lour Prophets, 
half figures, in the Acad. at Venice. He holds high rank as an en- 
graver, and his etchings and wood-cuts, mostly from his own designs, 
are executed with a spirit and style which show the power ol a 
master hand. 


Campalastro, Ludovico, born at Ferrara. His best works are 
in the churches of that city. 

Campanna, Pedro, born at Brussels (1503-1570). Went when 
very voting to Italy, where he gained a good reputation, and in 1530 
was invited to Spain by Charles V. His principal works are at 

Camphuysen, Theodore Raphael, born at Gorcum (1586- 
1626?). Pupil of Dietric Govertze. An imitator of Paul Potter. 
The facts of his life are not known, and are variously stated by differ- 
ent authors. According to Smith, No. 527, Cassel Gall., represent- 
ing cattle life size, is by Camphuysen. 

Campi, G-aleazzo. A Cremonesc of little reputation, who flourished 
in the early part of the 16th century, and whose best work is his own 
portrait in the Florence Gall. 

Campi, Giulio, born at Cremona (1500-1572). Son of the pre- 
ceding. Head of the Eclectic school at Cremona. He attempted to 
unite the excellences of the Roman and more northern schools, and 
has been called the Ludovico Caracci of Cremona, although his 
reform must have preceded that of Ludovico. He admired Raphael, 
Titian, and Giorgione. His best works are in Cremona, Milan, 
and Mantua. 

Campi, Antonio, born at Cremona. Flourished about 1586. 
Brother and pupil of Giulio. He excelled most as an architect. His 
pictures were mannered. His best one is that of " S. Paul resusci- 
tating Eutychus," which was engraved by Agostino Caracci. 

Campi, Vincenzo, died 1591. Also brother of Giulio, and in- 
structed by him. His best pictures were those of still-life, but he was 
much inferior to his brothers. 

Campi, Bernardino, born at Cremona (1522-1592). Also 
brother of Giulio, and the greatest of the Campi. After studying 
under Giulio, and at Mantua, he went to Parma and Modena to study 
the manner of Correggio. Returning to Cremona he executed im- 
portant works, the best of which are in the ch. of S. Gismondi. In 
the cupola he painted an immense representation of the " Blessed of 
the Old and New Testaments." The figures are seven braccia 
hi_ r h and are very numerous, each one being distinguished by an 
appropriate symbol. He completed this great work in seven months. 
The Campi were the test Cremonese artists of their time, but they 
were extremely mechanical in their style. 

Canachus. A sculptor of Sicyon. Lived probably at the begin- 
ning of the 5th century u. c. He excelled more in technicalities and 
in the excellence of the separate parts of his works than in the grace 
and beauty of the whole. One of his most important works was a 
colossal brazen " Apollo " at Miletus. Of this we have copies in a 
statuette in the British Mus., and on Milesian coins. 

Canal or Canale, Antonio, called Canaletto, born in Venice, 

176 CANAL C A NO. 

(1697-1768). A pupil of his father, who was a scene painter. He 
went early to Rome, where he assiduously studied the ruins of the 
ancient city. Returning to Venice, he astonished his countrymen by 
his magnificent views of the palaces and edifices of their city, and by 
his representations of festivals and carnival scenes, in some of which 
there are at least 200 figures. He went twice to England, where he 
was much patronized. His interior views were fine. His coloring 
in the latter was not brilliant, and in his Venetian pictures it is the 
gondolas with their gold and gay decorations which give the glare to 
the scene, his figures being often in neutral tints. He acquired 
a fortune. His works .ire very numerous and are in almost cverv 
collection. Some of his followers imitated him so closely that their 
works arc sometimes mistaken for his own, and, indeed, there are 
large numbers of pictures similar to those of Canaletto. 

Candido. See Witte. 

Cano, Alonso, born at Granada (1601-1667). Architect, sculptor, 
and painter. He studied painting under Pacheco, Castillo, and tin- 
elder Herrera ; and sculpture with Martinez Montaiics. His talents 
and versatile genius secured him a high place among artists ; and his 
temper was such as led him to defend his rights against all new- 
comers. In 1637 he fought a duel, and escaped Madrid; and in Hi44 
liis wife was found murdered in her bed. Cano was suspected of the 
crime, and, although he fled, was at length apprehended and put to 
the torture. He made no confession, and was released, judicially in- 
nocent. He still retained his place as painter of the king, and draw- 
ing-master to Don Carlos; and was, from time to time, employed on 
important works. He determined to remove to Granada and take 
priest's orders. Philip IV. appointed him to a canonry. He was 
still employed as painter and sculptor by private persons and religious 
bodies, and even went to Malaga to superintend improvements in the. 
Cathedral. On account of his fierce temper lie was deprived of his 
office by the chapter, and was obliged to repair to the king in order 
to be reinstated. This occurred in 1659, and so offended him that. 
he would no more use his pencil 'or chisel in the service of the Cath. 
at Granada. He devoted the remainder of his life to religious and 
charitable works, and gave away his money as soon as received. His 
purse being often empty. In- was accustomed to go into a shop and 
beg a pen and paper. lie would then sketch a head, or an architect- 
ural design, and mark the price upon it. This he would give to a 
beggar with directions for finding a purchaser. Large numbers of 
these eleemosynary works were collected after his death. One of his 
strong characteristics was hatred of the Jews. He would cross tin- 
street in order to avoid them, and throw away a garment that had 
touched one of them. Entering his house, one day. he found his 
housekeeper bargaining with one of the despised race. He chased 
him out with great fury, sent his housekeeper away to perform quar- 


antine, purified his house by re-paving the spot where the Israelite 
had stood, and gave the shoes, in which he had himself followed his 
tracks, to his servant. In his last sickness, he refused to receive the 
sacrament from his attendant priest, because he had communicated 
with Jews; and, when they gave him a rudely sculptured crucifix, 
pu>luMl it away. Being reproved, he answered, " Vex me not with 
this thing, but give me a simple cross, that I may adore it, both as it 
is in itself, and as I can figure it in my mind." " This being done," 
Palomino says, '' he died in a manner highly exemplary, and edify- 
ing to those about him." Cano's architectural works were chiefly 
retablos, which were executed according to the taste of the day, 
loaded with heavy ornamentation. Very few of these remain; but 
the Louvre has a few architectural drawings, simple and elegant in 
style. He loved his chisel better than his brush, and the little of his 
work which remains, proves him to have been excelled by no carver 
of Spain. When weary of painting he carved for refreshment. A 
pupil once remarked upon this strange method, when he replied, 
" Blockhead, don't you perceive that to create form and relief, on a 
flat surface, is a greater service than to fashion one shape into 
another ? " The masterpiece of his chisel, now remaining, is a 
Virgin, about a foot high, in the Sacristy of the Cath. of Granada. 
In painting he was a ready draughtsman, yet was accustomed to 
borrow largely from the ideas of others, and defended the practice. 
Ilis works are the finest produced by any Spaniard without study in 
Italy. The Queen of Spain's Gall, has eight of his pictures. The 
ch. of Getafe, two leagues from Madrid towards Toledo, has six 
large pictures by Cano, adorning the retablo of the high altar. The 
Cath. of Granada was cruelly robbed by the French, but still retains 
some good altar-pieces by its artist-canon. The Cath. of Malaga 
boasts the " Virgin of the Rosary," in which the hands and feet are 
peculiarly beautiful. This picture is fast decaying. The Mus. of 
Valencia has two pictures by this master. One of his most beautiful, 
and latest works, representing " Our Lady of Bethlehem," painted 
at Malaga for Don Andres Cascantes, was presented to the Cath. of 
Seville, where it still hangs in a small chapel, lighted only by votive 
tapers. It is finished with exceeding care, and is a worthy crown to 
his labors. The portraits by Cano, which remain, are few, but ex- 
cellent. The Louvre, the National Mus. at Madrid, and the Royal 
Mus.. each possess one of these works. 

Canova, Antonio, born in Possa^no (1757-1822). His father and 
grandfather were stone-cutters. The former died young, and Antonio 
was left to the care and instruction of the latter. Works executed 
by Canova in his ninth year still remain. Not far from his home lived 
the Signor Gio. Faliero, who was accustomed to employ the old 
Pasino Canova, for whom he entertained so great a regard that he 
sometimes invited him to spend a few days at his villa. Antonio ac- 

178 CANOVA. 

companied his grandfather, became the friend of the young Giuseppe 
Faliero, and the favorite of the entire family. On one occasion when 
Canova and his grandfather attended a festival in the Villa Faliero, 
the ornament for the dessert was forgotten. The mistake being dis- 
covered almost the moment it was required, the servants applied to 
Pasino to assist them, for they feared the displeasure of the muster. 
The old man could do nothing, but the young Tonin, as he was 
called, asked for some butter, and presently carved a lion. This 
being sent to the table attracted the attention of all, and Tonin was 
sent for. He received the praises of the whole company, and from 
this time the Senator Faliero became his patron. This anecdote is 
very pleasing, bvit it is probable that the talents of Canova were well 
known to Faliero before this occurrence. He placed the boy under tin- 
tuition of Giuseppe Bernard!, called Toretto, a Venetian sculptor, who 
had settled at Pagnano. Canova was at this time twelve years of age. 
He remained two years with this master, and during that time made 
many statues and models which are still preserved in the Faliero 
family, and in various collections. During an absence of his master 
he made the models, in clay, of two angels, which were his first really 
original work. He placed them in a conspicuous situation, and 
awaited the master's return with hope and fear. Toretto remained 
astonished before them, and exclaimed that it was truly a marvellous 
work. From these models the grandfather executed in pietra dura 
the two angels on the high-altar at Monfumo. About this time 
Canova executed his first representation of the human form in marble. 
He made small statues and used them as gifts for his friends. When 
he was fifteen his patron sent for him to go to Venice, and received 
him kindly into his own house. Canova desired to do something for 
himself, and engaged to work the latter half of the day for Giuseppe 
Ferrari, nephew of Toretto. In a private letter Canova afterwards 
wrote, " I labored for a mere pittance, but it was sufficient. It was 
the fruit of my own resolution, and, as I then flattered myself, tin- 
foretaste of more honorable rewards." This fact places his genius 
before us in a strong light, for it is unusual that a youth of fifteen 
should receive money, instead of paying it for instruction. In Venice 
a new field was open to his observation. lie systematically divided 
his time; passed his mornings in the Acad. or in some Gall., his 
afternoons in the workshop, and the evenings in studies which had 
been neglected in his youth. The first commission which Canova 
received was from the Commendatore Farsetti, and consisted of two 
baskets filled with fruits and flowers, sculptured in marble, and 
placed on the balustrade of the staircase which led to the picture- 
gallery, in the Pal. P^arsetti, where Canova had spent much time in 
study. These works had no especial excellence, and prove that the 
powers of Canova were not extraordinary at that time. At the end 
of a year he went with the Faliero family to their summer home at 

CANOVA. 179 

Asolo. Some time previous to this, his patron, desiring to possess a 
good work of his, had given him as a subject, a group of Orpheus 
and Eurydice, and wished him to represent the moment when the 
lover beholds her torn from his arms forever. lie had worked upon 
this in his leisure hours, and took everything necessary for the work 
with him to Asolo., where he finished, in his sixteenth year, " Euryd- 
ice," his first original statue. It was executed in pietra di Costosa, 
and was the size of life. From this time Canova perceived a great 
deficiency in the models then used, for it was customary to make 
them many times smaller than the statue when finished. He deter- 
mined to make all his models, even those of colossal figures, of the 
exact size in which they were to be finished. After this time he oc- 
cupied a cell in the monastery of the Augustine friars attached to the 
ch. of S. Stefano. During the next three years, in addition to his 
studies, he was employed on the " Orpheus," and in executing a 
bust of the Doge Ilenier. He was accustomed, at this time, to study 
entirely from nature. He also gave much time to anatomy, and in 
later years made dissections with his own hand, in order to sketch, and 
frequently to model from important parts, or well-defined conforma- 
tions in particular instances. In 1776 his " Orpheus " was exhibited 
at the annual festival of the Ascension. It happened that at the same 
time the opera of "Orpheus" was brought out in Venice. The 
praise which he then received was always remembered by Canova 
" as that which made him a sculptor," to use his own words; and his 
gratitude for it caused him, when created Marquis of Ischia, to choose 
the serpent and lyre, the mythological symbols of Orpheus and Euryd- 
ice, for his armorial ensigns. He soon received an order from the 
Senator Grimani for a copy of the " Orpheus," which was the first 
statue he executed in Carrara marble. Finding his workshop too 
small, he removed to one in the street of S. Maurizio, where he con- 
tinued until his final departure from his native country. His next 
work was a statue of " JSsculapius," larger than life; and it is said that 
but a short time before his death, he saw this work for the first time 
after it had left his atelier, and declared himself sorrowful that " his 
progress had by no means corresponded with the indications of excel- 
lence exhibited in this performance of his youth." He also executed 
a group of " Apollo and Daphne," never entirely finished. When 
twenty-two years old, he completed the group of " Dasdalus and Ica- 
rus," for the Senator Pisani. This was intended as an outward decora- 
tion of his palace, but when finished, it was considered too valuable, 
and was placed in the Gall, already made famous by the " Family of 
Darius " of Paul Veronese, and other excellent works. This may be 
considered his last work executed in Venice, as he went to Rome soon 
after his twenty-third birthday. He had been recommended by let- 
ters to the Cavaliere Zuliani, who then represented the Republic of 
Venice at Rome, and was the intimate friend of Faliero. He was an 

180 CAXOVA. 

enlightened and generous protector of the arts, and received Canova 
with great kindness. He soon arranged to have the model of " Daeda- 
lus and Icarus " displayed before the best artists and connoisseurs in 
Rome. The trepidation with which Canova went to this exhibition, 
can easily be imagined. The praise which he received, and the 
acknowledgment of his merit, established his reputation. He had 
long desired to undertake a group on some heroic subject, and Zuli- 
ani procured him the marble, and promised that if no other purchaser 
appeared, he would give him the full value of the group when 
finished. The subject chosen was that of " Theseus vanquishing the 
Minotaur," the figures to be of heroic size. His workshop Avas in a 
part of the Venetian Pal. to which no one had access. He worked with 
untiring industry, studied in the museums and collections at Home. 
and at daylight was often seen with his sketch-book or modelling ap- 
paratus before the statues in front of the capitol, or the mlo-sil 
figures on Monte Cavallo. In the mean time his friends in Venice 


succeeded in obtaining for him a pension of 300 ducats from the 
government. While at work upon the " Theseus " he also finished a 
statue of "Apollo," which last was first exhibited at the same time with 
the " Minerva Pacifica " of Angelini, and in spite of the formidable com- 
petition, the " Apollo" received high praise. At length the " The- 
seus " was finished. Its existence was unknown to all save the ambas- 
sador. In order to give full effect to the first exhibition of this work. 
Zuliani gave an entertainment and invited all the most distinguished 
men of Rome. A model of the head of Theseus had been prepared 
by the artist, and attracted the attention of the guests. Various opin- 
ions were expressed regarding its form, its expression, and subject, and 
all agreed that it was an antique of great merit. In the midst of the 
talk, the ambassador said, " Come, let us end these disputes by see- 
ing the original," and the statue was unveiled before them. Every- 
thing was forgotten in their surprise and admiration, and even the ar- 
tists, who afterwards pursued him with envious malice, praised him 
in that moment. Canova was often heard to say that death itself 
could not have been more terrible than his emotions during these oc- 
currences. With the completion of this work terminated the novitiate 
of Canova. From this time his fame was established. lie w. 
selected by Volpato to erect a monument to Clement XIV.. tin- 
suppressor of the Jesuits, the collector of the Clementine Mns.. and 
the author of those elegant letters by which his family name. (Jan- 
ganelli. has been rendered famous over Europe." Canova hesitated 
in accepting this, feeling that his time should be controlled by those 
who had bestowed his pension. He went therefore to Venice, and 
laid the matter before the senate, who directed him to employ his 
time as was most profitable to himself. He now ^ave up his studio 
in Venice, and, as Znliani left Rome at this time, he established him- 
self in the Strada Bahhuino. and opened that studio which is still the 

CANOVA. 181 

resort of the lovers of art, of all nations. He now commenced to 
practise upon his long meditated design of making his original models 
of the dimensions of the projected work. In 1787, the monument of 
Ganganelli was first exhibited. It was much praised, even by Mili- 
zia, a bitter critic. This was followed by a monument to Clement 
XIII., erected by his nephews in S. Peter's; and the mourning genius 
in this monument is one of the loveliest works of Canova. These two 
monuments employed the best part of ten years of the most vigorous 
time in his life. An engraving of the first monument had been dedi- 
cated to Zuliani, but Canova desired to give him some more substan- 
tial proof of his gratitude, and made for him a statue of Psyche; but 
Zuliani hesitated to accept it, and was only persuaded to do so with 
the understanding that the artist should receive from him a number 
of gold and silver medals, with Psyche on one side, and the head of 
Canova on the other, to distribute among his friends. In the midst 
of these arrangements, the ambassador died, and the heirs of Zuliani, 
displeased at his having given his works of art to the public library, 
refused to carry out his plans. Subsequently the "Psyche " was pur- 
chased by Napoleon and presented to the Queen of Bavaria. The 
fame of Canova extended to Russia, and most advantageous offers 
were made him to go to St. Petersburgh. He did not wish to do so, 
and excused himself on account of a commission from the Venetian 
senate. This was a monument to the Admiral Emo. Canova suc- 
ceeded so well in this that a gold medal was made by order of the 
senate and presented to him: while, at the same time, an annuity for 
life was voted him. In 1798, unable to endure the revolutionary 
frenzy at Rome, he retired to his native Possagno. Here he re- 
mained more than a year and employed his time in painting. Al- 
though we are not accustomed to associate his name with this branch 
of art, he was by no means a despicable painter, and his pictures, 
which Cicognara states as twenty-two, were more numerous than that. 
In May, 1800, his masterpiece, representing the Saviour just taken 
from the cross, surrounded by the Maries, S. John, Joseph of Arima- 
thea, and Nicodemus, was placed in the parish ch. of Possagno. 
This was the first of his many munificent gifts which made this hum- 
ble church a splendid temple. After his return to Rome, his health 
being affected by continual application, he determined to leave the 
many orders which awaited him, and, in company with Prince Rezzo- 
nico, he visited Vienna and Berlin. He returned with restored health, 
and from this time enjoyed the reputation he had so well earned, and 
was constantly employed in the most important labors. His " Per- 
seus " was placed, by a public decree, in one of the Stanze of the 
Vatican, an asylum hitherto denied to modern art. This was a proud 
triumph for Canova. In 1802-03, he went to Paris at the request 
of Napoleon, to model the bust for a colossal statue, finished six years 
after. In 1810 he was called again to Paris to prepare a model for 

182 CANOVA. 

the statue of Maria Louisa. In 1805, he went the second time to 
Vienna, where he modelled the bust of the emperor. With the ex- 
ception of these journeys, from 1800 to 1815, he never quitted Rome, 
and, in truth, scarcely left his workshop. In the last named year 
he was sent, in an official capacity, to Paris, for the purpose of re- 
claiming the works of art which had been taken from Italy, and be- 
longed to the patrimony of the Church. His exertions, and the suc- 
cess attendant upon them, should ever be remembered by Romans 
with gratitude. When his commission was happily accomplished he 
went to London. Here he was received with great distinction. The 
king honored him with several conferences, gave him a commission 
for a beautiful group, presented him with rich gifts, and made him 
the bearer of private letters to the Pope. The joy in Rome when 
her works of art were restored, was increased when Canova himself 
arrived. His entry there may be called a triumphal one, and took 
place on the 5th of January, 1816. He had been president of S. 
Luke's before; he was now made president of the commission for the 
purchase of objects of art, and of the Acad. of Archaeology. In full 
consistory, the Pope ordered his name to be inscribed in the " golden 
volume of the Capitol," with the title of Marquis of Ischia, and a pen- 
sion of 3000 crowns a year was given him. Canova now designed to 
execute a colossal statue of " Religion," to commemorate the return 
from banishment of the Pope. He only waited for the proper au- 
thorities to determine where it should be placed ; but this they would 
not do, and. through mutual jealousies, Rome was deprived of the 
magnificent gift. Canova was filled with sorrow and regret at this 
circumstance, but he determined that not only one statue, but his re- 
maining life and fortune, should be consecrated to religion; and he re- 
solved to erect a church at Possagno, adorned with many works of 
art, and that there his ashes should repose. In the summer of 1819, 
after many preparations, Canova arrived at his native town. On the 
8th of July, he assembled his workmen and gave them a sumptuous 
entertainment. Many young shepherdesses and peasant girls had 
joined in the festivities, and assisted in the preliminary excavations. 
At the close of the day, each one received a present from Canova as 
she passed his seat to bid him farewell. On the eleventh of the 
month the religious ceremony of laying the foundation stone of the 
future church took place. An immense concourse, not only from the 
surrounding country, but from Venice, was present. Canova, habited 
in his robes as a Knight of Christ, and bearing the insignia of various 
other orders, led the procession. The occasion must have been most 
impressive, for all could not have passed away, who had seen this 
famous man, when, a poor boy, he attended the steps of his grand- 
father, the stone-cutter, now raised by the noblest distinctions. He 
consecrated his life and fortune to the service of God, and the bene- 
fit of his birthplace. Every autumn, Canova visited Possagno, en- 

CANOVA. 183 

couraged and rewarded the workmen, and changed from time to 
time, as seemed best to him, the details of the previous plan. The 
expenditure he thus incurred necessitated great exertion, and he con- 
stantly undertook new commissions. One work of this time, the 
statue of Washington, is especially interesting ' as the first piece of 
sculpture executed in the Old, and publicly commissioned in the New 
World; thus uniting, by the fame of one individual, the art of both 
hemispheres." (Memes.) In his last winter he was more than or- 
dinarily diligent, engaged upon an equestrian statue of Ferdinand of 
Naples. On account of this work, in May, he went to that city, and 
there became ill. He returned to Rome where, for a time, he seemed 
to revive, and was able to resume his work. He arrived in Possagno 
on the 17th of September, and in October went to the Villa Faliero. 
A half century had passed since he had here indulged the dreams of 
youth, and he lingered lovingly on every favorite spot. Though con- 
stantly growing weaker he went to Venice, to the house of his friend 
Francesconi, where, on the 13th of October, he died. Solemn ser- 
vices were held in Venice when his bier was borne to the cathedral 
by the professors of the academy, attended by the most distinguished 
men in art, letters, or rank. His remains were then consigned to a 
deputation of priests from Possagno, and borne in a barge to Pos- 
tioma. From here they were taken to his temple, and on the 25th, 
the last honors were paid them. On this occasion, the crowd was 
so vast that they were obliged to deliver the oration in the open 
air. The Venetian Acad. obtained the heart of Canova, to contain 
which, an elegant little monument was erected in the hall of the Pal. 
of the Arts. The Venetian artists made arrangements to erect a 
cenotaph to him, and selected for it his own model of the tomb of 
Titian. In Rome a statue was decreed to him, and lie was pro- 
claimed perpetual president of her chief academy. In personal ap- 
pearance Canova was not especially attractive. His hair was black 
and luxuriant, and his forehead of noble dimensions, but the outline 
of his features was neither grand nor extraordinary. His head was 
remarkably well set upon his shoulders, and his loose manner of 
dressing his neck permitted this to be seen. His whole air, manner, 
and dress was that of modesty, benevolence, and simplicity. There 
is a story that when he first arrived in Venice, he fell in love with a 
beautiful girl, somewhat older than himself, who came to draw in the, 
Farsetti Gall. Day by day he watched her, until at last she came no 
more. At length her attendant appeared, and when he inquired for 
the loved one, she burst into tears and exclaimed, " La Signora Julia 
is dead." He said no more. Who Julia was he never knew, but, 
through all his life, whenever he endeavored to unite the purity of 
the angel with the representation of earthly beauty, the lovely Julia 
was in his mind. The habits of his life were very unostentatious. 
He arose early and worked late. He went little into public society, 


but almost always surrounded himself with a few friends at dinner. 
He entertained them cordially, but without display. He was very 
abstemious, and required rest even after his frugal meals. He joined 
in cheerful and light conversation, but avoided anv subject conueetcd 
with the arts, or anything that required mental activity. He re- 
tired to his chamber at eleven, and amused himself with a book or 
pencil before sleeping. Some of his finest sketches were made at this 
time, a part of which have been published under the title of " IVn- 
sieri." To describe one day, is to describe his whole life. IIi> re- 
ligious character and generosity have been sufficiently portrayed. In 
professional intercourse, he was governed by the same rules that regu- 
lated his life. The progress of art through the achievements of 
others afforded him pleasure; envy and jealousy were unknown to 
him. At the same time he was severely just in the estimation of his 
own merits. He would not receive pupils, and no one could boast of 
being taught by him; but he never refused to leave his own work to 
give his advice or assistance, or to visit the work of any other artL-t. 
To art he was a willing and powerful patron, and he had executed, at 
his own order and expense, the numerous busts of distinguished per- 
sons in the Mus. of the Capitol. The following is a list of a por- 
tion of his works, with the dates of their execution : 

1772. Two baskets of fruits and flowers in marble, Farsetti 


1773. Statue of Eurydice; soft stone of Costosa. 
1776. Orpheus ; soft stone of Cost<a. 

1779. Daedalus and Icarus ; Carrara marble, Pasini Pal., Venice. 

1782. Theseus and the Minotaur. 

1787. Tomb of Clement XIV., Rome, ch. of the Holy Apostles. 

1792. Tomb of Clement XIII., Rome, S. Peter's. 

1793. Second statue of Psyche. 

1794. Cenotaph of Admiral Emo. 

1800. Perseus, with the Head of Medusa; Vatican. 

1 803. Colossal statue of Xapoleon. 

1805. Venus victorious; head of Pauline Bonaparte; Villa Bor- 

ghese, Rome. 

1811. Statue of Maria Louisa. 

1817. Monument of Cardinal York. 

1818. Sitting statue of Washington. 
1822. Pieta in mod.-l. 

1 822. Seven reliefs for the Metopes of the temple at Possagno. 

These are but a small portion of his works. Cupid. P>\< -lie. 
Venus, Adonis, Nymphs, etc., etc., were his favorite subjects and 
often repeated. 

Cantagallina, Remigio, born at Florence (1582-1 fi.30). An 
eminent designer and engraver, said to have instructed Cailot and 
Stefano della Bella. IIi> pen-drawings are much prized. 

The following are his principal plate-: 


The Immaculate Conception; after Callot. 

Set of four Landscapes. 1609. 

Set of six Landscapes. 

Set of twelve Landscapes; octagon; marked with cipher. 

Set of six Landscapes ; with cipher. 1624. 

Set of plates of the scenes of an Opera; after designs by Giulio 

Set of plates called the Palazzo della Fama. 1608. 

Cantarini, Simone, called II Pesarese, born at Orpezza, 1612; died 
at Verona, 1648. After studying with other masters he became the 
pupil of Guido Reni. He came to be one of the very best Italian 
portrait painters. A head of Guido by Cantarini in the Acad. of 
Bologna can scarcely be surpassed in the world. He was vain, and 
so disagreeable in disposition that he was obliged to leave Bologna, 
and went to Rome. His imitation of Guido is very apparent, and 
even more so in his etchings than in his paintings. He is very highly 
esteemed as an engraver. 

Cantofoli, Ginevra, born at Bologna (1618-1672). Pupil of 
Elisabetta Sirani. Her pictures were historical and may be seen in 
several churches in Bologna. 

Canuti, Domenico Maria, born at Bologna (1620-1684). One 
of the most excellent pupils of Guido. He was employed in the 
public edifices of Rome, Bologna, and Padua. He also etched 
several plates in the manner of Guido. 

Capella, Jan Van de. A Dutch painter of marine views, born at 
Amsterdam, and granted the freedom of the city in 1653. Further 
than this his history is unknown. His pictures are much admired in 
England, and a large part of them are in that country. No. 10, Gall, 
of the Duke of Aremberg at Brussels, is by him, and represents the 
mouth of the Scheldt, with numerous vessels. His pictures arc signed 
J. V. Capelle, but are not dated. He liked smooth seas best, Avith 
objects clearly reflected, and his skies are often red. He was a good 
colorist. Some of his works are winter landscapes with skaters on 
lake or river. 

Caracciolo, Giambattista, born at Naples (15807-1641). Al- 
though in the main a follower of the Carracci, he was somewhat 
influenced by the NaluraUsti. He is said to have been one of a cabal 
formed to exclude all masters from other parts of Italy from Naples. 
This association is said to have committed many crimes. Caracciolo 
went to Rome and studied the works of Annibale Carracci in the 
Farnese Pal. to so good a purpose, that some of his works done 
afterwards in Naples closely resemble those of Annibale. Some of 
his pictures are seen in the churches of Naples. 

Caraglio or Caralius, Gio. Giacomo, born at Verona, 

/'p v (15127-1570 ?). An eminent Italian designer and engraver 

Vi/ who was celebrated for his copper-plates from 1526 to 1551. 

From his style he is believed to have been a pupil of Marc 


Anton. He executed some medals at the court of Poland which 
gained him much reputation, and he. was often employed to engrave 

Caravaggio, Michael Angelo. See Amerighi. 
. Cardi, Ludovico, called 

Q* f*\ f-e j- -r-\ T -it T -T -j Cigoli from the place of his 
T A V^IV. I* . 1 IN V birth (1559-1613). One of 

those artists distinguished 

more by the absence of any glaring faults than by the presence of 
any striking excellences. His color was warm and pleasing, but his 
expression was often exaggerated. He was a follower of Ban>< - 
cio, and well understood chiaro-scuro. His designs were sometimes 
grand. S. Francis was one of the favorite subjects of this artist, 
and one of the best of these pictures is in the Pitti Pal., where there 
is also a " Christ walking on the Sea with Peter " and an " Ecee 
Homo," which last merits much praise. In the Louvre there is a beau- 
tiful " Flight into Egypt." Several of his works are in the churches 
of Rome and Florence. He engraved the two following plates : 

Mary Magdalene washing the feet of Christ : 

The Conversion of S. Paul. 

Cardisco, Marco, called II Calabrese. A Calabrian who flour- 
ished from 1508 to 1542. Some of his works may be seen in tilt- 
churches of Naples. 

Carducci or Carducho, Bartolomeo, born at Florence, 15GO; died 
at Madrid, 1608. A pupil of Zucearo, he went with him to Spain. 
Carducho had also studied sculpture and architecture under Barto- 
lomeo Ammanati at Florence, lie was employed by both Philip II. 
and his successor. Henry IV. invited him to the court of France, 
but he preferred to stay in Spain. Among his works at the Escorial, 
the frescoes in the spaces between the bookcases aud the cornice of 
the library are especially fine. The work which most established 
his reputation was the " Descent from the Cross," painted for the 
ch. of S. Felipe el Real. He was engaged in painting a gallery at tin- 
Pal, of the Pardo at the time of his death. He was an imitator of 
the antique. His drawing and coloring were good, and he was 
fastidious to a fault, in his own ideas of excellence. He never felt as 
if a picture was finished, and he declared that it was not the people that 
he wished to please, but those who could judge of art. 

Carducci or Carducho, Vincenzo, born at Florence, 15GSS; died 
at Alcala de Ilenares, 1C38. Brother of Bartolomeo, who brought 
him to Madrid in 1585. Vincenxo was accustomed to declare himself 
more a Spaniard than an Italian. lie was instructed in painting by 
his brother, and at his death was appointed to succeed him as painter 
to the king. He had an inventive genius, and was not confined to 
any one class of subjects. He had studied anatomy to good advan- 
tage, and his pictures are vigorous in action, his draperies grand, and 


his coloring rich. In the National Mus. of Madrid are the pictures 
which he painted for the Chartreuse of Paular. They number 54, 
and he agreed to paint them in four years. Twenty-six of these 
illustrate the life of S. Bruno; an equal number represent events in 
the history of the order, and two are a combination of the arms of 
the Royal House and those of the Carthusians. These works are a 
wonderful monument to his industry and inventive powers. They 
lose much of their effect from being seen in a museum. They Avere 
intended for the lonely silence and gloomy shadows of a cloister, and 
to speak to the hearts of those who lived in perpetual silence, to 
whom the figures of these pictures became friends, and were to them 
the only reminder of the mothers and sisters they had left, or, in 
fact, of the existence of woman in the world. What is absurd to us 
now, was venerable and lovely to them. The pictures of Carducho 
are seen in most of the Castilian cities. In the Gall, of the Queen 
of Spain, there are three pictures of a different order of subjects: 
" The Taking of Rheinfelt," " The Relief of Constance," and " The 
Victory at Florus." There is also a colossal study of a man's head, 
which is very effective if viewed from a favorable position. Collec- 
tors of sketches formerly esteemed those of Carducho very highly. 
He also wrote a book of "Dialogues on Fainting," published in 
1633. This book is very curious and rare. His portrait at the 
Louvre, Gall. Espagn., No. 454, represents him as turning the leaves 
of this book with one hand, and holding a pen in the other. 

Cariano, Gio., born at Bergamo. Flourished early in the 16th 
century. His chef-d'oeuvre was a " Madonna and Saints " painted 
for the ch. of S. Gottardo in Bergamo, which was removed to the 
Gall, of Milan, No. 113, during the French domination. He made a 
fine reputation as a portrait painter. Several of his works remain in 
Bergamo; Palazzo Borghese, Rome, Room IX., No. 32 ; Hermitage, 
St. Petersburg!!, No. 116; Dresden Mus., No. 218 ; Berlin Mus., No. 

Carlevariis, Luca, born at Udina, 1665; died at Venice, 1729. 
His pictures are little known out of Venice, and represent views of 
that city and other sea-ports. His figures have spirit, but his color 
is not good. He made 100 good etchings of views in Venice. 

Carloni, Gio., born at Genoa (1590-1 6 3u). He studied under 
Passignano at Florence, and became a good fresco painter, especially 
remarkable for his fine coloring. 

Carloni, Giambattista (1594-1680). Younger brother of the 
preceding, with whom he studied under Passignano, and painted with 
him afterwards. He was remarkable for his large family, having had 
24 children by his wife Nicoletta Scorza. Three of his sons were 
painters. The Cath. of Guastato at Genoa was the place where the 
Carloni executed their best and most extensive works. 

Carotto, Giaufrancesco, born at Verona (1470-1546). Out of 


Verona his works are rare ; there they are in the churches and the 
Palazzo del Consiglio. Mantegna was his teacher, but his works 
more nearly imitate the manner of Leonardo. His drawing was 
severe, his color warm and well blended. The " History of Tobias " in 
S. Eufemia is an excellent series of pictures. 

Carpaccio, Vittore. Flourished early in the IGth century. Kug- 
ler calls him " the historical painter of the elder Venetian school." 
His pictures represent daily life in Venice. The backgrounds have 
landscape, architecture, etc., and his figures are numerous and full 
of spirit, his color deep and powerful. Many of his works are in 
the Acad. of Venice, among which are eight representing S. Ursula 
and her 11,000 virgins. His pictures are also in the Venetian 
churches, in the Brera, the Louvre, and the Berlin Gall. 

Carpi, Ugo da. Flourished about 1510. Born at Rome. 
Painter and engraver, but chiefly important on account of having 
invented (as it is believed) that kind of wood-engraving which imi- 
tates drawings, and is called chiaro-scuro. Bartsch gives o2 plates 
by Carpi; they are mostly after the works of Raphael and Parmigi- 
anino, and are spirited and masterly. 

Carpi, Oirolamo, born at Ferrara (1501-1556 V). Pupil of Garo- 
falo. Painted both in fresco and oil, and succeeded in portrait-. He 
was also an architect and a decorative painter. Julius III. desired tn 
have him superintend the Vatican buildings, but his rivals in Rome 
so disturbed him that he returned to Ferrara. 

Carpioni, Giulio, born at Venice (1611-1674). Pupil of Ales- 
sandro Varotari, called Paduanino. He painted bacchanals and 
history, and small sacred subjects, many of which are in the churches 
of the Venetian states. Some of his works are close imitations of 
Paolo Veronese, and some remind one of Niccolo Poussin. though 
upon examination the figures are not as highly finished as those of 
Poussin, and the color is more opaque. His pictures are in private 
galleries in England. 

Carracci, Ludovico, born at Bologna (1555-1619). The founder 
of what is called the School of the Carracci. This was the nut im- 
portant of the eclectic schools of Bologna. Ludovico was a pupil of 
Prospero Fontana, and afterwards of Tintoretto. He studied with 
more system and devotion to the principles of art than was the cus- 
tom of his time. He thus incurred much criticism, and by it be be- 
came convinced of the need of a reform in the study and practice of 
painting. In the formation and conducting of his school he was as- 
sisted by bis two nephews, Agostino and Annibale. The former 
composed a sonnet in which the principles of their theory v. 
forth. He advocated the selection of the chief points of excellence 
from various masters, pnr exemple, the color of Lombard v. the truth 
and nature of Titian, the design of Rome, etc.. etc. : and all these 
were to be united to the study of Nature. But although this doctrine 


was the foundation of the school of the Carraeci, they soon went be- 
yond it, and became independent artists, guided by their own genius. 
Their school, however, was most prosperous; so much so that all 
other schools in Bologna were closed. They furnished casts, models, 
and drawings, as well as living subjects for study, and were most 
attentive to their pupils. They also gave theoretic instruction in 
anatomy, perspective, etc. Ludovico excelled more as a teacher than 
as a painter, and in his works the greatest ability is found in their 
examination in single parts, rather than as a whole. The larger 
number of his works are in Bologna, and in the Gall, there is a 
fine Madonna surrounded with a glory of angels, with SS. Francis and 
Jerome ; she is standing on the moon. Same coll. , ' ' Birth of S. John 
the Baptist " has some most attractive features. Several of his pic- 
tures are in the Louvre, and in the Doria and Corsini galleries in 
Rome. He seems to have been the first to depict the pathos of sor- 
row, and his example resulted in the almost numberless sorrowing 
Maries and Ecce Homos of the Bolognese artists. There is a higher 

o O 

feeling in his works which raises him above his own school. Sir 
Joshua Reynolds gives Ludovico unbounded praise. It is said that 
when the scaffoldings were removed in the Cath. of Bologna, he dis- 
covered some errors in the " Annunciation," which could not be rem- 
edied then, and that this disappointment hastened his death. We 
have a few plates engraved by Ludovico from his own designs, in a 
masterly style. They are first etched and then finished with the 


E fir/racer, ALGARDI, Alessandro. A Blind Beggar and his Dog. 
The Cries of Bologna, in 80 plates, engraved by Algardi in conjunc- 
tion with Simon Guillain. 

Engraver, ALIAMET, Fran9ois Germain. The Adoration of the 

Engraver, AQUILA, Francesco Faraonc. The Dead Christ in the 
Lap of the Virgin, with Mary Magdalene and S. Francis. 

AUBERT, Michel. Pan instructed by Cupid; half-length figures. 

AUDRAX, Charles. The Annunciation; inscribed Spiritus Sanclus, 
etc., incorrectly attributed on the plate to Annibale. The picture is 
in the Bologna Cath.; very fine. 

Engraver, AUDRAX, John. S. John administering the Sacrament 
to the Virgin. 

Engraver, BAILLU. The Dead Christ on the Lap of the Virgin. 

Engraver, BARTOLI, Pietro Sante. The Virgin and Child in the 
Clouds, with Saints. 

Engraver, BLAXCHARD, James. S. Agnes adoring the Child in 
the arms of the Virgin. 

Engraver, BOULAXGER, John. The Holy Family, with S. Joseph 
giving the Infant some Cherries. 


Engraver, BRIZZIO, or BKICCIO, Francesco. The Return out of 
Egypt. Portrait of Cinthio Aldrobrandini. A Frontispiece inscribed 
Explicatione del Sacro, lenzuolo ; 1599; scarce. Another Frontispiece 
inscribed Tempio at Cardinale Cinthio Aldrobramlini ; 1579. Another 
Frontispiece with the Arms of the Duke of Modcna, with children in 
the middle; 1594: very scarce. S. Francis holding the Infant Jesus, 
with the Virgin in the Clouds. The Virgin crowned, with the Infant 
and two Angels. 

Engraver, CAMERATA, Giuseppe. S. Roch. The Assumption of 
the Virgin. 

Engraver, CANTARINI, Simone. S. Benedict curing a Demoniac. 

Plates by himself, from his own Designs. 
Samson overcoming the Lion; L. C. G. 
The Virgin and Child with four Angels ; half length. 
The Virgin suckling the Infant ; half length ; Lori. Car. inv.f. 
The Holy Family, with the Virgin washing Linen ; L. C.f. 
Another Holy Family ; 1604; Ludnvlco Carracci fee. 
Another Holy Family under an Arch. 
The Frontispiece to the Poems of Cesare Rimaldi. 
A Thesis with the arms of Bonfigliovoli, with Mercury and Her- 

Engraver, ClAUBKRLAKO, Luca. Christ appearing to S. Then-a : 

Engraver, CoRiOLANO, Gio. Batista. Christ crowned with Thorns: 

Engraver, CORNEILLK, Michel the Elder. The Virgin suckling the 

Engraver, CORNEILLK, Michael the Younger. Marriage of S. 

Engraver, CORT, Cornelius. The Cord of S. Francis. 

Engraver. CTXKGO, Domenico. The birth of S. John Baptist. 

Engraver, DARET, Peter. The Virgin suckling the Child. 

Engraver, DUPUIS, Nicholas Gabriel. S. Sebastian. 

Engraver, FANTETTI, Cesare. Christ in the Garden. 

Engraver, FREY, James. Crowning of the Virgin. 

Engraver, FREZZA, Gio. Girolamo. The Virgin suckling the Child. 

Engraver, GAXTREL, Stephen. S. Francis supported by an Angel. 

Engraver, GATTI, Oliviero. An emblematical subject repre^ent- 
ing an armorial bearing supported by two river gods, surrounded by 
several mythological personages. 

Engraver, GIOVANNIXI, Giacomo Maria. S. Sebastian. 

Engraver, GRKEX, Valentine. The Entombing of Chris*-. 

Engraver, KESSEL, Theodore. Christ and the Woman of Samaria. 
The Woman taken in Adultery. 


Engraver, LASXK, Michael. The Visitation of the Virgin. 

Engraver, LOREXZIXI, Fra Antonio. The Ascension. 

Engraver, MATTIOLI, Ludovico. The Annunciation ; scarce. The 

Engraver, MORIX. John. The Virgin, with the Dead Christ. 

Engraver, PASQUILIXI, Gio. Batista. S. Felix kneeling before 
the Virgin and Child. 

Engraver, PITAU, Nicholas. The Entombing of Christ. 

Engraver, PODESTA, Andrea. Two Subjects from the Life of S. 

Engraver, POILLY, Francis the Elder. The Dead Christ on the 
Lap of the Virgin at the foot of the Cross. 

Engraver, Rossi, Girolamo, called DE RUBEIS THE ELDER. The 
Virgin and Child, with SS. Jerome and Francis, inscribed Hieroni- 
mus tie Rubeis piclor, delineartt incidit. 

Engraver, SCARAMUCCIA, Luigi. S. Benedict praying. 

Engraver, SCHULZE, John Gotfried. The Head of Christ. 

Engraver, SIMOXEAU, Charles. The Stoning of Stephen. 

Engracer, TOKRE, Flaminio. The Virgin and Child with SS. 
Francis and Jerome ; very fine. 

Engraver, TRABALLESI, Giulio. Conversion of S. Paul. 

Carracci, Agostino, born at Bologna (1558-1602). A man of 
poetic temperament and superior education. In the school he super- 
intended the theoretical instruction. His pictures are rare, and the 
most important one is the " Communion of S. Jerome," now in the 
Gall, of Bologna. The " Infant Hercules " in the Louvre has been at- 
tributed to Annibale, but belongs to Agostino Carracci. There is no 
doubt that the advice and suggestion of Agostino had much to do 
with the works of Annibale, especially in his mythological pictures, 
for the latter had not sufficient knowledge to have guided him in 
these undertakings. But Agostino is chiefly famous as an engraver. 
and is one of the most celebrated Italians in that art. His plates are 
very numerous. The heads are admirable, and the extremities are 
worked with the greatest care. His instructor was Cornelius Cort, 
and his manner is bold and free like that of his master. He seems 
to have used the graver entirely. 


Engraver, BARTOLOZZI, Francesco. The Adulteress before Christ. 

Engraver, BRIZZIO or BRICCIO, Francesco. The great S. Jerome; 
the plate left imperfect by Carracci, and finished by Brizzio. Christ 
and the Samaritan Woman; 1610. 

Principal Plates by himself, after his own Designs, Portraits and other 


Agostino Carracci. 

Antonio Carracci, his father; very scarce. 


Medallion of the Emperor Augustus; C. A. 

Bust of Cosmos I., with ornamental figures. 

The Head of a Woman; fine. 

Portrait of a Lady, with a collar of pearls. 

Giovanni Tommaso Costanzo. 

Princess Christina of Lorraine. 

Ulysses Aldrovandus. 

Mure Antonio Raimondi. 

Titiano Vecelli. 1587. 

Antonio Carracci as S. Joseph. 

Eve giving the Apple to Adam. 1581. 

The Virgin and Child. 

The Virgin suckling the Child. 

The Repose in Egypt. 

The Virgin in the Clouds giving the Scapulary to a Saint. 

The Virgin Seated on a Step with the Child; SS. Joseph and 
John and an Angel; scarce. 

Good Samaritan. Proofs before the letter are very rare. The 
impressions with the name of Bertelli are retouched. 

The Crucifixion, with two Females representing Christianity and 

The Resurrection. 

Le Nome di Dio. The Pope and the Senate of Venice kneeling 
before the Virgin; Luc. Bartelli, formis. 1582. 

S. Francis of Assisi receiving the Stigmata; Agos. Car. 1586. 

The Cord of S. Francis; S. Francis distributing cords to persons 
of different orders. 1586. 

S. Jerome kneeling at the entrance of a cave. There are impres- 
sions of this plate which are very scarce, where it is three parts fin- 
ished, and the rest slightly sketched. The plate was finished by 

Seventeen plates of free subjects, called Le Lascivie dei Carracci. 

Two other indecent subjects. 

A Landscape with naked figures. 

A Landscape with the same; a dance in the distance. 

Cupid conquering Pan; Omnia vincit Amor. 1599. 

Perseus corn bat in-.: the Monster. 

Frontispiece for the book " Cremona Fidelissima," which contains 
35 portraits engraved by Agostino; very scarce. 

Subjects after Various Masters not Mentioned Elsewhere. 

A Child blowing Bubbles, (ioltzius. Very scarce. 

Jacob watering the Flocks of Raehael. D. Calcart. 1581. 

Judith; half length. Lorenzo Sabbat ini. Tobit conducted by the 
Angel; improperly marked liaffaelle d'Urbino. It is after Raffaelle 
da Reygio. 


The Presentation in the Temple. Orazio Samacchini. 
The Virgin and Child giving the Keys to S. Peter. The same. 
Adoration of the Magi. 1579. Balth. Peruzzi pinx. 
Adoration of the Magi. Marco del Moro. 
Mocking of Christ. Vesp. Strada, pinx. 
The Dead Christ supported by an Angel. The same. 
Nativity of the Virgin. And. del Sarlo. 
The Virgin crowned by the Trinity. A. Mostaert. 
The Holy Family. Fed. Baroccio. 
/Eneas carrying his Father. The same. 
Holy Family with S. Michael. L. Sabbatini. 

The Virgin with a crescent, and the Child giving the Benediction. 
The same. 

The Virgin and Child, with several Saints. Giulio Campi. 
S. Paul resuscitating Eutychus. Antonio Campi. 
The Holy Family. B. Passeri. 
The Virgin ; half length. Giacomo Francia. 
S. Sebastian. Francesco Francia. 
The Virgin suckling the Child. Gio. LigozzL 
S. Jerome; half length. Vanni. 

Engraver, CORXEILLE, Michel the lounger. The Virgin and Child. 

Engraver, CUXEGO, Domenico. Galatea, from the Farnese Gall. 

Engraver, FAKIAT or FAKJAT, Benoit. The Marriage, or the 
Crowning of S. Catherine. 

Engraver, GALLK, Cornelius the Elder. Venus bound to a Tree, 
and Minerva chastising Cupid. 

Engraver, GATTI, Oliviero. S. Jerome with a Crucifix. 

Engraver, GRKEN, Valentine. Venus and Cupid. 

Engraver, LOKEXZIXI, Fra Antonio. The Virgin and Child. 

Engraver, MATTIOLI, Ludovico. The Nativity. 

Engraver, PERUIEU, Francois. Communion of S Jerome. Flight 
into Egypt, 

Engraver, RAVENET, Simon Francis. Tobit anointing his father's 

Engracer, TORRE, Flaminio. Pan conquered by Cupid; very fine. 

Engraver, THABALLESI, Giulio. Communion of S. Jerome. 

Engraver, VANGELISTI, Vincenzio. Venus chastising Cupid. 

_^ Carracci, Annibale, born at Bologna (15GO-1609). 

Z\ I The most distinguished of his family. His earlier works 

^"^ evidence his study of Correggio and Paul Veronese; but 

after he went to Rome he developed new power under the influence 

of the antique, and of Michael Angelo and Raphael. Although his 

pictures often fail to please, it is impossible not to recognize in them 

the genius of a great master. Those in the Farnese Pal. were his 

last important works. He painted landscapes as well as historical 




subjects, and in some cases the attention is much divided between his 
figures and the background. His pictures are very numerous and are 
in almost all good collections. It is said that he painted very little 
during the last five years of his life. He died at Rome, and was bur- 
ied in the Pantheon, near Raphael. Annibale excelled in small com- 
positions of the Madonna and Holy Families. His " Three Ma- 
ries " is very fine, and full of deep pathos in its expression of sor- 
row. But his Farnese pictures are generally considered his greatest 
works, and are a good example of the school of the C'arracci. 



In the Farnese Pal., Rome. 

Engraver, AUDKXAERDE or OUDENAERDE, Robert Van. The 
Birth of the Virgin. 

Engraver, AUDRAN, Charles. The Baptism of Christ; small oval. 

Engrarer, ArnRAN, Gerard. The Death of S. Francis. Martyr- 
dom of S. Sebastian. Achilles at the court of Lycomedes. Tempta- 
tion of S. Anthony. 

Engrarer, AUDRAN, John. The Good Samaritan: arrlu-d. 

Engraver, BARTOLI, Pietro Sante. The Family of Coriolanus at 
his Feet. S. Charles Borromeo led by an Angel. 

Engraver, BARTOLOZZI, Francesco. Portrait of Annibale Carracci. 

Engraver, BAUDET, Stephen. The Dead Christ on the Lap of 
the Virgin; The Stoning of Stephen; 1677. 

Engraver, BRIZZIO or BRICCIO, Francesco. A Blind Man led by 
a Dorr. 


His own Plates. 


The Virgin suckling the Child; oval. 
The Virgin supporting the Head of the Child sleeping. 
The Virgin and Child, and S. John presenting a Bird. 
The Virgin seated, the Child standing. 
Adoration of the Shepherds. 

The Virgin of the Porringer giving Drink to S. John. 1606. 
A Dead Christ, called the Christ of the Caprarole. 1597. 
Christ crowned with Thorns; A. C. inv. etfec. 1606. 
S. Jerome with Spectacles. 
S. Francis with the Crucifix and Skull. 
S. Francis kneeling at the foot of a Rock. 
S. Petronius kneeling. 
Apollo playing the Lyre, with Pan. 
An Old Man with two other Figures. 
Venus sleeping, with Cupid and a Satyr. 
Venus sleeping, contemplated by a Satyr, menaced by Cupid. 
Silemis, a Faun, and Satyr, called the Cup of Annibale. 
The Triumph of Bacchus, a Salver to the Cup ; both very scarce. 
Acis and Galatea, with a Satyr. 
Susanna and the Elders; very scarce. 

Engraver, CESI or CESIO, Carlo. Forty-one plates from the Far- 
nese Gall. 

Engraver, CHATEAU or CHASTEAU, William. The Stoning of 
Stephen. Assumption of the Virgin. Christ appearing to S. Peter. 

Engraver, COIIXKILLE, Michel the Younger. Jacob wrestling with 
the Angel. S. John preaching in the Desert. S. Jerome. S. Francis 
receiving the Stigmata. Silenus, a Satyr, and Faun. Abraham send- 
ing away Hagar. 

Engraver, CORXEILLE, Michel the Younger. S. John in the Wil- 
derness. Christ with the Samaritan Woman. 

Engraver, CUXEGO, Domenico. Apollo and Silenus. 

Engraver, Dupris, Nicholas Gabriel. The Virgin and Child, with 

Engraver, EARLOM, Richard. Christ curing the Blind. 

Engraver, FAXTETTI, Cesare. Charity, with three Children. 

Engraver, FARIAT or FARJAT, Benoit. The Virgin and Child, 
with S. John presenting Fruit, 

Engraver, GALESTRUZZI, Gio. Batista. Mercury giving the 
Golden Apple to Paris. 

Engraver, GRIMALDI, Gio. Francesco. Two upright Landscapes. 
A set of four Landscapes. 

Enqra>-er, HAIXZELMAXN, Elias. The Virgin and S. John, with 
the Child sleeping, called " The Silence." 


Engraver, HAIXZELMAXN, John. The Child embracing the 

Engraver, LAXGLOIS, John. Tobit and the Angel. 

Enyracer, LASNE, Michael. The Virgin, called " Tlie Silence." 

Engraver, LOMBARD or LOMBART, Peter. The Virgin and Child. 

Engraver, MAXXL or MAENXL, Jacob. Susanna and the Elders. 

Engraver, MATTIOLI, Ludovico. Christ and the Woman of Sa- 

Engraver, MICHEL, John Baptist. Clytie; circular. 

Engraver, MITELLI, Giuseppe Maria. The Cries of Bologna; 41 

Engraver, PASQUILIXI, Gio. Batista. S. Diego working a Miracle. 

Engraver, PiccHiAXTi, Gio. Douieuico. The Virgin and Child 
with S. John. 

Engraver, Po, Pietro del. S. John in the Wilderness. The 
AVoman of Canaan before Christ. The Dead Christ on the Lap of 
the Virgin. 

Engraver, PoiLLY, Francis the Elder. The Repose in Egypt, in 
which the Virgin is sleeping, with two Angels kneeling. 

Engraver, RENI, Guido. Holy Family, with S. Clara. The Vir- 
gin suckling the Child. The Charity of S. Roch ; 1610. 

Engraver, Rossi, Girolamo, called De Rubeis the Elder. S. Charles 
Borromeo kneeling before a Crucifix. 

Engraver, RouLLKT, John Louis. The three Maries Avith the 
Dead Christ; very fine. The Virgin and Child. 

Engraver, ROUSSEAU, James. The Repose in Egypt. S. John 
baptizing the people of Israel. 

Engraver, SCARAMCCCIA, Lnigi. Venus and Adonis. The Virgin. 

Engraver, SCHMIDT, George Frederick. Alexander and his Phy- 
sician. Timocleus justified by Alexander. 

Engraver, SHARP, William. The three Maries and Dead Christ; 
plate left unfinished. 

Engraver, SIMOXEATJ, Charles. The Adoration of the Shepherds. 
Christ and the Woman of Samaria. 

Engraver, VORSTEUMAX, Lucas the Elder. Christ praying in the 

Engraver, WOOLLETT, William. A Landscape with figures and 
a waterfall. 

Carre' or Carrey, Michael, born at Amsterdam (1GGG-1728?). A 
landscape and cattle painter. His works resemble those of Van der 
Leeuw more than those of Nicholas Berghem, with whom he is said 
to have studied. He was employed by the King of Prussia, and ap- 
pointed one of his principal painters. His easel pictures arc M-CH in 
many collections, and are very good. 

Carreno, as he is commonly known, was a native of Aviles (1614 
1G85). His whole name was Juan Carreno de Miranda. His parents 


were of noble families, and the Carrenos had been eminent among the 
knights of Spain for nearly three centuries before his time. Juan 
learned to draw in the school of Pedro de las Cuevas, and to use 
colors in that of Bartolome Roman. Before the death of Philip IV., 
he was appointed one of his court painters; and when the king asked 
Colonna whom he considered the first painter of Madrid, the Bo- 
lognesc replied in favor of Carreno. Before he was called to court, he 
had painted many pictures for the churches and convents of Madrid, 
and had acquired a good reputation in the city. In 1665 he was em- 
ployed in the Cath. of Toledo; and in 1671 had so advanced in the 
favor of Charles, the young king, that he made him painter in ordi- 
nary and deputy Aposentador, and gave him the cross of Santiago. 
He would allow no other artist to paint his likeness without the con- 
sent of Carreno; and the portraits of this artist were so well 
considered, that most of the eminent men of his time desired to 
possess them. He deserved all his good fortune. His drawing was 
correct, his color harmonious, his portraits easy and truthful, and his 
religious compositions were highly esteemed. He was good-tempered 
and affable, and much regretted by all who knew him. Some anec- 
dotes are told of him, and it is said, that being one day in a house 
where a copy of Titian's " S. Margaret " hung upon the wall, a discus- 
sion arose as to who had painted it. Every one declared it abom- 
inable. Carreno said, " It at least has the merit of showing that no 
man need despair of improving in art, for I painted it myself when 
I was a beginner." It happened at one time that Gregorio Utande, 
a poor artist, had painted a " Martyrdom of S. Andrew " for the Car- 
melite nuns of Alcala, for which he demanded 100 ducats. The 
nuns refused to pay it, and desired to have the picture valued by 
Carreno. Accordingly Utande proceeded to the capital, and first 
presented Carreno with a jar of honey, and then begged him to re- 
touch his S. Andrew. Carreno consented, and, in fact, repainted 
the picture. A short time after, he was astonished at being asked to 
value the same; he declined, and it was left to Herrera-Barnuevo, 
who called it worth 200 ducats. Utande, after receiving his money, 
told of his trick, and the work was known as la Canfarilla de Miel. 
The Queen of Spain's Gall, has several portraits by Carreno, among 
which is that of Bishop Potemkin, the ambassador of the Czar of 
Muscovy, who, with his long beard and red robes, was a subject to 
please an artist. There is also a curious study of a female dwarf, 
with an apple in each hand, and a gaudy, flowered robe. 

Carriera. See Rosalba. 

Cars, Laurence, born at Lyons (1702 7-1771). One of the best 
French designers and engravers of the 18th century. His best 
works are after Le Moine: and that of " Hercules and Omphale " is 
his citff-d'ceuvre. He left many plates. 

Carstens, Asmus Jacob, born in Schleswig (1754-1798). A 


groat lover of Michael Angelo and classic art. He gave a new im- 
pulse to German artists, and his fine paintings and drawings did much 
in their noble simplicity to cast off mechanical drowsiners, and 
arouse his countrymen to the poetic sentiment which now distin- 
guishes them. 

Carucci, Jacopo, called Pontormo, f rom his birthplace (1493-1558). 
After studying under other masters he entered the school of Andrea 
del Sarto, who, from jealousy of his fine powers, expelled him from 
his academy. In his large works he disappointed the expectations 
founded on his youthful promise, but he excelled as a portrait painter. 
There are good portraits of him in the Berlin Mus., and in the t'lli/i 
one of Cosmo dei Medici, which is vivid in color. In the National 
Gall, there is a portrait by him of a young Italian nobleman, which is 
very fine. 

Casalina, Lucia, born at Bologna (1677-1762). A very successful 
portrait painter. Her own likeness painted by herself is in the Flor- 
entine Gall. 

Casanova, Francesco, born in London (1732-1805). Son of Ve- 
netian parents, he was early placed under the instruction of Guardi. 
He painted battles, landscapes, and animal subjects. He was ad- 
mitted to the French Acad., and settled in Vienna. Two of his large 
battle pieces are in the Louvre. 

Casentino, Jacopo di, born at Prato Vecohio (1310 7-1390 ?). A 
relative of the family of Messer Christoforo Landino. lie acompa- 
nied Taddeo Gaddi to Florence. He painted many frescoes, of which 
few remain, and was an architect as well as a painter. lie is worthy 
of notice as one of the founders of the Florentine Acad. of S. Luke. In 
the National Gall, there is an altar-piece by him, formerly in the ch. 
of S. Giovanni Evangelista at Prato Vecchio. It has 22 compart- 
ments, and represents the old legend of the lifting of the Kvangeli-t 
to heaven. It was probably the clief-d* ceuere of Casentino. No. 1 292, 
Uffizi, is also his work, and is a predella, representing a religious cere- 
mony in the centre, with side pictures from the life of S. Peter. It 
is better painted than the National Gall, picture. 

Casolani, Alessandro, born at Siena (1552-1606). A reputable 
painter of history. whos<- works may be seen in the churches of 
Siena, and also at Naples and Genoa. 

Casolani, Hario, son of the preceding. Several of his works are 
in the churches of Rome, where lie died in middle life. 

Cassana, Gio. Francesco, born at Genoa (1611-1691). A 
painter of history and portraits; in the latter he excelled. He was 
the father of a family of artists who wen- all of good reputation. 
Niecolo was an excellent portrait painter, and went to England in 
Queen Anne's time. He painted her portrait, and those of many 
nobles. He died in London, in 1713. Abate Gio. Agostino painted 
animals, and his works are in the collections of Genoa, Venice, and 


Florence; died 1720. Gio. Batista painted fruit, flowers, and still 
life. Maria A r ittoria executed small devotional subjects for private 
collections, and her works were much esteemed; died 1711. 

Cassteels, Peter, born at Antwerp (1684-1749). A successful 
painter of flowers, birds, fruit, etc. He also engraved some plates 
which are not without merit. 

Castagno, Andrea del, born at Castagno (1390-1457). The 
name of this painter has been loaded with infamy as the murderer of 
Domenico Veneziano, from whom it is said he had learned the secret 
of oil-painting, and killed him that he might be the sole possessor of 
this knowledge. But of this crime he could scarcely have been guilty, 
since, according to Signor Gaetano Milanesi, he died three years 
before Domenico! (See Giornale Stor. ub. sup. pp. 6, 7). As a 
painter he is a coarse and exact imitator of nature, rather than the 
follower of any school. Some of his works show the study of the 
antique; his colors were used with a dash, but his flesh tints were 
not good; his figures are bold in outline and full of action. He 
painted for the Cath. of S. M. del Fiore at Florence a picture of S. 
Niccolo di Tolentino, intended to represent an equestrian statue. 
It was a remarkable work. It has been transferred to canvas, and 
hangs in the cathedral. Besides his pictures in various places in Flor- 
ence, there are two in the Berlin Mus. 

Castelli, or Castello, Bernardo, born at Genoa (1557-1629). In 
his desire to acquire facility of execution, he fell into many faults. 
His works may be seen in Genoese churches, and at S. Peter's at 
Rome there is one representing " S. Peter walking on the Sea." He 
lived in intimacy with the cultivated and literary men of his time. 
He excelled as a miniaturist, and was praised for his manner of paint- 
ing insects. 

Castelli, Valeric, born at Genoa (1625-1659). Son of the pre- 
ceding. He was a good painter. His sacred subjects are in the 
churches of Genoa, and his battle pieces in the palaces of that city. 

Castelli, Gio. Battista, called II Bergamasco, born at Gandino 
(1500-1570). In his youth he attracted the attention of one of the 
Pallavicini at Genoa, who sent him to Rome, where he became pro- 
ficient in architecture and sculpture, as well as painting. After his 
return to Genoa, he painted in rivalry with Luca Cambiaso. Castelli 
was the more successful one. In 1567 he was invited to Spain by 
Charles V., and received a salary of 300 crowns, besides payment for 
his work. He designed the grand staircase in the Escorial, and 
executed several ceilings in the Palace of Madrid, in which city 
he died. 

Castello. There are several other artists of this name, whose 
works are occasionally seen in churches and galleries. 

Castiglioiie, Gio. Benedetto, born at Genoa 
( 1616 - 1G70 )- Painted landscapes in which he intro- 
duced animals, and sometimes figures. He met Van- 


dyck in Genoa and received some instructions from him, the influence 
of which may be traced in his works. Sometimes he painted re- 
ligious subjects with great tenderness. There are a few studies of 
animals on paper by this artist, which are surprisingly good. As an 
engraver, he deserves notice, having left more than seventy plates 
etched with power, and in light and shade resembling Rembrandt and 
Delia Bella. He used the graver but little. His son Francesco, and 
his brother Salvatore, were his pupils and imitators, but never 
equalled him. 

Castillo Juan del, born at Seville (1584-1640). Pupil of Luis 
Fernandez and teacher of Murillo, Alonso Cano, and Pedro dc Moya. 
He was a distinguished painter of historical subjects. 

Castillo y Saavedra, Antonio del, born at Cordova (1626-1667). 
Studied first with his father, and then at the school of Zurbaran at 
Seville. He painted portraits, sketched from nature, made archi- 
tectural drawings, and executed models for the silversmiths at Cor- 
dova. After his return from Seville, he became the fashionable 
painter of his city, and his portraits were sought by all persons of 
pretension. Flattered by this homage, he desired to win reputation 
in a wider field, and went again to Seville. He was kindly received 
by the artists there, but foolishly praised his own works, at the ex- 
pense of theirs. When, however, he was led to the cathedral to see 
the works of Murillo, he was overpowered by their splendor, and ex- 
claimed, " Castillo is dead." He returned to Cordova and attempted 
to imitate his rival, but soon sickened and died, a victim to his con- 
viction of inferiority; in the same way as Francesco Francia, a cen- 
tury and a half before, is said to have died of the S. Cecilia of Ra- 
phael. Castillo was a man of cultivation and wit. His pupil, Juan 
de Alfaro, visited Madrid, and returned puffed up with his knowledge 
of art. He signed his pictures conspicuously, " Alfaro pinxit; '' 
whereupon Castillo inscribed his "Baptism of S. Francis," ' Xon 
pinxit Alfaro." Most of his works are in the churches and convents 
of Cordova. The Royal Gall, at Madrid has but one the ' Adora- 
tion of the Shepherds " which has strong lights and shadows, etlec- 
tive heads; is well drawn, but dry and disagreeable in color. 

Catena, Vincenzo, born in the Venetian States (1495 7-1531). 
Real name Vincenzo di Biagio. He was a most industrious ar'ist, 
but had no great talent. One of the school of the Bellini, of whom 
he was a close, if not a servile imitator. His best works were his 
portraits, some of which are line. Many of his pictures are in Venice, 
and they are also found in nearly all large collections in Europe. He 
left several wills and codicils, and considerable property. 

Catliii, George, born in Wyoming Valley, Pennsylvania (1794- 
1872). He first studied law, but afterwards devoted himself to 
painting. He spent eight years, 1832-1839, among the American 
Indians, and made the acquaintance of forty-eight different tribes. 


He made many drawings illustrative of their manners and mode of 
life, and painted two hundred portraits of the most prominent chiefs 
and warriors. His gallery was exhibited in this country and in Eu- 
rope, and attracted much attention. His letters concerning this tour 
were published in 1841; he published also the "North American 
Portfolio of Hunting Scenes," 1844; " Notes of Eight Years' Travel 
and Residence in Europe," 1848; " Life among the Indians," and 
' Okeepah," 1867. His first book had over 300 steel-plate engrav- 
ings from his own designs. His books remain the most authentic, as 
well as the most entertaining account we have of the wild tribes 
which he visited. 

Cavallini, Pietro. Very little is positively known, and much has 
been conjected of this artist. It is certain that in 1308 he was em- 
ployed by Robert of Naples, but his works of that time do not exist, 
or are unknown. He was a pupil or follower of Giotto, and had prob- 
ably been instructed by the Cosneati. At S. Grisogono, at Rome, 
there is a mosaic, undoubtedly his, which represents the Virgin en- 
throned, with the Child giving the benediction; SS. James and Chry- 
sogonus are also in the same work. In S. Maria, in Trastevere, 
there are some wall mosaics, much damaged, probably by the same 
hand as the above. He was an architect, as well as a painter and 
worker in mosaics. There is a " Crucifixion" in the ch. of Assisi at- 
tributed to him, but of this there is still some doubt. 

Cavallino, Bernardo, born at Naples ( 1 622-1 G54 ?). An artist 
who painted easel pictures of historical subjects, which may be seen 
in the collections of Naples. He gave promise of great excellence, 
and indeed his works have much merit, but he became intemperate 
and died young. 

Cavallucci, Antonio, born at Sermoneta (1752-1795). A good 
painter of the modern Roman school. His most celebrated work is 
"Venus with Ascanius," Palazzo Cesarini, Rome. 

Cavarazzi, Bartolomeo, called Crescenzi, born at Viterbo 
(1590 ?-l(J25). Studied under Pomerancio. When he left his mas- 
ter he was taken tinder the protection of the family Crescenzi. He 
painted many pictures for his patron, and was much employed in the 
public edifices at Rome. In the ch. of S. Ursula he represented the 
legend of that saint. In S. Andrea della Vallc is his picture of S. 
Carlo kneeling with a choir of angels; and in the convent of S. Anna, 
a "Holy Family." 

Cavedone, Giacomo. A Modenese (1577-1660). A pupil of 
Annibalc Carracci, whom he bid fair to rival, for some of his pictures 
painted in middle life were mistaken for those of his master. But 
through family misfortune he became depressed, relinquished his art, 
and died a beggar in the streets of Bologna. His best works are in 
the public edifices and Gall, of that city. 

Caxes, Patricio. An Italian painter who spent many years in 


Spain. Few of his works remain, for many of them were burned in 
the Pardo. In the Queen of Spain's Gall., there is a large Madonna 
with the Child asleep on her lap, surrounded by adoring an^eR 

Caxes, Eugenio. Son of the preceding, born at Madrid (1577- 
1642). Court painter to Philip III. anil Philip IV. Much employe.! 
in the churches, convents, and edifices of Madrid ; many of his works 
perished in the Pardo and the Convent of S. Philippi. Queen of 
Spain's Gall., " Repulse of the English under Leicester, at Cadiz, 
in 1625." 

Caylus, Anne Claudo Philippe, Comte de (1G92-1765). An 
amateur engraver. He was a zealous lover of art, and did so much 
for its advancement, and for the service of artists, that his name de- 
serves honorable mention in any work referring to the fine arts. 

Celesti, Andrea, born at Venice (1637-1706). One of the best 
painters of the Venetian decline. He imitated Paul Veronese. His 
lights and shadows are better than his middle tints, but this may 
arise from his backgrounds not having been properly prepared. His 
works can be well judged in the Dresden Gall. He painted views of 
Venice and other Italian cities, which are rare and of much value. 

Cellini, Benvenuto, born at Florence (1500-1570). The life of this 
great sculptor was so full of change and incident, that his story is one 
of the most interesting books of its class. Very early in life he de- 
sired to be a sculptor, but his father was determined he should be a 
musician ; and his first fifteen years were divided between the two pur- 
suits. Then, against the will of his father, the son established him- 
self with a goldsmith. His temper constantly led him into difficul- 
ties. On account of an affray he went to Siena, then to Rome, and 
then returned to Florence. Again, for the same reason, he went to 
Rome, and Pope Clement VII. employed him both as sculptor and 
musician. He tells us that he was a good soldier, and claims to have 
killed the Constable Duke of Bourbon and the Prince of Orange while 
fighting in defence of Rome. He returned after a time to Florence, 
and from there went to Mantua, Avhich he was soon obliged -to flee 
on account of some indiscretion. He became known to Michael 
Angelo in Florence. By invitation of the Pope he weYit again to 
Rome, and was appointed engraver of the mint ; but Pomjx'o of Milan. 
who was his enemy, obtained his dismission from office. About 
this time his mistress, Angelica, deserted him, and he spent much 
time with a necromancer, who told him she had gone to Naples. 
He was engaged in another quarrel, and this, united to the influence 
of Pompeo, determined the Pope to arrest him and have him imme- 
diately executed. He was informed of this design, and fled to Na- 
ples, where he met Angelica as had been foretold. She again de- 
ceived him ; and although the Viceroy desired his services, he would 
not remain. He obtained the pardon of the Pope, and again went to 
Rome. In 1534 the Pope died, and as Cellini was returning from S. 


Peter's, where he had been to kiss the feet of his dead patron, he 
met Pompeo and killed him. Paul III. desired his services, so he 
pardoned him and again made him engraver of the mint. Pier Luigi, 
the natural son of the Pope, hated him and determinsd to have him 
assassinated. He learned this and fled again to Florence, where ho 
was received with much honor. But soon the Pope summoned him 
to Home ; and after going there and again returning to Florence, and 
again to Rome, he determined to visit France. Francis I. made him 
great offers if he would remain ; but he was ill, and attributed it to 
the climate. So again he went to Rome only to meet misfortune, 
for his servant accused him of having stolen vast treasures from the 
Castle of S. Angelo during the war. This was utterly false, but he 
was imprisoned, and made his escape. Again he was apprehended 
and treated with great severity. While in prison his release was 
foretold to him in a vision. His friend, the Card, of Ferrara, ob- 
tained his pardon, and they went together to Paris. The salary pro- 
posed to him did not please him, and he set out on a pilgrimage to 
Jerusalem. Francis I. sent in pursuit of him and he was brought 
back. The king would have been his friend but for the influence of 
the favorite, Mme. d'Estampes, who disliked Cellini. He obtained 
permission to return to Florence, and Cosmo de' Medici gave him a 
studio where he commenced his celebrated " Perseus." He then 
went to Venice where he became acquainted with many distinguished 
artists. Returning to Florence he finished the " Perseus." This 
obtained such great honors for him that he made a pilgrimage to 
Vallombrosa and Camaldoli in order to express his gratitude. He 
was then employed on various important works, and contended with 
Bandinellj for the commission of a statue of Neptune. Catherine de' 
Medici wished him to go to France to erect a monument to her hus- 
band, but the Grand Duke required his services, and he left Italy no 
more. His " Perseus," in the Piazza del Gran Duca, Florence, dis- 
plays his merit as a sculptor of large works. He executed many 
portraits, and large numbers of dagger-hilts, medals, coins, clasps, etc. 
His works are not as numerous now as might be expected. One 
great reason for this is the fact that he often worked in the precious 
metals, and they have been destroyed for the sake of their intrinsic 
value, regardless of their merits as works of art. He wrote a treatise 

7 O 

on his art, which is praised by Vasari. He died at Florence and 
was buried in the Annunziata with great pomp. 

Cephisodotus, the Elder. A sculptor of Athens. Probably the 
father of Praxiteles. In the Glyptothek at Munich there is a copy of 
a statue by this master which represents Irene with Plutus in her 
arms. The forms are grand, the drapery admirable, and the whole 
expression noble. This artist represents the transition period between 
the severe and sublime art of Phidias and the grace of Praxiteles. 

Ceracchi, Joseph (1760-1800). He had an eventful life. In 


1782 he was in London, and made some excellent busts of distin- 
guished men. But not finding sufficient employment, lie went in 
1790 to Vienna. Soon after this he met Napoleon, and executed his 
bust so well that he was invited to Paris, where he was guillotined, 
in 1800, on account of the part which he had taken in the invention 
of the Hell-machine. The bust of Napoleon is in the (ilyptothek at 
Munich; that of Metastasio is in the Pantheon at Rome. One of his 
best works was the bust of Prince "Weuzel von Kaunitz, which he 
executed at Vienna. 

Cerano, H. See Crespi. 

Cerezo, Matteo, born at Burgos (1635-1675). An excellent pupil 
of Carreno. He was called the Vandyck of Spain. Queen of Spain's 
Gall., " Marriage of S. Catherine ;" " S. Jerome ; " " Assumption of 
the Virgin." 

Cerquozzi, Michael Angelo, called Michael Angclo dellc Iat- 
taglie; born at Rome (I600-16fi0). A distinguished painter of 
battle scenes. The works of Peter de Laer were so in vogue in 
Rome, that Cerquozzi gave himself to the same style of painting, and 
represented fairs, and festive scenes in low life. He heeded not the 
prettinessof peasant life, but chose the lazzaroni, etc., as his subjects. 
He could rival many of the best masters of the Netherlands in color, 
finish, completeness, and naivete. In the Spada Pal., Rome, there is 
a very touching representation of a Dead Ass, with the family to 
whom it belonged grouped around it ; Berlin Mus., a fine representa- 
tion of the entrance of one of the Popes into Home. 

Cesare, Giuseppe, il Cavaliere d'Arpino, born at Rome (1568- 
1640). Pupil of Roncalli. He had great facility of handling, and 
finding himself able to please, he did not study thoroughness. His 
influence upon art was bad, although he acquired great reputation, 
and was much employed. He had also many scholars, and opposed 
himself to other schools, especially that of the Carracci. His fres- 
coes on the ceiling of the choir of S. Silvestro a Monte Cavallo are 
his best works. His pictures of " Diana and Actaeon," and ' Hath- 
ing Nymphs " are also among his finer pictures. 

Cesi, Bartolommeo, born at Bologna (1556-1629). A contempo- 
rary of the Carracci, and often employed with them. He deserves 
honorable mention among the artists of his time. His frescoes \\vre 
superior to his oil pictures. Many of his works arc in Bologna. 

Cespedes, Pablo de, born at Cordova (1538-1608). Painter, 
architect, sculptor, divine, poet, and scholar. He studied at the 
University of Alcalh, and excelled in the language* of the Orient. 
He went to Rome and studied. He was an intimate friend, some 
say the pupil, of Federigo Zuccaro. AVhile in Rome, Cespedes 
painted in several churches, and made a head of Seneca in marble, 
which he fitted to an antique trunk. This gained for him the title of 
" Victor il Spaynuolo." When Zuccaro was asked to paint a pic- 


ture for the Cath. of Cordova he declined, and said that while Ces- 
pedes was in Spain they had no need of Italian artists. He left 
many writings, among which were an essay on the antiquity of the 
Cath. of Cordova, a discourse on ancient and modern painting and 
sculpture, and a poem on painting. His works which remain scarcely 
support the fame which he enjoyed as a painter. His " Last Sup- 
per," in the Cath. of Cordova, is too faded to be judged fairly. In 
the foreground are some jars and vases which it is said were so well 
painted, that some visitors complimented them, to the neglect of the 
rest of the picture. Cespedes angrily commanded his servant to rub 
them out, and only the most judicious entreaty and admiration saved 
them from destruction. In the Cath. there is also a Virgin, Infant, 
and S. Anne. In the counting-room of the Cath. of Seville there is 
a picture of "Abraham offering up his Son." It is good in color. 
Isaac is modelled after- one of the boys of the " Laocob'u." In the 
Louvre there is a portrait of Cespedes, said to have been painted by 
himself. His biographer likened his coloring to that of Correggio. 
Cespedes was as modest as he was learned. He was also much be- 
loved, and when made a canon in the Cath. of Cordova, he was re- 
ceived with "full approbation of the Cordobese bishop and chapter." 

Chabry, Mark, born at Lyons (1660-1727). Painter and sculp- 
tor. He diil many works in his native city. He sent a statue of 
Hercules and one of the Virgin to the King, who appointed him 
sculptor of the city of Lyons. The Marechal de Villeroy paid him 
6,000 livres for a statue of ' Winter." The bas-relief over the en- 
trance to the Hotel de Ville, at Lyons, representing Louis XIV. on 
horseback; the paintings and bas-reliefs of the great altar in the 
eh. of S. Antoine, and several works in the ch. de la Trinite were by 
him. His son, Mark, also attained considerable distinction as a 

Challe, Charles Michael Angelo, born at Paris (1718-1778). 
When elected to the Acad. he executed a picture of ' Painting and 
Sculpture united by the Genius of Design." One of his most impor- 
tant pictures represented S. Hippolyte congratulated by the priests 
upon his conversion. It was in the ch. of that saint. He also 
wrote treatises upon architecture. He was made professor of per- 
spective in the Royal Acad., designer for the Royal Cabinet, and 
Chevalier of the Order of S. Michael. 

Chambers, George, born at Whitby. Son of a seaman, he be- 
came a sailor, although from childhood he desired to be a painter. 
After various tips and downs in life, he met with Ilorner, who em- 
ployed him seven years on his panorama. He then became scene 
painter at the Pavilion Theatre, and at last by Vice-Admiral Lord 
Kerr was introduced to William IV. His pictures of naval battles, 
three of which are in Greenwich Hospital, are good. His smaller 
works are also deserving notice; he is coming to be generally ap- 


Champaigne, Philippe de, born at Brussels (1602-1674). When 
quite young he went to Paris and worked with Nicholas Duchesne 
upon the decorations of the Luxembourg. In 1G27, he returned to 
Brussels, but soon hearing of the death of Duchesne, he returned to 
Paris, married the daughter of that painter, and succeeded to his work 
at the Luxembourg. Champaigne excelled as a portrait painter. 
His best works of this kind are in the Louvre. Some of his pictures 
are finished with great attention to effect in matters of laces, jewels, 
etc. One of his finest pictures represents " Adam and Eve mourning 
for Abel," and is in the Belvedere Gall., at Vienna. 

Chantrey, Sir Francis, born at Norton, in Derbyshire (1782- 
1841). From his early youth, he desired to be an artist, and attracted 
the attention of a lady named Stanley, by some pastry figures which he 
modelled for her table. She placed him with a carver in Sheffield. 
Here he made models in clay, and received instruction in painting 
from John Raphael Smith. He visited Edinburgh and Dublin, but at 
length went to London and studied in the Royal Acad., where he ex- 
hibited a portrait in oil, in 1804. He returned, however, to his true 
vocation, and next exhibited three busts which displayed great 
talent. In 1809, the architect Alexander gave him an order for four 
colossal busts. He also made the bust of Pitt, and, in 1811, the 
works which he exhibited so pleased the sculptor Nollekens that he 
ordered one of his own busts to be removed, that one by Chantrey 
might take its place. For the city of London, he exi-cuted his statue 
of George III. This greatly increased his fame, hi 1817, he was 
made an associate of the Royal At-ad. He made many statues and 
monuments. One of the finest represented two children, lying asleep 
in each other's arms, which is in Litchfield Chapel. This obtained 
him an election to the Royal Acad. In 1819, he went to Italy, and 
was elected member of the Academies at Rome and Florence. In 
1835, he received the honor of knighthood. An especially beauti- 
ful work is his statue of Lady Luisa Russell. At the time of his 
death, he was engaged upon the colossal equestrian statue of the 
Duke of Wellington. He possessed a choice cabinet of medals, 
antiques, etc. His large fortune was bequeathed to his wife for life, 
and then to the Royal Acad. for the encouragement of English art. 

Chardin, Jean Baptistc Simon, born at Paris (1699-1779). A 
painter of conversations, still-life, etc. His best works are those with 
two or three small figures together. He paid great attention to acces- 
sories. Some of his kitchen pieces are excellent. There is a light- 
ness and grace in his female figures, and he gave a richness of effect 
to his works bv a variety of colors. 

Chaudet, Antoiue Denis, born at Paris (1763-1810). At the 
age of fourteen, he had shown so much talent for modelling and de- 
signing, that he was admitted to the Royal Acad. In 1784, he car- 
ried off the grand prize, and went to Rome with the royal pension, 


where he remained five years. He soon came to be ranked among 
the first modern sculptors. He also acquired a reputation as a painter 
and designer. He was appointed professor of sculpture, and made 
valuable contributions to the " Dictionary of Fine Arts." Some of 
his works in sculpture are : the silver statue of " Peace," in the Tui- 
leries; statue of " Cincinnatus," in the senate chamber; a statue of 
" (Edipus ; " a bas-relief, representing "Painting, Sculpture, and 
Architecture," in the Musee Napoleon, and many busts, etc. lie 
painted " .ZEneas and Anchises in the Conflagration of Troy," and 
designed many of the illustrations for the fine edition of Racine, 
published by P. Didot, and a great number of medals. 

Cheney, Seth, born at Manchester, Conn.: died 1856. Brother 
of John Cheney, one of the best engravers of heads in America. 
Seth was a crayon limner, and his best works are exquisite female 
heads. He was enthusiastic and of an extremely sensitive tempera- 
ment; so much so, that if a sitter came to him to whom he found him- 
self antagonistic, he was forced to relinquish the picture. He visited 
Europe four times, and ended his life in a weary decline in his native 
town, where he was buried with an impressive service by moonlight, 
singularly in keeping with his poetical nature. There is no depart- 
ment of art, in which true genius can be more strikingly displayed, 
than in that of drawing where few lines are used, and no color and 
little shadow to conceal defects. The most scrupulous exactness in 
design can alone be termed excellent. 

Chodowiecki, Daniel Nicolas, born at Dantzic, 172G; died at 
Berlin, 1801. The poverty of his youth compelled him to follow mer- 
cantile pursuits, but he practised miniature painting during leisure 
hours, and learned the process of enamel painting. At last he gave 
himself up to the profession of an artist and engraver, and succeeded 
well. . He painted few oil pictures, and they had no special merit. 
His etchings amounted to more than 1300, and he made them as illus- 
trations for various kinds of books. Those for the '' Sorrows of 
Werther," were very fine. He published a plate called " Les Adieux 
de Calas," of which but 100 impressions were taken. It is now rare, 
and prized by collectors. At the time of his death he was director of 
the Acad. of Arts and Sciences at Berlin. 

Christoph. The history of this artist is unknown. He flourished 
in Cologne, early in the 16th century. His firet known work, exe- 
cuted about 1501, was formerly in the Chartreuse, at Cologne, now the 
possession of Herr Haan of that city. His most remarkable work is a 
" Descent from the Cross," No. 280, Louvre. There are others in 
the Munich Gall., Cabinets, and in the City Gall, at Mayence. 

Christophsen, Pieter. This painter is known by this name, but 
should properly be Christus. He was of the Van Eyck School. He 
bought citizen's rights as a painter in Bruges, in 1444. His earliest 
known work is dated 1447, is in the Stadel Mus., at Frankfort, and 


represents the Virgin and Child with SS. Francis and Jerome. In 
14,r>, he painted a "Nativity," an " Annunciation," and a "Last 
Judgment," now in the Berlin Gall. They are wonderfully fine iu 
eolor. He painted a picture of S. Eligius, as a goldsmith selling a 
rins to a bridal couple. This is dated 1449, and is in the possession 
of Mr. Oppenheim, the banker, at Cologne. 

Churriguera, Josef de, born in Salamanca; died, 1725. His 
works were so peculiar, that since his time, everything bizarre or 
extravagant has been called Churriguresque. He removed to Madrid 
in 1688. In the next year he made the design for a catafalque for 
Maria Louisa, which was very singular. He was appointed assistant 
draughtsman for royal works, built a portal, church, and palace, and 
executed many sculptures. Soon after his death, the dome of the ch. 
of S. Tomas, upon which he was employed, fell down and killed num- 
bers of workmen and worshippers. 

Ciampelli, Agostiuo, born at Florence (1578-1640). Pupil of 
Santo di Titi. He painted some angels with offerings, on the walls 
of the apsis of S. Maria in Trastevere, which merit attention. Two 
good works of his, representing the Burial of Martyrs by Pious 
Women, are in S. Pudenziaua. He was also an architect, and super- 
intended some works at S. Peter's. 

Gibber, Cains Gabriel, born at Holstein. Flourished about 1C 70. 
He went to England, where he received much encouragement. He is 
best known by his statues of " Raging " and ' Melancholy Madness," 
at New Bethlehem Hospital, St. George's Fields. 

Ciguani, Carlo, born at Bologna (1628-1719). This artist was of 
a noble family. He has been called the last of the Bolognesc. He. 
was of the school of Albano, and produced correct and pleasing pic- 
tures, quite academic in character, but wanting in depth of senti- 
ment. He attempted principally graceful postures and display of 
beautiful limbs. He was much admired in his time, and even called 
the Apelles of his age. "Joseph and Potiphar's Wife," one of his 
pictures, is in the Dresden Gall., and an " Assumption " of great si/c 
is in the Gall, at Munich. He painted the cupola of the ch. of the 
Madonna del Fuoco at Forli. This occupied him nearly twenty 
years, and he died in that city. 

Cignaroli, Giambettino, born at Verona (1706-1770). One of 
the best painters of his time. lie painted in the manner of Carlo 
Maratti, and his pictures are full of sweet beauty and grace. His 
subjects were, mostly religious. He introduced architectural back- 
grounds with good effect, and his angels and cherubs were well 
painted. It is said that in 1769, the Emperor Joseph II. visited 
Cignaroli in his studio at Verona, and afterwards said that in that 
city he had seen two rare things, the first painter in Europe, and an 
ancient amphitheatre. 

Cigoli. See Cardi. 



Cima. See Conegliano. 

Cimabue, Giovanni. Of the noble family of the Cimabui (1240- 
1302 ?). Few facts arc known with certainty concerning the life of 
this artist, and so much has been said and contradicted, that the 
search for what is true is most puzzling and unsatisfactory. But the 
important truth connected with him is, that he gave a new impulse 
to art, and infused new life into dying and worn-out forms and rules. 
From his time the revival of painting may be confidently dated, and 
this result is much more important to us, than the matter of where and 
with whom he studied, whether or no a certain quarter of a city was 
named for him, etc.. etc. In Florence there are two large Madonna* 
ascribed to him. The oldest one, formerly in S. Trinita, now in the 
Acad., is Byzantine in style, and although very powerful in some 
features, as in the energy and expression of the prophets in the centre, 
niche, it does not show the peculiar characteristics of Cimabue with 
the same clearness as does the ' Madonna Enthroned," in S. Maria 
Novella. At the time when this last was completed, it was the 
largest altar-piece that had been seen, and it is said to have been 
borne to the church by a rejoicing procession of Florentines, with 
trumpeters, and expressions of pride and praise. In it the Virgin 
sits in a chair held by six kneeling angels. The infant is on her lap, 
and both their heads are encircled by the nimbus, delicately wrought. 
The frame of the picture (which is a gabled parallelogram in form) 
is richly carved, arid in it are thirty medallions representing half 


From a Madonna picture in S. Maria Novella, Florence. 


figures of saints on gold ground. The old features are still here, but 
the eye is softened by a change in the form of the iris, and by closer 
curving of the lids than had been customary. The hands are very 
striking for their thinness, and the separation of the lingers. The 
head of Mary is disproportionate to the slenderness of her form, and 
it is a wonder now that angels could have been so painted, and yet, 
from this very picture went out an influence, but for which such names 
as those of Giotto, Ghirlandaio, Michael Angelo, Leonardo, and Ra- 
phael might never have been heard. In color, Cimabue made great 
advance. He softened the old hardness of outline; he made new and 
better flesh tints; he rounded the form, and he used for his draperies 
gay, transparent colors. He used much ornament, it is true, but he 
made it a subordinate part of his work, and executed it in belter taste 
than his predecessors had shown. Cimabue painted in the eh. of As- 
sisi, but which are his pictures is not known. The careful observer 
of that church must be convinced that the works were done by 
several different hands, and I can but believe that careful study and 
criticism reveals the brush of Cimabue. A large Virgin and Child 
above the altar of the Conception in the lower church, surrounded by 
the works of Giotto, and an enthroned Saviour and some angels in 
the northern transept of the upper church, seem to be the work of 
the same master who painted the Madonnas of Florence, especially 
that in the Acad. of Arts. The last known work of Cimabue was 
done in the Duomo of Pisa, where he was appointed capo nxitttrn of 
the mosaics. He executed a large part of the mosaic in the chief 
tribune, representing the Saviour with the Virgin and John the Bap- 
tist. Tliis work has suffered so much injury as to afford little satis- 
faction from examination. A Madonna somewhat like those in Flor- 
ence, once in S. Francesco at Pisa, is now in the Louvre. A Madonna 
in the National Gall, was in the eh. of Santa Croce. 

Cimaroli, Giambattista, da Salb, born at Venice. Flourished 
1718-1733. A painter of seaports, landscapes, and classical ruins. 
Jlis works are not uncommon in England. 

Cioli, or Ciolli, Valeric. This old sculptor studied under Tri- 
bolo and Raphael de Monte Lupo. He was employed by the Grand 
Duke of Tuscany to restore antique statues. He executed the statue 
of Michael Angelo, on his grave at Santa Croee in Florence. 

Cipriani, Gio. Battista, born at Florence. 17'27; died in London, 
1 785. An elegant designer, as well as a painter. After studying hi 
Florence and Rome he went to England, where he designed many 
plates which were engraved by Bartolozzi in his excellent manner. 
He painted but few large pictures, but he left many beautiful draw- 
ings, which, together with Bartolozzi's engravings, have a wide repu- 
tation. In his oil pictures his female figures an- beautiful in the dis- 
tance, but arc too coarse and unfinished to bear examination. 

Civetta. See Bles. 


Civitali, Matteo, born at Lucca (1435-1501). One of the most 
distinguished sculptors of his time. Studied in Florence. His " S. 
Sebastian," in the Duomo at Lucca, so delighted Perugiuo that he re- 
peated the figure in his picture of " The Entombment." His most im~ 
portant work was the tomb of Pietro da Noceto, Secretary to Pope 
Nicholas V., which ranks high among the monuments of the loth 
century. At Genoa he executed six statues and five bas-reliefs for 
the chapel of S. John the Baptist. In the Umzi there is a seated 
figure of " Faith," full of earnestness and religious feeling. Although 
best known as a sculptor, he was an accomplished architect, and did 
much to improve the style of building in Lucca; and the beautiful 
temple of the Volto Santo in the Duomo was designed by him. 

Claessens, Anthony. A painter of Bruges, whose works are in 
the Acad. and Town Hall of that city. 

Cleef, John Van, born at Venloo, 1646; died at Ghent, 1716. Pu- 
pil of Gaspard de Craeyer. His works are numerous in Flanders and 
Brabant, and some of the best are at Ghent. 

Cleomenes. 1. The sculptor of the " Venus de Medici " in the Uf- 
fizi Gall. Pliny alone mentions this master, and he does not appear 
to have been very celebrated among the ancients. From various 
known facts it is decided that he lived between 363 and 146 B.C. 
2. Another sculptor, the author of the statue in the Louvre called 
" Germanicus," and which, in truth, represents a Roman orator with 
the right hand lifted and in the habit of Mercury, as is seen from the 
turtle at his feet. There is also at Florence a bas-relief representing 
the story of Alceste, which is inscribed with the name of Cleomenes, 
but to which one it should be attributed is not known. 

Clerisseau, or Clarisseau, Charles Louis, born at Paris. Died 
1820. An architect and a designer in water-colors. Principally 
known for his much-esteemed water-color drawings of the remains of 
ancient architecture. 

Cleve, Joas Van, born at Antwerp. Flourished from 1530 to 1550. 
Little is known of him. It is said he went to Spain. It is certain 
he painted in England. His pictures are sometimes mistaken for 
those of Holbein. Two of his best woi'ks are his portraits of his 
wife and himself, at Windsor Castle. 

Clevely, John, born in London (1743-1786). His best works are 
water-color marine views. His perspective was fine and his execu- 
tion neat and delicate. 

Clevenger, Shobal Vail, born in Middletown, Ohio, 1812. Died 
at sea, 1843. He was first encouraged to attempt sculpture by the 
execution of an an^el upon a tomb-stone when employed as a stone- 
cutter in Cincinnati. He confined himself to making busts, and 
found much employment in Boston and New York. His works are 
well known, and some of them have been widely circulated in plas- 
ter casts. His bust of Webster is perhaps the most striking of all. 


It does not represent Webster, the intellectual giant, but the Wei >, 
ster known by the mass of the people. Webster, Clay, Everett, 
Allston, Van Burcn, Chief Justice Shaw, and other eminent men 
were perpetuated in his marble portraits. Thorwaldsen greatly 
praised some of his works. The early education of Cleveager was 
deficient, but his association with refined and cultivated people, had 
its fullest legitimate effect upon him. He frankly conl'e.-M'd his need 
of knowledge, and never hesitated to ask what he did not know. 
There was a genuine truthfulness and a sincere directness about him 
that endeared him to all with whom he came in contact. When iu 
Florence, with his young family, with every opportunity and motive 
to work about him, he was prostrated by disease. His intense long- 
ing for his home led him to attempt to reach it. This he was not 
permitted to do, and from the midst of the broad ocean his spirit found 
free course to his eternal home. 

Cleyn, Franz, born at Rostock; died 1G58. He was employed by 
Christian IV. of Denmark, went next to Home, and acquired the art 
of painting grotesques. James I. of England employed him at bis 
tapestry manufactory at Mortlake. Some of his best works are in 
Holland House. He left a few etchings which resemble those of 

Clint, George, born at Hexham (1770-1854). Son of a hair- 
dresser. After repeated trials of other pursuits, he gave himself up 
to miniature painting and mezzotinto engraving. About 1816 he 
commenced his valuable portraits of the principal dramatists of his 
time. These embrace Kean, Charles Kemble, Young, Liston, Mat- 
thews, Macready, etc., in character. Many of these are at the Gar- 
rick Club. He also painted numerous other portraits. 

Clouet, or Cloet. Three artists of this name have been con- 
founded into one. Jehan the father went from Brussels and settled 
in Tours, in 1840. Jehan the son went with his father to France, 
and became painter to Francis I. in 151S, and the portraits often 
credited to Francois belong to him. He painted the equestrian por- 
trait of Francis I. in the Florence Gall., attributed to Holbein. 
He did not write his name on his works. 

Clouet, Francois, son of Jehan the younger, and called by his 
name, on account of hifl celebrity, was born at Tours (1510-1. ">7 1). 
He succeeded his father as painter to the king, and was continued in 
that office- under Henry II. He painted many portraits of the royal 
family, nobility, and persons of celebrity. 

Clouet, Peter, born at Antwerp (1606-1668). An engraver, who 
studied with Spierre and Bloemaert, at Rome. After his return to 
Antwerp he engraved several plates after Rubens, which are much 

Clovio, Giulio, born in Croatia (1498-15J8). A pupil of Giulio 
Romano. He was a miniaturist or illuminator. His designs were 


b.-ul, but the finish of his works wonderful. The " Farnese Brevi- 
ary," now in the library at Naples, is said to have occupied him nine 
years in the execution of its twenty-six miniatures. 

Codagora, Viviano. Flourished about the middle of the 1 7th cen- 
tury. Painted arc hitectural ruins. Some of his works are in Eng- 
land, and many are in the collections of Xaples. The figures in his 
pictures were done by other artists. 

Coello, Alonso Sanchez, born at Benifayro, early in the ICth 
century; died 1590. The first great portrait painter of Spain. 
Painter-in-ordinary to Philip II., and a great favorite of that king, 
who was accustomed to address him in his letters as his "beloved 
son." At Madrid, Coello lived in apartments to which Philip could 
go by a private door, to which he kept the key. He was in the 
habit of surprising him in his studio, or even when dining with his 
family. But Coello never abused this confidence, and remained a 
favorite, not only of the king, but of the court also. Gregory XIII., 
Sixtus V., Card. Alexander Farnese, and the Dukes of Florence and 
Savoy, were also his admirers and friends, and many royal and 
noble persons were accustomed to visit him and to accept his hospi- 
talities. Large as the expense must have been of maintaining a 
proper style of living under these circumstances, it is said that when 
he died he left a fortune of 55,000 ducats. lie endowed a hospital 
at Valladolid. Philip often called Coello his " Portuguese Titian," 
because he had lived at Lisbon, and his portraits, of which com- 
paratively few exist, are fine in color and graceful in design. He 
knew how to represent the repose and refinement which belong "to 
gentle blood and delicate nurture." He also painted sacred subjects, 
and there is a "Marriage of S. Catherine," by him, in the lioyal 
Gall, at Madrid. Many of his pictures were burned in the Palace 
of the Prado. Lope de Vega wrote his epitaph, and called his 


" Eternal scenes of history divine, 
Wherein for aye his memory shall shine." 

His pictures in the Escorial were painted at the command of 
Philip, in 1582, and represent different saints at their altars, but a 
" Martyrdom of S. Sebastian," painted for the ch. of S. Jerome, at 
Madrid, is considered by many to be his chef-d'oem-re, and was 
praised by Cumberland for its " majesty of design, bold relief, and 
strong, masterly expression." 

Coello, Claudio, bora at Madrid between 1630 and 1640; died 
1693. His father was a Portuguese sculptor in bronze, and intended 
to train his son in his own profession. He placed him in the school 
of Rizi, to study drawing, where he showed so much talent, that his 
master persuaded his father to allow him to be a painter. He was 
never weary of his pencil, and soon outstripped his fellow-pupils. 
"While still under Ilizi, he was employed to paint for churches and 


convents. He became the friend of Carreiio, who obtained admis- 
sion for him to the Royal galleries, where he studied color by copy- 
ing Rubens, Vandyck, and Titian. He became the partner of 
Ximenez Donoso, and together they executed many frescoes. When 
Queen Maria Louisa made her public entry into Madrid, these two 
painters superintended the artistic- arrangements of the great cere- 
monial. In 1683, Coello was called to Zaragoza, by the Archbishop, 
to paint in the collegiate ch. of the Augustines, and upon his return, 
in 1684. wa.- made painter to the king, and afterwards became 
painter-in-ordinary and deputy-aposentador. After the death of 
Rizi, in 1685, he painted the altar-piece for the Santa Forma. This 
was his masterpiece, and still hangs in the Escorial. It represents 
Charles II. and his court receiving the sacerdotal benediction at the 
dedication of the altar. (For legend of the Santa Forma, see Fran- 
cisco Rizi.) This picture occupied him more than two years, and at 
its completion was received with great applause. During a few suc- 
ceeding years, Coello reigned supreme artist of Madrid. He painted 
portraits of the royal family and many notable persons ; he w;is ap- 
pointed painter to the Cath. of Toledo, and keeper of the Royal gal- 
lerfefl. He felt, with reason, that he merited the honor of painting 
the walls of the Escorial: and so great was his sorrow and mortifi- 
cation when Luca Giordano was preferred to that work, that he 
threw aside his brushes and pencils, grew sad, and at length ill, and 
died a year later. The frescoes of Coello were not his best works, 
because too hastily done, but his oil pictures were finished with 
care, and are effective, graceful, and rich in tone. The picture at 
the Escorial is the best. The Royal Gall., Madrid, has two lar^e 
compositions, Nos. 224 and 306, both representing the Virgin, with 
several saints. The sketches of Coello, a few of which are in the 
Louvre, are highly esteemed. 

Cole, Thomas, torn in Lancashire, England, 1801. His father 
was a woollen manufacturer, who came to America while Thomas was 
a child, and manufactured paper-hangings in Ohio. In mixing pig- 
ments, the son took his first lessons in art. He was of an extremely 
senMtive temperament, had much taste for music, and fully appre- 
ciated beautiful scenery. A portrait painter strayed into the village 
where he lived, and gave him some instruction. At length, with his 
palette and other materials, his flute, and a little clothing, lie started 
ofl', supported himself by playing his flute, and took his frugal meals 
by the roadside. After varied experiences, he made his way to New 
York. Here Durand and Triimbull were his friends. His views of 
the Hudson brought him good prices. During his life he made two 
visits to Europe, but he followed his art with unceasing devotion. 
Some of his autumnal scenes were exhibited in England, where they 
were considered as the invention of an extravagant Yankee. His 
allegorical pictures are most celebrated, but it is in the landscape 


rather than in the figure that he excelled. He painted landscapes 
in England, Italy, and Sicily, but he loved best to represent the 
beauties of the New World. It has been well said that his brush 
performed the same service to our scenery, as Bryant's pen. Ho 
wrote from Italy, " Neither the Alps, nor the Apennines, nor even 
Etna itself have dimmed in my eyes the beauty of our own Catskills." 
His religious sensibility was shown in his pictures of the " Voyage 
of Life." He died at his home among the Catskills when forty-seven 
years old. There is a singular coincidence connected with his serial 
pictures. " The Course of Empire " was painted for Luman Reed, 
who died just before its completion. His " Voyage of Life " was for 
Samuel Ward, whose own life was ended before the work was done. 
" The Cross and the World," he painted for himself, and the "Pil- 
grim entering Heaven " was scarcely finished when his own spirit was 
taken to that other world he had so recently contemplated. He 
painted but few portraits. His descriptions of scenery were charm- 
ing and full of artistic feeling. His " Mount Etna," and view of the 
White Mountains" are in the Wardsworth Gall., Hartford; his 
" Course of Empire " in the Gall, of the New York Historical Soci- 
ety; the " Mountain Ford," " Kenilworth Castle," and the " Voyage 
of Life " are in the Gall, of John Taylor Johnston, New York city; 
the " Angel appearing to the Shepherds," in the Boston Athenaeum, 
and many of his pictures arc owned by our most appreciative men, as 
will be understood from the fact that after his death sixty-three pic- 
tures were exhibited in New York, by the kindness of the owners. 

Colin, Alexander, born at Malines (1520-1612). His principal 
works are at Innsbruck, where he settled and received the appoint- 
ment of sculptor to the Archduke Ferdinand. In 1577, he exe- 
cuted the embellishments for a fountain at Vienna. 

Collantes, Francisco, born at Madrid (1599-1656). A painter 
of history and landscapes, which last were rich in color, and bold and 
masterly in style. Queen of Spain's Gall., very striking picture of 
" Ezekiel in the Valley of Bones," signed, Fran. Collantex , ft . 1630; 
same Gall., a landscape: Louvre, the " Burning Bush in Horeb." 

Collins, William, born in London (1788-1847). A very charm- 
ing painter of landscapes, rustic children, etc. His pictures are 
highly prized. They are excellent, whether considered as landscapes 
with figures, or as figures in a landscape. He was fond of such sub- 
jects as " The Sale of the Pet Lamb," " Shrimp Boys at Cromer," 
" Skittle Players," etc. He painted many subjects connected with 
fishermen and sea views, especially those of Cromer Sands. He 
visited France, Italy, Holland, Belgium, Germany, and the Shetland 
Isles. Towards the end of his life he painted some religious sub- 

Cologne, Meister Wilhelm, of. Little is known of this old 
master, who is said by some to be the same as Wilhelmus de Herle, 


and to have settled in Cologne in 1370. The Limburg Chronicle of 
1 380 says, " In this time there was a painter in Cologne of the name 
of Wilhelm; he was considered the best master of all German Land; 
he paints every man, of whatever form, as if he we're alive." All the 
best old pictures of Cologne and vicinity have, on the strength of this, 
been credited to Meister Wilhelm. The oldest one is probably that 
at S. Castor, at Coblentz. It is a wall painting, commemorative of 
an Archbishop of Trcves who died in 1386. Its original appearance 
cannot be even surmised, owing to the restorations (?) it has suffered. 
The altar-piece and wings which once adorned the ch. of S. Clara. 
and arc now in the Cath. of Cologne, arc far more satisfactorily asso- 
ciated with the great fame of Meister Wilhelm. It is probable that 
the centre portion only was his work. This represents the " Life and 
Passion of Christ." The pictures arc on gold ground, the drawing 
feeble and incorrect, but the tints better. At S. Severin, there is a 
"Crucifixion" on the wall of the Sacristy, probably by the same 
hand. There are works attributed to him in the Museums of Cologne, 
Berlin, and Munich; in the National Gall., the Frankfort Library, 

Colonna, Michael Angelo. See Mitelli. 

Compe, Jan Ten, born at Amsterdam (1713-1761). Pupil of 
Dirk Dalens. He painted landscapes and views of cities. One of 
the New Market at Amsterdam sold for 2000 Dutch florins, at public- 

Conca, Sebastiano, born at Gaeta (1676-1764). A pupil of 
Francesco Solimena, he strove only to acquire the prettiness of art. 
He was employed in Rome by Clement XI. Mengs says that by the 
introduction of his style at Rome, " he put the finishing stroke to the 
ruin of painting." 

Condivi, Ascanio. A pupil of Michael Angelo. Without suffi- 
cient talent to be known as a painter, his reputation is world-wide as 
the author of the life of the great master, published in 1553. 

Conegliano, Giambatista Cima da. His latest date 0:1 any 
known work is 1508; but he is said to have lived much later. He 
was one of the best of the Bellinesque painters. His coloring of some 
works is such that Kugler says it "glistens like jewels." His chef- 
tVozufre is in the ch. del Carmine, at Venice, and represents the Vir- 
gin kneeling before the sleeping Child. He often introduced into the 
landscapes of his backgrounds the rocky height and castle of Coneg- 
liano. As a painter of sacred subjects he merits a worthy place in 
his age. He was very industrious, and his pictures an; in most Euro- 
pean collections, and many arc in Venice in churches, and in the 

Coninck, David do (1636-1687). Pupil of Jan Fyt. His pic- 
tures arc animated and powerful in color. They arc rare. There 
are two of great merit in the Amsterdam Mus., representing a Stag- 
hunt and a Bear-hunt. 


Constable, John, born at East Bergholt in Suffolk (1776-1837). 
A landscape painter. His favorite subjects were country lanes, stiles, 
and fields. He was passionately fond of quiet nature, and one con- 
spicuous characteristic of his works is their simplicity. He was ac- 
customed to give the effect of dew, and this, sometimes carried to an 
excess, gave a spotted appearance which is much criticised. The 
" Corn-field " and " Valley -farm," in the National Gall., are fine 
specimens of his pictures. 

Coiitarini, Cavaliere Gio., born at Venice (1549-1605). An 
exact imitator of Titian. He painted many mythological pictures. 
His principal work, formerly in the Ducal Pal. of Venice, now in the 
Louvre, represents the Virgin with the Child; she is on a throne, sur- 
rounded by SS. Mark and Sebastian, and the Doge Marino Grimani 
kneeling. He was also an eminent portrait painter. 

Conte, Jacopo del, born at Florence (1510-1598). He lived 
much at Rome, and a few of his historical pictures are to be seen in 
churches there ; but he especially excelled in portraiture, a branch of 
art much patronized in his time in Venice, Rome, and Florence. 

Conti, Bernardino di. In the Berlin Mus., there is a fine por- 
trait of a Cardinal by this old artist, and in the Gall, of the Capitol, 
Rome, a picture of a boy, 1496. 

Cooniuxloo, Giles, born at Antwerp (1544-1609). A landscape 
painter, who was well considered in his time. His pictures are 
spirited and his color is agreeable. 

Cooper, Samuel, born in London (1609-1672). An eminent 
miniaturist. His works were much admired during his life, and now 
have an honorable place in fine collections. His reputation extended 
to the continent. He has been called " the Vandyck in little." But 
his impasto and fine fresh color remind one of Lely, more than Van- 
dyck, and there is a breadth in his works unusual in miniature. He 
painted many eminent persons. His wife was aunt to Alexander 
Pope, and was promised a pension (which she never received) for 
the pictures her husband had painted for the court. He was buried 
in Old S. Pancras. 

Coopse, Pieter. Little is known of this artist. He painted in 
the style of Backhuysen, and it is believed that many of his pictures 
are attributed to the latter. No 230, Munich Gall., is called a Back- 
huysen, although the name of Coopse is on it. 

Copley, John Singleton, R. A., born in Boston (1737-1815). 
The father and mother of this artist emigrated from Limerick, Ire- 
land, to Boston. The father was descended from the Copleys of 
Yorkshire, and the mother from the Singletons of County Clare, both 
families of importance. When the subject of our sketch was eleven 
years old, his mother was married to Peter Pelham, a portrait 
painter, and mezzotint engraver. Whitmore calls Pelham " the 
founder of these arts in New England." This marriage was an ad- 

218 COPLEY. 

vantage to young Copley, since he not only received the instruction 
and advice of Pclham, but was surrounded by those who sympathized 
with him in his choice of a profession. He Avas studious and quiet, 
and advanced rapidly. He attained eminence as a portrait painter 
in America, and lived in easy elegance, having married in 176'J Miss 
Susan Clarke, the daughter of a distinguished merchant of Boston. A 
little later Copley sent to Benjamin West, in London, his picture of 
the "Boy with a Squirrel " now owned by Mrs. James S. Amorv. 
for exhibition at Somerset House. He sent no letter or name with 
it ; the rule of the exhibition excluded anonymous pictures, but West 
knew it to be an American work by the wood upon which it was 
stretched, and from the fact of the squirrel being such as belong to 
New England. The rule was set aside, and the picture so favorably 
received, that Copley was advised to go to England, lie sailed in 
1774, never to return. He went from England to the Continent, 
studied at Rome and Parma, travelled as far as Naples, returned to 
France, Germany, and Holland, studying constantly, and finally 
settled in London, where his wife and children joined him. 

He soon rose to distinction, was made an Associate of the Royal 
Acad. in 1777, and an Academician six years later. Many distinguished 
persons were among his sitters, and a portrait of three of the children 
of George III., now at Buckingham Pal., is a fine example of his por- 
traits. He painted several large pictures, illustrative of events in 
English history, and some religious subjects. His portraits are full 
of dignity, and there is that in them which seems to assure us that 
they were truthful likenesses; his rich, subdued coloring is very 
effective. His life was most successful; he had friends among the 
most eminent men on both sides of the Atlantic: his family were cul- 
tivated, and his son became eminently distinguished as the great 
Lord Lyndburst. He was a man of strong religious sentiments, and 
of quick and earnest sympathy. The following anecdote shows us 
his American feeling. In 1782, Elkanah Watson was in London, 
and Copley made a full length portrait of him. In his journal, Mr. 
Watson says, " The painting was finished in most exquisite style in 
every part except the background, which Copley and I designed to 
repn->ent a ship, tearing to America the acknowledgments of our in- 
dependence. The sun was just rising upon the stripes of the Union 
streaming from her gaff. All was complete save the Hag, which 
Copley did not deem proper to hoist under the present circumstances, 
as his gallery was the constant resort of the Royal family and of the 
nobility. I dined with the artist on the glorious 5th of December, 
1782. After listening with him to the speech of the King, formally 
recognizing the United States of America as in the rank of nations. 
previous to dinner, and immediately after our return from the Hou-r 
of Lords, he invited me into his studio; and then-, with a bold hand, 
a master's touch, and I believe an American heart, he attached to the 


ship the stars and stripes. This was, I imagine, the first American 
flag; hoisted in Old England." 

Copley was buried in Croydon ch., near London. Many of his 
pictures are scattered over America, belonging to the descendants of 
those for whom they were painted. A number are of easy access to 
the public in the Boston Athenaeum, where some are owned, and 
where from time to time they are put on exhibition by private indi- 
viduals. Heretofore there has been no satisfactory account of his 
works, but a book is about being published which will supply this de- 
ficiency. It is known that 269 oil paintings, 35 crayons, and 14 
miniatures by him are still in existence in this country ; a list of these 
will be rnven with a sketch of his life, and other interesting facts. 

O W 

The title of the book is " A Sketch of the Life, and a List of some 
of the Works, of John Singleton Copley." It is written by Augustus 
Thorndike Perkins, to whom I am indebted for the facts contained in 
this article. 


Engraver, DUNKARTON, Robert. The Children of George III. 
Abraham's Sacrifice. 

Engraver, EARLOM, Richard. Portrait of Admiral Viscount Dun- 
can. Portrait of Lord Spenser. 

Engraver, GREEN, N. Portrait of Henry Laurens of South Caro- 

Engraver, GREEN, Valentine. Samuel and Eli. A boy rescued 
from a Shark. 

Engraver, THF.W, Robert. Picture of the Copley Family. 

Engravers not given. Portrait of President John Adams. Portrait 
of Lord Howe. Portrait of Admiral Bonington. Portrait of Lord 
Mansfield. Portrait of George IV. at a Review. A Head of Cop- 
ley; by himself. The Nativity. The Tribute Money. The Death 
of Earl Chatham.' 1 The Death of Major Pierson. The Surrender 
of Admiral De Winter. The Siege of Gibraltar. 

Copley also made an engraving from one of his portraits. It bore 
the following insci'iption : " Rev. William Welsteed, of Boston, New 
England, cet. 58, 1753, J. S. Copley, jnnxit et fecit. 

Coques, Goiizales, born at Antwerp (1618-1684). Pupil of 
David Ryckacrt, the Elder. His best works are groups of ladies, 
gentlemen, and children, with accessories, in the open air. These 
were probably portraits. They are admirably colored; his white 
draperies are exquisite, and he excelled in painting beautiful hands. 
He often introduced dogs, and so well were they done that the ad- 
miration of the beholder is divided between them and the children 
playing with them. His backgrounds were also well done, but in 
1 Engraved by Francesco Bartolozzi. C. E. C. 


these he was often assisted by other artists. " The Vcrhelst Family," 
his chef-d'oeuvre, is in the Queen's Coll. at Buckingham Palace. 
Dresden Gall., No. 964, is said to represent his own family. His sin- 
gle portraits are, as a rule, inferior to his groups. He sometimes 
painted genre pictures, such as "La Lecon de Musique," in Lord 
Hertford's coll. He was a true lover of art, and being rich, painted 
for pleasure rather than gain. His works are not numerous, and art- 
very valuable. 

Cordieri, or Cordier, Nicholas (1567-1612). Educated in Rome 
as an engraver on copper. He preferred sculpture, and became dis- 
tin<mished in that art. Clement VIII. and Paul V. often visited his 


atelier. His works are in the Paulina, S. John in Latenm, and S. 
Gregorio in Monte Celio. 

Corenzio, Belisario. A Greek (1558-1643). He studied at 
Venice, under Tintoretto. Settled at Naples, where he gained great 
influence and a large fortune, and lived in elegant luxury. His works 
in that city are numerous. His style, was the same as that of Tin- 
toretto, and large frescoes were his best efforts. His pictures are 
also in some churches in Venice. He formed a cabal with Caracciolo 
and Ribera (called Lo Spagnoletto) for the purpose of excluding 
other Italian artists from Naples. They committed many outrages. 
and, it is said, the crime of poisoning those whom they could not 
be rid of otherwise. D'Arpino, Guido, Annibale Carracci, and, it is 
said, Domenichino, all suffered at the hands of these men. 

Coriolano. The name of a family of artists, mostly engravers, 
who flourished in the last half of the 16th and the early part of the 
17th centuries. Cristofano was the most important, and engraved 
the portraits for Vasari's " Lives of the Painters." published in 1568. 

Corneille, Michel, the Younger, born at Paris (1642-1708). 
More noticeable as an engraver than as a painter. His etchings are 
the admiration of collectors. They are correct in drawing, grand in 
composition, and masterly in execution. His S. Francis kneeling 
before the Cross is fine. The four following plates came into the 
hands of a Roman print-seller, Rossi, who put the name of Raphael on 
them; they are now scarce. 

The Deity appearing to Abraham. 

Abraham journeying with Lot. 

Abraham discomfiting the Army of the Confederate Kings. 

Abraham with his son Isaac setting out for the Sacrifice. 

Cornelisser, Cornells, called Cornells van Haarlem, from his 
birthplace (1562-1638). One of his best works is that by which he 
became known, and was executed for the Guild of Marksmen of Haar- 
lem. Berlin Gall., No. 734, " Bathsheba Bathing," is one of his 
c'iefs-(V (euvre. In the Gall, at the Hague his ' Murder of the Inno- 
cents " is most unpleasant. At Dresden there are mythological sub- 
jects by him, but although carefully finished, good in color, and full 


of force, it is easy to see that the only talent he had was for the 
realistic, and portrait painting was his vocation. 

Corona, Leonardo, born at Murano (15G5-1605). An artist no- 
ticeable for his copies of Titian, of which picture-buyers should 
beware, since they are sold as originals. 

^->, j^ x. Cort, Cornelius, born at Hoorn, in Holland, 1536, 
\. \, T died at Rome, 1578. His first instructor was prob- 
ably Jerome Cock, for whom he engraved some 
plates published under the name of that master. lie first engraved 
after Dutch and Flemish masters; then went to Venice and resided in 
the house of Titian, and engraved some of his finest works. He next, 
went to Rome, where he established a school. Before his time there 
had been few large engravings. He greatly advanced his branch of 
art, and his plates are much valued by collectors. He worked with 
the graver only. His execution was masterly and bold, his drawing 
correct, and his landscapes especially fine. Agostino Carracci was 
his pupil. The following is a list of his best prints, not given in con- 
nection with the masters from whom he copied. 

Cornelius Cort. 

Henricus II., Gallorum Rex; oval. 
Catherine de' Medici. 

Don Juan of Austria; oval, with ornaments. 1578. 
Marcus Antonius Moretus; oval. 
Andrea Alciati: oval, with ornaments. 
Roger of Brussels, painter. 
Theodore van Haarlem, painter. 
Joachim Dionatensis, painter. 


The Birth of the Virgin. 1568. 

Conception of the Virgin. 1567. 

Presentation in the Temple. 

Repose in Egypt. 1568. 

Holy Family, S. Joseph presenting a Pear to the Child. 

The Last Supper. 1568. He engraved this subject twice. 

A Crucifix held above a globe by Angels. 

The Resurrection. 1569. 

S. Theodore overcoming a Drasjon. 

S. Catherine crowned by two Angels. 

S. Veredina kneeling before an Altar. 

Two Landscapes with Shipwrecks. 


Adam and Eve with the Serpent ; after Michael Coxcic. 
The Resurrection; after the mine. 15GS. 

222 CORT. 

The Descent of the Holy Ghost; after the same. 

Christ Triumphant, with SS. Peter and Paul; after the same. 

Four plates of the Rich Man and Lazarus; after Hemskerk. 

The Parable of the Vineyard ; after the same. 

Four plates of the Parable of the Talents; after the same. 

Six plates of the history of Noah and the Deluge; after F. Floris. 

Six plates of the history of Abraham ; after (he same. 

Six plates of the history of Jacob and Rachel; after (lie same. 

Ten plates of the labors of Hercules; after the same. 

Four plates of the history of Pluto and Proserpine; after th< : faint'. 

Bacchus and Venus; 156C; after the same. 

The Immortality of Virtue, emblematical; 1564; after the same. 

The Descent from the Cross; after Roger van der Weyde. 

S. Roch; after J. Speckart. 1567. 

S. Lawrence ; after the same. 

S. Dominic reading; after Bart. Spranger. 

Holy Family with Angels ; after the name. 

Crowning of the Virgin ; after Giles Moestaert. 1565. 

The Acad. of Painting; after Stradan ; fine. 


After Girolamo Muliatio. 

S. Peter walking on the Water. 1568. 

Christ crowned with Thorns. 

Christ bearing his Cross. 

The Descent from the Cross, with two ladders. 

The Descent from the Cross, with four ladders. 

Christ appearing to the Maries. 

S. Jerome meditating. 

A set of seven landscapes with figures, called " The Seven Peni- 
tents:" S. John Baptist, Magdalene, S. Jerome, S. Onophrius, S. 
Hubert, S. Francis with the Stigmata, and S. Francis in devotion. 

After Clovio. 
The Annunciation. 

Adoration of the Magi, in the form of an Altar. 
Virgin and Child; half length. 
Christ preaching in the Temple. 
Baptism of Christ. 

The Crucifixion between the two Thieves. 
Another Crucifixion; a grand composition. 1568. 
The Dead Christ, with the. Maries. 
Entombment of Christ. 
Christ appearing to Magdalene. 
Conversion of S. Paul. 
S. George and the Drajjon. 

CORT. 223 

Afar Taddeo Zuccliero. 

Creation of Adam and Eve. 
Presentation in the Temple, 
Nativity: a rich composition. 
Holy Family, with S. John and a Lamb. 
Miracle of the Loaves. 
Entombment of Christ. 
Descent of the Holy Ghost. 
Martyrdom of S. Agatha. 

After Federigo Zucchero. 

Moses and Aaron before Pharoah. 

Birth of the Virgin. 1578. 

Conception of the Virgin. 

The Annunciation. 1571. 

The Nativity. 1568. 

Adoration of the Magi. 

Holy Family. 

Flight into Egypt. 

Woman taken in Adultery. 

Temptation of Christ. 

The Money Changers driven from the Temple. 

Resurrection of Lazarus. 

The Woman of Samaria. 

Christ on the Mount of Olives. 

Christ taken in the Garden. 

Death of the Virgin. 

Coronation of the Virgin. 


Parnassus; after Palid-tro da Caravaf/glo. 

Adoration of the Shepherds; after the same. 

Repose in Egypt; after B. Bassaro, 

Visitation of the Virgin to S. Elizabeth ; after Marco da Siena. 

The Nativity; after the fame. 

Adoration of the Shepherds ; after Paris Romano. 

Holy Family; after F. Buroccio. 

Baptism of Christ; after F. Salviati. 

The Marriage at Cana : after Lorenzo SabbatinL 

The Last Supper; after hivio Agresti. 

Stoning of Stephen ; after Marcelln Venusti. 

S. Jerome penitent; after Riccio da Siena. 

S. Jerome in the Desert, with two Angels; after J. Parmensis. 

S. Margaret of Cortona: after Tempesta. 

A dance of Dryads; after II Roxso. 

The Three Fates; after Giulio Romano. 


Cort, Henri de, born at Antwerp, 1742; died in London, 1810. 
Pupil of Antonissen and G. Herreyns. Many of his pictures, which 
are landscapes, are in collections in England, in which country he 
lived many years. They are well finished, and have- rich foliage, 
with cool, silvery skies. lie was fond of openings in heavy foliage, 
with bright light or sunshine between, which discloses buildings and 
other objects in the distance. 

Corte, Juan de la, born at Madrid (1587-1GGO). Painter to both 
Philip III. and Philip IV. He excelled m battle pieces and per- 
spective views. Several of his works may be seen in Madrid. 

Cortese, Jacopo, called II Borgognone, born in Franche 0<>ntc 
(1621-1676). One of the most celebrated battle painters. Pupil 
of Cerquozzi. Many pictures are attributed to Borgognone which 
are the work of his imitators. In the Borghesc Pal. there, are two 
of his original works. Others are in the Pitti Gall. When in the. 
height of his career, his wife died. He had not lived amicably with 
her, and was suspected of her murder. The sadness which this 
accusation induced led him to become a Jesuit. Besides bis pictures 
he left a few etchings of battles, which are uncommonly effective in 
light and shade, and full of spirit. 

Cortona, Fietro Berrettini da, born at Cortona (1596-1 C69). 
One of the most prominent among that 'class of painters called 
machinist*. His works prove that, he had great talent, in spite of 
their incorrectness and superficiality. He attempted to dazzle by 
great effect rather than to satisfy judgment or good taste. He 
acquired a passing reputation by his inventive powers and ready 
execution, but is now more justly valued. lie painted a ceiling in 
the Palazzo Barberini at Rome, and frescoes in the Pitti Pal. in 
Florence. Some of his smaller pictures, good specimens of which 
may be seen in Paris, are pleasing in their bright, cheerful tints. 

Cortot, Jean Pierro (1787-1843). This sculptor excelled in 
design, but we find a want of deep feeling in expression. In the 
Chapelle Expiatore the group representing Marie Antoinette, sup- 
ported hy Religion, is his work. He also executed a group in the. 
pediment of the Palais des Deputes, symbolical of the glory of 
France, and the relief of " Napoleon crowned by Victory" on the 
Arc dc 1'fitoile. 

Cosimo, Piero di (1441-1521). Pupil of Cosimo Rossclli. Said 
to have rivalled Leonardo in his early Florentine days. He was of 
a gloomy temperament, which is shown in his works, especially in the 
" History of Perseus," in the Tlli/i. Ills chiaro-scuro is good, but 
depth of feeling is wanting in his pictures. His principal works are. 
in Florence, but there are specimens in the Louvre, Berlin Mus., etc. 

Cossa, Francesco. Little is known of the history of this painter. 
His name first appears in the history of Ferrara in 1450. He went, 
later to Bologna; where there are two works of his, justly celebrated. 




One is an altar-piece in the Gall, of Bologna, representing the 
Madonna holding the Child on her lap, with a saint on each side, 
and one of the donors of the picture kneeling. It was painted in 
1474. There is much dignity in his figures; his faces are of a noble 
type, his outlines clear, his extremities well drawn, and his draperies 
broad ; but there is a fixedness in all that suggests statues as models, 
rather than living and moving beings. His wall painting in the 
Barracano is only uncovered on days of high festival. It represents 
an enthroned Virgin within a highly ornamented arch. On each 
side of the throne angels hold candelabra, and lower down are figures 
of a male and female who look up to Mary. It is said that they 
were portraits of Gio. Bentivoglio and Maria Vinziguerra, and the 
picture was painted at the request of Bentivoglio. The Madonna was 
a miraculous one which Cossa restored, and added the portraits. It 
has been restored, so that portions only of Cossa's work remain. 
These are the female in profile, the angels, the frame of the Virgin, 
and Child, and the architecture. Both are remarkable works for 
their time. 



Costa, Lorenzo, born at Ferrara (1460-1536). There is doubt as 
to who were the teachers of Costa, but it is easy to tell his earlier 
from his later works by the change and improvement in them. He 
painted much in Bologna, and his works may be seen in the churches 
and gallery of that city. In Ferrara, too, in the Constabili and 
other collections, there are pictures of his, and in most large collec- 
tions in Europe. A "Dead Christ," at Berlin, is a good specimen 
of his manner. Among Bolognese artists he ranks next to Francia. 
He was his contemporary and co-worker. His color is less harmo- 
nious and delicate than that of Francia, but it is more powerful. In 
gome of his works the architectural parts are overdone, as was the 
rule in Ferrarese art. After the fall of the Bentivoglio, who had 
been his patrons in Bologna, Costa entered the service, of the 
Gonzagas of Mantua, where he passed the remainder of his life, 
and executed as many more works as he had before done in Bologn.i 
and Ferrara. 

Cosway, Richard, born in Devonshire (1740-1821). An emi- 
nent miniaturist. He did not confine himself to that branch of 
painting, but nothing that he did outside of it compared in excel- 
lence with his miniatures, or added to his reputation. Small pictures 
of Venus, Cupid, etc., were his best subjects. There is a charming 
refinement in his miniature portraits of ladies, which are rather pale 
or delicate in color, and often in white dresses with li'iht backgrounds. 

Cotan, Juan Sanchez, born at Alcazar de S. Juan, 15'51 ; died 
at Granada, 1627. A painter monk. A pupil of Bias del Prado. 
His finest pictures were for the Chartreuse of Granada. He was 
also a mechanic, and in the habit of repairing the water-pipes and 
clocks of the convent, making alarums, etc. The Mus. of Madrid 
has a fine botleyon, or kitchen piece, by Cotan, in which is a huge 
garden thistle, lying on a table surrounded by vegetables, while 
birds and fruits hang above. 

Cotes, Francis, born in London (1725-1770). A portrait painter 
who is justly celebrated for his pictures in crayon, in which he 
excelled. His painted portraits cannot be praised. 

Cotignola, Girolamo Marches! da. Real name Marches! ; called 
Cotignola from his birthplace (147f)-1550). Pupil of Francesco 
Francia. His pictures prove him to have been a great artist, lie 
had two distinct styles. The first was that of his master ; the other 
showed the effect of Roman study, the works of Raphael, etc. To 
the first belongs a " Coronation " in the Berlin Mus. There is 
much sweetness in the heads, but the arran^c-iiK-nt of the picture is 
stilf and void of grace. A "Madonna" with kneeling Monks, in 
same Gall, shows his later manner. 

Courtois, Jacques. See Cortese. 

Cousin, Jean, born at Soucy, 1501. A painter, sculptor., architect, 
and writer. Little is positively known concerning him. He was origi- 


nally a glass painter, and executed works of this kind at Sens. He 
is celebrated for his picture of the "Last Judgment," in the 
Louvre. It is in minute, hard style. P. de Jode engraved it in 
twelve plates. He was the author of a book of portraiture, pub- 
lished in 1G03, in Paris. The monument of Louis de Breze, in the 
Cath. of Kouen, has been attributed to Cousin. It is a beautiful work 
of the Renaissance style, and is more probably that of Jean Goujon. 
rather than Cousin. 

Couston, Nicholas, born at Lyons, 1658; died at Paris, 1733. 
He studied at Paris under his uncle (Coysevox), and took the gram! 
prize at the Royal Acad. at twenty-three. He went to Rome, where 
he studied principally the works of Michael Angelo and Algardi. 
He made a copy of the " Hercules," which is now at Versailles. After 
his return to France, he was much employed. His works, though 
executed with spirit, are wanting in the purity of the antique. His 
most important production was a colossal representation of the 
" Junction of the Seine and Marne." He also executed a bronze 
statue, representing the river Saone, for the city of Lyons. Some 
of his works are in the Cath. of Notre Dame. 

Couston, Guillaume, born at Lyons (1678-1746). Brother of 
the preceding. He gained the grand prize of the Acad. and went 
to Rome. Returning to Paris, his reputation rapidly increased. 
Some of his best works were for the garden at Marly ; the bronze 
statue of the Rhone, at Lyons; a bas-relief of "Christ with 
the Doctors," at Versailles ; and statues of Louis XIV. and 
Cardinal Dubois, in the Musee des Monuments Francais. 

Couston, Guillaume, born at Paris (1716-1777). A son and 
pupil of the preceding. He took the grand prize and went to Rome, 
and. in 1746, was appointed Professor of Sculpture, and Keeper of 
the Sculptures in the Louvre. He executed the sepulchre of the 
father of Louis XVI. ; a bronze of the " Visitation " in the chapel of 
Versailles, in bas-relief ; and a statue of St. Roch in the church of 
that saint. For the King of Prussia he made statues of Mars and 
Venus ; and a fine marble group for the Jesuits of Bordeaux, repre- 
senting the " Apotheosis of St. Francis Xavier. " 

Coypel, Noel, born at Paris (1628-1707). He was, when quite 
young, employed at the Louvre, and became an Academician in 
1659. He was appointed director of the French Acad. at Rome, 
whither he went in 1672, and presided for three years with great 
honor. He painted the four easel pictures representing scenes in 
Roman history, now in the Louvre ; they were displayed in the 
Rotunda and much admired. After he returned to Paris he was 
employed at the Tuileries, and when seventy-eight years old painted 
the Vault of the eh. des Invalides, which was one of his best works. 
He also left the following etchings: 

The Virgin caressing the Child; two sizes. 

The Holy Family. 


Coypel, .Antoine, born at Paris (1661-1722). Son of the pre- 
ceding. This artist has been much admired by some, and severely 
criticised by others. Mis grace has been called that of the dancing- 
master, and his effects too theatrical. But he was very popular, 
was much employed in the royal palaces, and made painter to the 
King. He also left a considerable number of etchings, some of 
which are very fine, and all are executed in a masterly and fini>hed 

Coxcien or Van Coxcyen, Michael, born at Mechlin (lli>!)- 
1592). Pupil of Van Orley. He studied also in Hume, and became 
an imitator of Raphael; indeed, he has been called the Flemish 
Raphael. In the Antwerp Gall, there is a " S. Sebastian." and a 
Triumph of Christ " by this master; in the Mechlin Cath. a "S. 
Sebastian." His frescoes in the ch. dell' Aniina at Home are unim- 
portant. His chef-<rceuvre was a copy of the ' Adoration of the Lamb '' 
by the Van Eycks. He painted this for Philip II. of Spain, and 
was two years in completing it. Much of it is well executed. He 
is said to have received more than 300, besides his living while at 
work on it. This picture was formerly in Madrid, but was taken 
away by the French. Some portions of it are in the Munich < Jail. 
and some at Berlin. 

Coysevox, Antoine, born at Lyons (1640-1720). Before he 
was seventeen he had distinguished himself by a statue of the 
Virgin. He studied in Paris, and progressed rapidly. In l'J(J7 he 
was engaged by Cardinal Furstenberg to go to Alsace to decorate 
his palace. This occupied him about four years. When he re- 
turned to Paris he executed a statue of Louis XIV. and was com- 
missioned by the province of Bretagne to make an equestrian statue 
of the same monarch. He became very eminent. Among his best 
works are : the tomb of the Cardinal Ma/arin ; the tomb of the 
great Colbert, in S. Eustache ; the monument of Charles le Brun, 
in the ch. of S. Nicholas : the statue of the great Comic ; the 
marble statue of Louis XIV. in the ch. of Notre Dame, etc. His 
bust by Lemoine is in the Musee des Monuments Franqais. 

Cozens, John, died 1799. A landscape painter and drawing- 
master. He left many drawings, admirably executed, which arc 
now highly prized by connoisseurs. 

Craesbecke, Joost Van, born at Brussels, 1608. Pupil of 
Adrian Brower. He painted the same class of subjects as his mas- 
ter but did not equal him in color or execution. His works arc very 
spirited. On account of having first followed the trade of a baker, 
and dying young (1641 ?), his works are rare. One of the ln-st is 
in the Aremberg Gall, and represents his own atelier, with himself 
painting a group of men and women. This is undoubtedly his 
<-.hef-<r 'ceuvre. Kugler says, " The arran^emeut is easy ; the heads 
full of life ; the keeping in a cool harmony, and, with decided light- 


ing, very delicate ; and the careful and spirited execution of solid 

Craeyer, Gaspard de, born at Antwerp (1585-1G69). Pupil of 
Raphael Van Coxis of Brussels. A contemporary of Rubens, who. 
it is said, admired his Avorks. He was also the friend of Vandyck. 
who painted his portrait. Craeyer 's pictures were mostly of Bibli- 
cal subjects. His color was subdued, but truthful ; he had a free, 
masterly touch, and his feeling for beauty sometimes borders on the 
ideal. He was much admired in his time, and fully occupied. 
Many of his works were very large ; they are well drawn, and, in 
spite of their formality, impressive by their dignity. In the Mus. 
at Ghent he may best be judged. The best picture of the number 
there, is the " Coronation of S. Rosalie by the Infant Christ." This 
picture was carried away by the French, and returned. The " Mar- 
tyrdom of S. Blaize," in same Mus., was his last work, executed when 
he was eighty-six years old. In the Munich Gall, there is an im- 
mense enthroned Madonna, with Angels, surrounded by Saints; 
the lower figures are portraits of himself, his brother, sister, and 
nephew. He had no wife. His own head is fine. His portraits 
resemble those of Vandyck. The backgrounds of his pictures were 
sometimes executed by other artists. A Virgin and Child enthroned, 
with surrounding saints, in the Vienna Gall, is considered by some 
critics his chef-d'oeuvre. It is full of tender feelings. Works of his 
ars also in the Louvre, Brussels Gall., etc. 

Cranach, Lucas, born at 
Kranach (1472-1553). His 
family name was Sunder. 
His style seems to have been 
formed by Matthew Griinewald. He painted religious, mythological, 
historical, and genre subjects ; he also painted miniatures, was an 
engraver, and made drawings for wood-cuts. His drawing is the 
poorest feature of his works. His color was good, his execution 
finished, and his inventive powers varied. His characteristics were 
cheerfulness and grace, rather than grandeur or dignity, though he 
is not without the latter. He retained his powers to the time of hi? 
death, and his works are numerous. The most important one is the 
altar-piece at AVeimar. The centre of this represents Christ on the 
Cross, and his own portrait and that of Luther is introduced. His 
works are at Prague, Leipsic, Schneeberg, and Gotha, as well as in 
the galleries of Munich, Berlin, Augsburg, the National Gall., and 
some private collections. The " Fountain of Youth," at Berlin, is a 
peculiar picture. On one side of the fountain old women are with 
much trouble assisted into the water, and emerge on the other side 
with youth and beauty. They dance ; a feast is spread, etc., and the 
only sad thing is that the men retain their a;e and their gray locks. 
His mythological pictures are naive and somewhat graceful, but are 



almost burlesques upon good renderings of such subjects. He was 
successful in tho representation of childhood, as is shown in his 
various pictures of Christ blessing littlo children. Purely realistic 
subjects, such as hunting pieces, he treated well. His execution was 


no rapid that he was called " celerrimus pictor," He was in the ser- 
vice of Frederick the Wise, and was retained by his two successors, 
John the Constant, and John Frederick the Generous. When the 
latter was a prisoner for five years, Cranach remained with him, to 


cheer him by his art and his society. In Wittenberg he was much 
respected, and was elected Burgomaster. His prints are scarce and 
much prized. The following are some of the best. 


Portrait of John Frederick, Elector of Saxony, with an Angel hold- 
ing a Crown of Laurel ; very scarce. 

Portraits of Frederick and John, two Electors of Saxony; half 
length; one holding a Chaplet. 1510. 

Christianus II. Dannrurn rex, etc. 

Martin Luther, in a Monk's Habit. 

Temptation of Christ; L. C. W. ; very scarce. 


Half length of an Elector, with a Book, before a Crucifix; marked 
with the Dragon ; 1552; scarce. 

Philip Melancthon; full length. 

Emperor Charles V. ; full length. 

Emperor Ferdinand; full length. 

Adam and Eve in Paradise. 1509. 

The Annunciation. 

S. John preaching in the Wilderness. 1516. 

The Passion of Christ; in fourteen prints; entitled Passio D. N. 
Jem C/trixti, etc.; 1509; very fine. 

The twelve Apostles; very fine. 

Paris dying on Mount Ida, visited by the three Goddesses; 1508; 

M. Curtius plunging into the Gulf. 

The great Tournament 1509. 

The little Tournament. 1509. 

Cuts in Chiaro-scuro. 

S. George and the Dragon. 

S. Christopher carrying the Infant Jesus. 1507. 

Venus and Cupid. 

Cranach, Lucas, the Younger, died 158G. He formed his style 
after his father and Albert Diirer. In the principal ch. of Witten- 
berg, there are several of his works, and they are also in the galleries 
at Munich, Dresden, etc. No doubt some of the pictures attributed 
to the father, were the works of the younger. He had grace and 
sweetness, and his color was often glowing. He was also a Burgo- 
master at Wittenberg. 

Crawford, Thomas, born in New York, 1813; died in London, 
1857. No striking event marked his youth, and his advance in art 
was a healthful and systematic process. Next to Rome, Munich is, 
of all the cities of Europe, severely critical of statuary. It is there- 


fore sufficient to establish Crawford's claim to eminence to say that, 
at the time of the casting of his two great statues, that German city 
expressed its enthusiasm by the celebration of impromptu festivals. 
At the completion of the Beethoven, some of that composer's grand- 
est music was performed under the united auspices of the court and 
the artists. When Crawford went to Munich to see his Washington 
in bronss, on the evening of his arrival, he was surprised to find it in 
the midst of a large and gloomy :irena; but suddenly, as he ap- 
proached, numberless torches flashed their light upon his work, and a 
hundred German voices greeted him in a triumphant song. For years 
the studio of Crawford was one of the homes of travellers in Koine. 
and he became, through his works and the charm of his manners, the 
friend of the lovers of art in every country in which the word art is 
used. The following are his principal works and the places where 
they may be found : The statue of Beethoven, Boston Music Hall; 
statue of James Otis, Chapel of Mount Auburn; the " Indian," New 
York Historical Society; the " Orpheus," " Adam and Eve after the 
Expulsion," a " Shepherdess." and a bust of Josiah Quincy, Boston 
Athenaeum; a statue of " Flora," New York Central Park ; " Chil- 
dren in the Wood," owned by Hon. Hamilton Fish, New York; 
" Boy Playing Marbles," by Hon. Stephen Salisbury, Worcester. 
Miss.; the bust of his wifo when a bride, and several busts of 
Washington were owned by the late John Ward, of New York. His 
most elaborate monumental works are in Washington, D. C., and 
Richmond, Va. ; while his "Pandora," "Dancing Jenny,'' for 
which his daughter, now deceased, was the model, "Cupid," 
" Genius of Mirth," " Flora," " Indian Woman," " Hebe and 
Ganymede," "Mercury and Psyche," "Daughter of Herodias," 
" Aurora," " Peri," etc., as original or repetitions, are widely dis- 
tributed. Crawford executed no less than twenty-two bas-reliefs 
from classic, Scriptural, and other subjects. Eighty-seven plaster 
casts of his works were presented by Louisa W. Crawford to the 
commissioners of the Central Park, and are now arranged in a building 
where they can be seen by visitors. His works embody the history 
of his life, in which there were few remarkable events. The disease 
of which he died was extremely painful, a tumor on the inner side of 
the orbit of the eye. The pressure on the brain was removed 1>\ 
medical skill, and he retained his mind until his last moment. His 
remains were brought to New York and interred at Greenwood. As 
we consider his life, it would almost seem from the intensity of his 
application and the results of his labor, that the time of his early 
death had been revealed to him and urged him on to work while his 
day lasted. 

Credi, Lorenzo di, died \~>X7. A fellow-pupil with Leonardo da 
Vinci under Andrea Verocchio. He surpassed his teacher, but not 
Leonardo. His favorite subjects, and those in which he best sue- 


ceeded, were Madonnas and Holy Families. His best pictures are in 
Florence, at the Uflizi, and an " Adoration of the Shepherds." 
formerly in S. Chiara, now in the Acad., is one of his happiest efforts. 
There is a Madonna and Child with Saints, in the Louvre, which 
Vasari called his capo d" opera. The Berlin Mus. has fine specimens 
of the pictures of Credi, and there are two small, but characteristic 
ones in the National Gall. Credi copied the works of Leonardo most 

Cresilas. A sculptor of Athens who competed with Phidias, Poly- 
cletus, and Phradmon in making the statue of an Amazon for the 
Ephesian temple of Diana. A " Wounded Amazon " in the Capitol 
at Rome, is believed to be a copy of that by Cresilas, who took, as 
we are told, the third rank in the contest. He also made a beautiful 
bust of Pericles, and there are three now existing which have some 
claims to being copies of it; they are in the Vatican, the British Mus., 
and the Glyptothek at Munich. 

Crespi, Gio. Battista, called II Cerano from his birthplace (1557- 
1633). One of the most eminent pupils of the Procaccini school of 
Milan. He was mannered, but he was also powerful. The Brera 
has some excellent works of his, and there is a fine one in the Berlin 
Mus. He was also a sculptor and architect, and executed the colos- 
sal statue of S. Charles Borromeus, in the Lago Maggiore, for his 
patron, Card. Borromeo. 

Crespi. Daniele (1590-1630). Son of the preceding. Also dis- 
tinguished among Milanese painters. 

Crespi, Giuseppe Maria called Lo Spagnolo di Bologna (1665- 
1747). Pupil of Cignani. He had a capricious fancy, and was 
tempted to caricature, even in religious subjects. His manner of 
working was as coarse as that of his master was fine. His execution 
was free, but in some cases so slight, that parts have disappeared. 
His figures sometimes appear to be thrown upon the canvas. Of his 
works at Dresden, that of the " Seven Sacraments " is remarkable. 
The " Cumasan Sibyl," at Vienna, is a good specimen of his style. 
He was a good copyist of the old masters. He left several etchings 
from his own designs. 

Cristofori, Fabio, and his son. Pietro Paolo. Two fine mosaists. 
They executed for S. Peter's the " Communion of S. Jerome," after 
Domenichino; the " S. Petronilla," after Guercino, and the "Bap- 
tism of Christ," after Carlo Maratti. 

Crivelli, Carlo, born at Venice. His earliest known work is dated 
1468, and his latest, 1495. lie. was one of the best of the tempera 
painters of Venice. His pictures are well executed, and not badly 
colored, but they are hard and ugly in expression. He was fond of 
painting jrarlands of flowers, or fruit on gold grounds, as ornaments 
to his pictures; these were excessively rigid in effect. When his 
works are chronologically studied, there is much interest in tracing 



the changes and improvements in his manner. The honor of knight- 
hood was conferred on Crivelli in 1490, by Prince Ferdinand, of 
Capua. Some of the best works of this master in any Gall, are in 
that of London. The Brera, Berlin Mus., Borghese Pal., Vatican 


Gall., and Kensington Mus., all have his pictures. A " Pieta " of 
1493, now in the Oggioni Coll. at Milan, was his best and probably 
last work. He had much talent, but his pictures arc not pleasant. 
They are very numerous, and are in many private collections and in 
the churches of Massa and other places. 

Crome, John, born at Norwich (1769-1821). A good landscape 


painter. His sun effects and moonlight scenes are especially excel- 
lent. Sandy or pebbly beaches he also painted well, and his water 
views were made effective by bright lights thrown on the water in 
the distance. His color is sometimes very rich. He also left some 
etchings, which are good. 

Cross, John, born at Tiverton (1819-1861). Studied in Paris. 
In 1847 he gained a prize of 300 for his picture of " Richard Coeur 
de Lion forgiving Bertrand de Gourdon," which was purchased by 
the English government, and is now at Westminster Pal. For 
several years he sent pictures to the Exhibition, but in the end his 
" Storm Scene on the Cliffs " was rejected by the Acad. He died 
in great poverty, and broken-hearted at his want of success in the 
art he loved. 

Curia, Francesco, born at Naples (1538-1610). This artist 
painted several imposing altar-pieces for churches in Naples. That 
in S. M.iria della Pieta has been a model to Neapolitan painters. 

Curradi or Currado, Francesco, born in Florence (3570-1661). 
Pupil of Battista Naldini. His best works were historical subjects, 
easel size. Two of his finest ones are in the Florence Gall. 

Cuyp, Jacob Gerritze, called Old Cuyp, born at Dort (1580?- 
1642?). Although much eclipsed by his son, this artist merits hon- 
orable mention. A pupil of Abraham Bloemaert. He painted land- 
scapes and battle pieces, but excelled most in portraits. He was 
skilful in the arrangement of family groups. His color was fine, and 
may be described as sunny. Berlin Mus., No. 743; Amsterdam Gall., 
No. 60. 

Cuyp, Albert, born at Dort (1606-1672). Son and pupil of the 
preceding. Little is known of the life of this great painter. His 
favorite subjects were landscapes, with cattle and other animals. 
Frequently they were lying beside a river. He also painted winter 
scenes with good effect; still-life, fowls, hens, ducks, etc., were all 
painted by him. He was remarkable for his atmospheric effects, and 
as we look at his pictures we can almost feel the chill of the damp 
morning, or the heat of the high noon which he has painted, tlis 
colors, too, are managed with great skill; and the contrasts of light 
and shade, of dull and bright, were perfectly understood by him. 
But there is a certain monotony in the heads of his cattle; and his 
pictures were never very carefully finished. He was not appreciated 
for a long time, and his paintings had no large sale even at moderate 
prices. The English first gave them their proper value, and many 
of them are in England, both in public and private collections. 
Smith's Catalogue numbers 336 of his pictures. No. 53, National 
(rail., is called his masterpiece, and represents a morning landscape 
with two cows reposing in the foreground, and a woman talking with 
a horseman. Some of his works are in the Munich Gall, and the 
Louvre, but are wanting in most Continental collections. 



Daddi, Bernardo, born at Arezzo. Flourished about 1355. Pupil 
of Spinello Aretino. Sonic of his works remain in Florence, and 
his name is among those who approved the original statutes for the 
founding of the Compagni of Florence. The object of this so- 
ciety was the meeting together of artists to afford each other a.-sixt- 
ance, and to thank God for the prospered state of art at that 
time. It seems to have been largely a religious institution, and assem- 
bled in a chapel of S. Maria Nuova. 

Daelliker, John Rudolph (1G94-1769). A Prussian portrait 
painter who lived at Zurich and Berne several years, and then studied 
in Paris, after which he returned to his own country. His drawing 
was correct, his color beautiful, and his execution masterly. 

Dahl. Michael, born at Stockholm, 1G5G ; died in London, 174:5. 
After visiting France and Italy he settled in England, where he 
made a fine reputation as a portrait painter. 

Dahl, John Christian (1788-1857). A Norwegian landscape 
painter. He was intended for the Church, but he loved art too well 
to devote himself to anything else. In 1811 he went to Copenhagen 
and found friends who enabled him to study at the Acad. Before 
this he had received but little instruction. He went afterwards to 
Dresden, and later, in the suite of Prince Christian of Denmark, he 
visited the Tyrol and Italy. He was an acute observer, and an 
accurate imitator of nature, and represented her well in various 
forms ; but his best works were representations of stormy northern 
s-eas. although his Italian skies and sultry atmospheric effects, and 
his Tyrolese passes, are well painted His works are to be seen in 
all parts of Europe; some are in America, but the larger number are 
in the galleries of Copenhagen and in Berghen. his native city, and 
other places in Norway. 

Dalmasio, Lippo di, born at Bologna. Flourished towards the 
end of the 14th century. Called " dalle Madoune,'' on account of the 
beauty of his Madonnas. It is said that bis works were done in oil 
colors, which is interesting in connection with the much -discussed 
question of the time when these were first used. 

Darner, Hon. Anne Seymour (1 7 ts-is-_>x). A distinguished 
sculptor. Daughter of Field-Marslm! Conway. While still young. 
in conversation with Hume, Miss Conway criticised some planter 
casts they had seen. Hume told her it was more easy to criticise 
than to do better. She immediately obtained some wax and mod- 
elled a head which she showed him. It had merit enough to surprise 
him, but he suggested that it was much more difficult to chisel than 
to model. She then proceeded to execute a bust in stone, which, 
though rude, demanded his admiration. From this time she devoted 


herself to art. She studied under Ceracchi, and in the studio of Ba- 
ron acquired the technicalities, and learned the elements of anatomy 
from Mr. Cruikshank. She visited Italy in order to better study 
Grecian art, and endeavored always to imitate its pure and simple 
style. She married the Hon. John Darner in 1767, hut the marriage 
was an unhappy one, and he committed suicide in 1776. She had 
travelled considerably and had written some things which she at one 
time intended to publish, but in her will she commanded all her 
papers to be destroyed, and among them were not only her MSS. 
but many interesting and valuable letters. She declared that the 
distinction of being an artist was all that she desired, and requested 
that her working apron and her tools should be placed beside her in 
her coffin. She executed a large number of works, among which are 
the following : A marble statue eight feet high, in the Registry Office, 
Edinburgh ; two colossal heads in Portland stone, which orna- 
ment the key-stone of the bridge at Henley-upon-Thames; a bust of 
Fox, which she presented to Napoleon Bonaparte in person in 1815, 
and in return for which she received a snuff-box with the portrait of 
the emperor set in diamonds; a bust of Lord Nelson, who was her 
friend, and sat for this bust immediately after his return from the 
Battle of the Nile; this she presented to the city of London, and it is 
in the Common Council Chamber at Guildhall ; busts of her father, 
of Sir Humphry Davy, of her mother, and of herself One of the 
latter is in the Royal Gall, at Florence, and another is in the British 

Daiiby, Francis, born in Wexford County, Ireland (1793-1861). 
He was most successful as a painter of calm evenings at sea ; gen- 
erallv sunset scenes, with which he frequently connected some poetic 
incident or sentiment. 

Dance, Sir Nathaniel, born in London (1734-1811). Pupil of 
Francis Hay man, and travelled in Italy for improvement during sev- 
eral years. He painted in various styles. Some of his portraits are 
likened to those of Sir Joshua Reynolds. Some of his works remind 
one of Ilayman or of Hogarth, and again they ;MV more like Italian 
paintings. Dance married a fortune, had a seat in Parliament, was 
made a baronet, and took the name of Holland. He did not abandon 
painting entirely, but sometimes sent works to the Exhibition as an 

Dandini. The family of artists by this name were quite important 
in their time. The most distinguished was Vincenzo, a pupil of Pietro 
da Cortona, whose style he imitated. Some of his works remain in 
Florence. He died 1675. 

Daniell, Thomas, born at Kingston-on-Thames (1749-1840). Dis- 
tinguished for pictures of Oriental scenery. Together with his 
nephew, William Daniell, he passed ten years in India, and made 
illustrations for a work descriptive of that country, which ~>vas pub- 


lished in six volumes, in 1808. Their works are so united that they 
must be considered as almost one artist. 

Dannecker, Johann Heinrich, horn at Stuttgart (1758-1841). 
He gained the prize in the Acad. founded by the Duke Charles 
Eugene. His statue was that of Milo. This entitled him to the 
royal pension, with which he went to Paris, from there to Rome, where 
he remained seven years, and then returned to Wurtemburg to be 
appointed Director of the Acad. with 15,000 fr. a year. For fifteen 
years he was considered a fine sculptor, but his health failed, and 
others of his country surpassed him. There was a delicate feeling 
for nature, and noble expression in the heads of Dannecker, and his 
figures were light and graceful. The " Ariadne " in the coll. of .M. 
Bethmann of Frankfort is one of his best known and most admirable 
works. He also executed a Cupid, a statue of Alexander, and 
the monument of Count Zeppelin. His figure of Christ, upon which 
he labored eight years, belongs to the Emperor of Russia. His 
statues and portrait-busts are numerous. The " Maiden lamenting 
the Dead Bird " is fine; in Stuttgart, on a fountain in Neckar Street, 
there is a Nymph pouring out water, and on a reservoir in the palace 
gardens two reposing Nymphs, which display the fine architectural 
taste of this master. 

Dante, Girolamo, celebrated for his copies of his master, Titian. 
Sometimes, it is said, Titian finished his works with a lew strokes. 
and then it was impossible to see that they were copies. His own 
designs were meritorious. There is a good work attributed to him 
in S. Giovanni in Olio. 

Dario da Treviso. Flourished about the middle of the l.">th 
century. Disciple of Squarcione. But one of his pictures remains, 
and that is a " Virgin of Mercy " in the Bassano (Jail. It was the 
custom, in his time, to paint the outsides of houses, and many deco- 
rated by him are seen at Serravalle, Conegliano, and Trc\isn. 

Daufle, Jean, born at Abbeville (1 703-1 7G3). One of the most 
eminent and excellent engravers of his time. 

Daven, Leon, called also Daris and Danet, an engraver whose 
birthplace is not known. He distinguished himself in Florence and 
Rome about 1540. When Primaticcio went to France. Daven ac- 
companied him, and engraved plates after his works. His pi:. 
esteemed by collectors. They are frequently marked with his ini- 
tials, L. D. 

David, Gerhard, born at Onde water. Settled at Bruges 1487, and 
died theiv 152.3. In the Acad. of Bruges there are two of his pic- 
tures illustrating the judgment of Cambyses upon the unjust judge, 
Sisamnes. The first represents his seizure, and the second his Hav- 
ing. Herodotus says that the son of Sisamnes succeeded his father 
in office, and that his judgment-seat was covered with his father's 
sluri. The pictures of David have the figures three quarters life sixe. 


They are well colored, and the heads are expressive, but the subject 
of the second is too horrible. In the same Gall, there are also two 
miniatures on vellum by this artist. 

David, Jacques-Louis, born at Paris (1748-1825). He was con- 
sidered the first master in modern, art, at the close of the 18th cen- 
tury. He had great power, but his taste and judgment may well be 
questioned. So great was his admiration for the antique that his 
pictures are repetitions of the ideal Greek physical proportions, and 
his costumes might be called heroic Greek. Some of his works are 
merely groups of statues the flesh is as hard as marble. He was 
active in the revolution, but returned to the practice of his art. 
Napoleon honored him, and he painted the " Passage of S. Bernard," 
and other scenes i'rom the life of the Emperor. After the return of 
the Bourbons, David was banished, and lived in Brussels, where he 
executed many of his best works. His family were not allowed to 
bury him in France. 

David, Pierre Jean, born at Angers (17897-1856). He went 
when young to Paris to study sculpture. He was in very poor cir- 
cumstances until he by some means made the acquaintance of David 
the painter, who instructed him gratuitously, and otherwise assisted 
him. In 1811 he obtained a prize which secured to him a pension, 
and enabled him to go to Rome, lie studied closely, and upoo his 
return to Paris was constantly employed. He executed many colos- 
sal works, large numbers of busts, and more than 90 medallions. 
Among his works may be mentioned the statue of Mme. de Stael; 
that of Talma, for the Theatre Francais; colossal statue of King 
Rene at Aix ; Fenelon's monument at Cambray ; statues of Cuvier; 
one of Jefferson in Philadelphia, etc , etc. He executed busts of 
Goethe. Sdielling, Dannecker, and many others. He was a Knight 
of the Legion of Honor, a member of the Institute, and a Profes- 
sor in the Acad. of Painters, besides belonging to other academies. 
He is called David of Angers to distinguish him from David the 

Dawe, George, died 1829. An English portrait painter who 
went to Russia, and is said to have painted 400 portraits of the 
leaders of the Russian army which fought against Napoleon I. 

Deas, Charles, born in Philadelphia (1818- - ). From his ear- 
liest youth his inclination for art was plainly manifested. lie was 
of a nervous temperament and strangely sensible to color. He had 
executed several pictures when he saw Catlin's Indian Gallery. 
From this time he desired to represent scenes from Indian life, and 
as his brother was stationed at Fort Crawford, every opportunity 
was his for the study of their wild habits and customs. He at- 
tended their councils, feasts, dances, etc. He established himself at 
St. Louis, and there found patronage and appreciation. He was 
deranged in his later life, and died in an asylum where he had been 


for a long time. The following arc the subjects of some of his pic- 
tures: " Long Jake; " "The Trapper: " The Wounded Pawnee; " 
two scenes from the history of Wenona ; "The Last Shot;" 
' Hunters on the Prairie," etc. 

Decamps, Alexander Gabriel, born at Paris (1803-1860). A 
painter of landscapes, animals, and yp.nre pictures. He often repre- 
sented Eastern scenes with striking lights and effective contour. At 
the Paris International Exhibition of 1855, there were forty-fou. 
paintings besides drawings by thi> arti-t. His subjects were always 
popular, because illustrative of the life about him. He was thrown 
from his horse against a tree, and killed, while hunting in the forest 
of Fontainebleau. 

Decker or Dekker. There are nine artists of this name men- 
tioned by different writers, and the confusion concerning them is so 
great, that it is quite impossible to give a clear account of any one. 
The Decker lived in the 17th century, and painted pictures closely 
resembling those of Ruysdael, and like the latter excelled in reprcscnt- 
in-_ r river scenery and running water. His works are well finished, 
his perspective correct, his cottages well done, and though his tone 
of color is sometimes dark, he relieves it by silvery skies. His 
works are placed in the most important collections. The figures in 
some of his pictures were painted by Adrian Van Ostade and A. Van 
de Velde. 

Deelen, Dirk Van, born at Heusden. Flourished from 1640 to 
1670. He painted architectural subjects, both exterior and interior. 
His perspective was good, his color clear and pleasing, and his exe- 
cution finished. His indication of separate forms is somewhat too 
prononce, and reminds us of older artists. The figures in his pictures 
were done by others. His works are not numerous in public galleries. 
The Vienna Gall, has two of the finest, both representing grand 
buildings with columns. At the Mas. of the Hague, there is a view 
of the Binnenhof with the last great meeting of the States General, 
which took place in 1651; Berlin Gall., a view of antique buildings, 
dated 1647, clear and delicate in tone. One of his best pictures in 
England is a church interior in the coll. of Mr. H. T. Hope. 

Delacroix, Eugene, born at C'harenton. S. Maurice (1 799-1 s<;:j). 
Under the Directory, his father had been Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
and held other offices of honor. The son had the pnxpeet of some, 
fortune, but all was lost, and he was obliged to struggle hard for the 
barest necessities of existence. He entered the studio of Guerin 
when eighteen years old. and there became the friend of Gericauli. 
He first exhibited in 1822, and his subject, was that passage t'mm 
Dante's " Inferno " in which the poet recognizes some of his old 
townspeople among the condemned who float upon the lake which 
surrounds the infernal city. This work made a great impression. 
It was purchased for the Luxembourg Gall. Baron Gros was so 


much pleased with it, that he invited Delacroix to his studio, and 
assured him he could obtain the " prix de Rome." But Delacroix 
was not anxious to follow in the accepted path, and so offended those 
in power, that he received no large commissions, and after painting 
the " Massacre of Scio " (Luxembourg Gall), and " Sardanapalus," 
he was compelled to execute small works for private collections as a 
means of support. He also designed illustrations for " Faust " and 
" Hamlet." The former were approved by Goethe himself. In 1830, 
he went to Spain, Algiers, and Morocco, and on his return painted a 
picture of three Algerine ladies smoking the narghile. He now found 
a patron in M. Thiers, Minister of the Interior under the new order 
of things, and received orders for the decoration of the Throne-room 
in the Chamber of Deputies. He was severely criticised by other 
artists, but his work when finished was magnificent in effect. He 
was prosperous from this time, and some of his large pictures were 
placed at Versailles; others are in many of the churches of Paris, 
and another important commission was given him in the library of 
the Chamber of Peers. His works, when considered as a whole, are 
powerful in the extreme, but lose their effect when examined in 
portions. His color was rich and bold, his design free and spirited, 
and his expression well suited to his subject. His works are nu- 
merous and varied in character. He became a member of the Insti- 
tute in 1857. 

Delaroche, Paul, born at Paris (1797-1856). Pupil of Baron 
Gros. A great painter. His best works are illustrative of subjects 
of much interest, such as the " Death of the Duke de Guise," 1835; 
Napoleon at Fontainebleau," 1847; " Cromwell contemplating the 
Remains of Charles I. ; " " Condemnation of Marie Antoinette," etc. 
His largest work is the " Hemicycky' in the theatre of L'ficole des 
Beaux Arts, at Paris. It contains seventy-five life-size figures, and 
employed him three years. It represents the arts of different coun- 
tries and times, by groups of portraits of the artists of those times 
and nations. Delaroche married the daughter of Horace Vernet, and 
it is said that the figure which symbolizes Gothic architecture is her 
portrait. The pictures of Delaroche appeal forcibly to the heart. 
His design was in a good degree academical, or uniform, but many 
of his works are free from conventionalities. His color has rarely 
been excelled, and in some of his small religious pictures, there is 
sentiment of a high character. He was a member of the Institute, a 
professor in L'ficole des Beaux Arts, and received the Cross of an 
officer of the Legion of Honor. His principal works have been well 
engraved by S. AY. Reynolds, Desclaux, Hcnriquel-Dupont, Martinet, 
A. and J. Fran9ois, and other fine engravers. 

Delft, Jacob. A Dutch portrait painter of the 16th century. 
There is a very remarkable female portrait by him in the Stadel In- 
stitute, at Frankfort. 


Delft, Johann William, born at Delft. Son of the pre- 
ceding. There is in the Hotel de Ville, at Delft, an archerv 
piece dated 1592, by this artist. But he was a better en- 
graver than painter, and at length gave all his lime to that 
art. He engraved many portraits, especially ai'ter Mirevelt, whose 
daughter he married. His heads are finely drawn. 

Delli, Dello, born about 1404. He was about twenty years old, 
when his father, who was keeper of the fortress of Monteccrro. sur- 
rendered to the Duke of Milan. For this he was sentenced to death, 
and fled to Sienna, From here they went to Venice, ami at last 
Dello emigrated to Spain, and lived in Seville many years. He 
gained a fortune and the title of " Cavaliere,'' which was recognized 
in Florence upon his return to Italy. In the ch. of S. M. Novella, at 
Florence, there are twenty-four pictures representing episodes from 
the Genesis, said to be the work of Dello. These are very weak and 
imperfect, and it does not appear that one who painted them could 
have gained reputation for excellence in any country. Dello was the 
friend of Paolo Uccelli, and it is said that the latter painted the 
portrait of Dello, in the figure of Shem, in his picture of the 
" Drunkenness of Noah." 

Delmont, real name Deodat van der Mont, born near Antwerp 
(1581-1644). The earliest scholar of Rubens. His works an- very 
rare. No. 300, Antwerp Mus., is a representation of the " Trans- 
figuration " by him, and has no great merit. 

Denis or Denys, Simon, born at Antwerp (1750-1815). He 
painted landscapes and cattle. He resided many years in Italy, and 
died in Naples. His botanical representations are fine and very accu- 
rate. His works are much valued. 

Denner, Balthasar, born at Hamburg (1685-1749). If the exact 
and toilsome imitation of nature would make a great artist, Denner 
would be at the head of the first rank. His best works are bust 
j>ortraits of old people, with not a freckle, a hair, a wrinkle, or a 
speck left out. Two very striking pictures of this kind are at Vienna; 
another, No. 1014, Berlin Mus. But he sometimes painted family 
groups and other likenesses, and many of his portraits remain at 
Schwerin, where he was much employed by the Duke of Mecklen- 
burg-Schwerin. His miniatures executed late in life, l>oth in oil and 
water-colors, are very fine. In the city library of Hamburg, then is a 
series of the>e in water-colors. 

Desplaces, Louis, born at Paris, 16*2. An eminent engraver. His 
best plates ;;re after Jouvcnet. IL- used both point, and graver. 

Desportes, Francois, born at C'hampigneul (1661-1743). An 
eminent painter of animals, especially dogs. He was a great favorite 
with Louis XIV., who employed him in the palaces of Versailles, Fon- 
talnebfean, and Meudon, and gave him the office of painter to the 
king. Hi.- own portrait, as a sportsman with dead game and a dog, 


painted by himself, is in the Louvre. Desportes was without doubt 
in England, and painted some pictures there. 

Detroy, Jean-Francois, born at Paris (1679-1752). This artist 
passed many years in Italy, was Director of the French Acad. at 
Koine, and President of the Acad. of S. Luke. He painted a variety 
of subjects; large altar-pieces, genre subjects, and myths and stories 
for the Gobelins' tapestries. His execution was very careless, but 
his designs exhibit great ability. In the Louvre is one of his best 
works, dated 1732, and representing the first Chapter of the Order 
of S. Esprit, held by Henri IV. in the convent of the Grands-Au- 

Deutsch. See Manuel. 

Devis, Arthur, born at Preston, Lancashire (1708-1787). He 
could not be termed a miniaturist, and yet his portraits were small, 
often full lengths 15 or 18 inches high. He gave them the appear- 
ance of fancy sketches by putting them in a room or in a landscape, 
and paying great attention to all the details of finish. His color was 
cool, but his heads are very expressive, even when thinly painted. 

Devis, Arthur William (1762-1822). Son of the preceding. 
He painted life-size portraits in a somewhat theatrical style. When 
but twenty years old he Avas appointed draughtsman to the East India 
Company, and started for a voyage round the world. He suffered 
shipwreck and many hardships, but at length reached Bengal, where 
he painted for a time. Returning to England he executed historical 
subjects, one of the best of which is the " Death of Nelson," at 
Greenwich Hospital. He grouped his figures well, and his portraits 
were full of character; he made good use of light and shade, but his 
color was brown and thin. Many of his portraits are excellent. 

Diaz, Diego Valentine. A Spanish painter of architecture and 
history. He founded a hospital for orphans at Valladolid, and his 
most creditable work was done there. In the Mus. at Valladolid 
there is a " Holy Family " by Diaz. 

Diepenbeck, Abraham van, born at Bois-le-Duc (1607-1675). 
This artist was originally a painter on glass, and the windows of a 
chapel in the Cath. of Antwerp were his work. He spent a long 
time in Italy, and went also to England. His whole manner shows 
that he was the pupil of Rubens; but he used more impasto than his 
master, his colors are more blended, and the whole work smoother. 
He was a figure painter, decidedly, but his backgrounds were well 
done and very varied, embracing lake and river scenery, houses and 
terraces, landscape and sea. He also painted animals well, and 
loved to represent horses. Antwerp Mus., "Ecstasy of S. Bonaven- 
tura; " Vienna Gall., " Vanity of all Earthly Things ; " Berlin Mus. 
and Louvre, " Clcelia fleeing from Porsenna." His chef-<F ceuvre was 
long attributed to Rubens, and is the altar-piece of the ch. of Deurne, 
near Antwerp, representing " S. Norbert giving the Cross and his 


Benediction to Waltman, first Abbot of S. Michel." Perhaps no 
works of his so well display his powers of invention as the designs he 
made for engravers, among which were those for " The Temple of 
the Muses," engraved by Cornelius Bloemacrt. 

Diest, Adrian van, born at the Hague (1655-1704). A land- 
scape painter of some merit. He occasionally painted portraits also. 
His pictures would be called decorative works, but they are bold and 
spirited in effect. His skies were pale blue, and his whole tone of 
color silvery gray ; sometimes he made large gray clouds with lighted 
edges of a delicate yellow. His men-of-war and fishing boats were 
good, and his foreground figures spirited. He executed a few etch- 
ings from his own designs, in a slight, masterly manner. 

Dietisalvi, Petroni. In the latter part of the 13th century it was 
the custom to have the registers and books of the public offices 
adorned with paintings of the arms of the people and " commune," 
or with portraits of the officers who kept the books. Dieti-ulvi 
painted in 1264 and 1269 two such book-covers, which are now pre- 
served in the Acad. of Arts at Siena. They are very curious and 
interesting on account of their authenticity and age. M. Ilamboux, 
of Cologne, made a full collection of these curiosities, and among them 
was a portrait by Dietisalvi. 

Dietrich, Christian Wilhelm Ernst, born at Weimar (1712- 
1774). Pupil of his father and Alexander Thiele. He especially 
loved the painting of pasticci, and succeeded well with the works of 
Rembrandt, Everdingen, Ostade, Poelemberg, Heinrich Roos, and 
Salvator Rosa. He had no originality, and his color and execution 
were subject to much criticism, yet he had great popularity and his 
works are numerous. The Dresden Gall, has 51, and all tin- (MT- 
inan galleries have specimens of his brush. In the National Gall, the 
" Wandering Musicians " is an unusually good work of this artist. 
The engraving of Wille has made it well known. But Dietrich was 
more worthy of praise for his etchings than for his paintings. These 
can only be admired, and as he often destroyed his plates after mak- 
ing a certain number of impressions, some of his prints are now 
rare. Among these are the following: 

Lot and his Daughters ; scarce. 

Abraham going to sacrifice Isaac; 1730; scarce. 

Another of the same subject differently designed; very scarce. 

The Repose in Egypt; 1732; scarce. 

Descent from the Cross: style of Rembrandt; 1730; scarce. 

The Disciples at Emmaus; extremely rare. 

Famine and Pestilence; 1731; very scarce. 

Nero dying, tormented by Furies and the Shade of his Mother; 

Jupiter and Antiope ; 1735; one of the best; scarce. 


The Alchyrnist in his Laboratory; 1731; style of Rembrandt; 

Dobson, William, born in London (1610-1646). Pupil of Robert 
Pi-ake. Dobson was a portrait painter of much merit. His color 
was good and his drawing excellent. Vandyck was attracted by the 
sight of one of his pictures, sought him out, and recommended him 
to Charles I. After the death of Vandyck, the king gave Dobson the 
appointment of sergeant-painter to his Majesty. His pictures in some 
points resemble those of Lely and Vandyck, but the resemblance is 
not sufficient to lead to any confusion in their works. His portraits 
have much dignity, and the face shadows are sometimes very dark. 
He did not succeed in historical subjects. He lived extravagantly, 
and was poor and dissipated at the time of his death. 

Does, Jacob van der, born at Amsterdam (1623-1673). Pupil of 
Nicholas Moyaert. He went to Rome when the works of Pieter 
van Laer were very much in vogue, and Does adopted the same class 
of subjects, which were scenes from peasant life, markets, robber- 
subjects, etc. The landscapes of Van der Does were principally 
Italian, and he introduced sheep and goats successfully. His works 
are rare in public galleries. There is a fine one in the Vienna Gall. 
It represents an antique fountain around which a flock of sheep and 
a laden mule are resting, with a shepherdess and some children near. 
The clearness and power of color suggest Rembrandt. Brunswick 
Gall., No. 41, is another fine work of this master. He executed one 
etching, dated 1650, which represents five sheep, and is as good as 
his pictures. 

Does, Simon van der. Son of the preceding (1653-1717). He 
painted the same subjects as his father, and also small portraits and 
domestic subjects. He did not equal his father. There are three of 
his works in the Amsterdam Mus. He also etched a few plates of 
landscapes with cattle. 

Dolci, Carlo, born at Florence (1616-1686). School of Matteo 
Rosselli. He painted few historical pictures. His best works were 
Madonnas and penitent Saints. These he painted with great 
delicacy and grace. There was also much sentiment in them, which 
sometimes became affectation. There is a great difference in the 
quality of his works, but they are all valuable. They are not rare 
in galleries. His most important historical picture is in the Pitti 
Pal. It represents S. Andrew praying by the Cross, previous to 
his execution, and is dated 1646. He especially excelled in the 
painting of the hands. His representations of the Mater Dolorosa, 
S. Apollonia, and the Magdalene are very beautiful, and find many 
passionate admirers. He had many imitators, and his pictures were 
often copied. This was done best by his daughter Agnese, who also 
executed original works, but never equalled her father. 



Engraver, BARON, Bernard. S. Cecilia. 

Engraver, BARTOJLOZZI, Francesco. Madonna and Child. 

Engraver, BASAN, Francis. Christ breaking the Bread. 

Engravf-r, CARDOX, Anthony the Younger. Salvator Mundi. 

Engracer, EARLOM, Richard. The Virgin and Child with S. John. 
Salvator Mundi. 

Engraver, FAUCCI, Carlo. The Martyrdom of S. Andrew. 

Engraver, GARAVAGLIA. Bust of Mary, Mater pulchrcn d'dectionis. 
Magdalena with the oil-flask. 

Engraver, KILIAN, Philip Andrew. Daughter of Ilerodias with 
the Head of S. John. S. Cecilia. 

Engraver, MARRI, G. Carlo Dolci, after himself. (Tosti Coll.) 

Engraver, Rossi, Andrea. A Bust of the Virgin. 

Domenichino, real name Domenico Zampieri, born at Bologna 
(1581-1641). The most distinguished painter of the school of the 
Carracci. His originality was not large, but his expression and 
color command admiration. He has been often criticised for allow- 
ing the auxiliary parts of his works to detract from the interest of the 
principal figure. It is true that he did this : par c.runp'e. in his 
picture of " S. Cecilia bestowing her Goods,'' it is not the Saint her- 
self who holds the attention, but the group of poor people below who 
struggle for the gifts thrown from the balcony above, and who are 
most powerfully represented; and in the " Scourging of S. Andrew," 
the women thrust back by the executioners are the great excellence 
of the work. He imitated the designs of other artists, but not with 
servility, for there is individuality in his heads, as well as grace and 
a noble beauty. His most noted work is the ' Communion of S. 
Jerome," in the Vatican, considered by many second only to Raphael's 
li Transfiguration," among all the pictures in Rome. His other impor- 
tant works in Rome are, the " Four Evangelists '' in the pendentives 
of the Cupola of S. Andrea delle Valle: two scenes from the life of 
S. Cecilia, in S. Luigi; " Scourging of S. Andrew." in chapel of that 
saint on Monte Celio; the "Martyrdom of S. Sebastian,'' in X M. 
degli Angeli; " Diana and her Nymphs. ' Borghese Gall. Other famous 
pictures of his are, " Scenes from the Life of the Virgin ' : in a chapel 
of the Duomo at Fano; the " History of S. Nilus " at Grottaferrata; 
a " Guardian Angel defending a Hoy from Satan." Stndj Gall.. Na- 
ples; an "Inspired S. John," S. Petersburg, coll. of Prince Narisch- 
kin; same MiKject at Castle Howard; ' Pious Women dre>sin^ the 
Wounds of S. Sfbasthn." Skidd Institute, Frankfort: and the " Mar- 
trydom of S. Ague-." Bologna Gall. His most important work at 
Naples was a series of subjects from the life of S. Januarius, in the 
chapel Tesoro of the Cath. It is believed that he was poisoned In- 
Neapolitan artists. He left Rome on account of the persecutions of 




rivals, only to meet death at Naples. The landscapes of Domenichino 
are deserving of attention, whether they are the full subject, or 
merely the background for figures. They are grand and solemn; 
frequently towers and classical buildings are introduced, and his 
coloring is warm and rich. 


Engraver, AXDRIOT or HANDERIOT, Franz. Christ crowned 
with Thorns. 

Engraver, AUDRAX, Charles. The Assumption of the Virgin; very 

Engraver, AUDRAN, Gerard. JEneas saving Anchises. The Mys- 
tery of the Rosary. Temptation of S. Jerome. Martyrdom of S. 
Agnes. Four sheets of the four angles in the ch. of S. Carlo de 
Catenari, representing Justice, Temperance, Prudence and Fortitude ; 
Rome; 1675. 

Engraver, AUDRAN, John. Our Saviour on the Mount of Olives. 

Engraver, BARRIERE, Dominique. Several plates of the History 
of Apollo. 

Engraver, BAUDET, Stephen. Adam and Eve ; very fine. 

Engracer, BLOND or BLON, James Christopher le. S. Agnes. 

Engraver, CAN ALE, Giuseppe. The Glory. 

Engraver, CHAVEAU, Francis. A Concert; engraved also by 
Pic art. 

Engraver, CUNEGO, Domenico. S Cecilia receiving the Palm of 
Martyrdom. Six plates : the Annunciation, the Visitation, the Xa- 
tivity, the Circumcision, the Adoration of the Magi, and the Presen- 
tation in the Temple. 

Engraver, DUFLOS, Claude. A Concert. The Triumph of Gal- 
atea. Cupid stung by a Bee. The same subject, smaller and circu- 
lar. Bacchus and Ariadne. 

Engraver, EARLOM, Richard. The infant Jesus sleeping. 

Engraver, FARIAT or FARJAT, BENOIT. Communion of S. 

Engraver, FREY, James. Martyrdom of S. Sebastian. Commun- 
ion of S. Jerome. Justice, Temperance, Prudence, and Fortitude, 
from S. Carlo de Catenari, at Rome. 

Engraver, GKEEN, Valentine. The Virgin and Child. 

Engraver, GREUTER. John Frederick. The Death of S. Cecilia. 

Engraver, HAINZELMANN, Elias. S. Francis praying before a 

Engracer, MAUIETTE, John. S. Peter delivered from Prison. 

Engraver, MORGHEX. Raphael. Diana and her Nymphs. 

Engraver, PAVON, Ignatius. Communion of S. Jerome. S. John 

Engraver, Pic ART, Stephen. S. Cecilia. A Concert. 



Engraver, POILLY, John Baptist. Martyrdom of S. Cecilia. 

Engraver, RorssKi.i.iyr, (Jiles. David playing on the Harp. 

Engraver, SHARP, William. S. Cecilia. 

Engraver, SIMOXEAU, Charles. Christ with Martha and Marv. 

Engraver, STRANGE, Sir Robert. The Martyrdom of S. Allies ; 
1759. S. Agnes; 1759 (?) 

Engraver, TARDIEU, Nicholas Henry. Adam and Eve. 

Engraver, TARDIEU, Peter Alexander. Communion of S. Jerome. 

Engraver, TESTA, Gio. Cesare. Communion of S. Jerome. 

Donatello, real name Donate di Betto Bardi (1386-1 1<J8). This 
old sculptor was a close imitator of nature. He seemed careless of 
mere beauty, and his works are striking for their marked difference 
from those of his predecessors, especially in. this, that lie defined the 
forms beneath, his draperies, and by use of the girdle, and other 


In S. Antonio, Padua. 

means, made it possible, to believe that the folds concealed the human 
figure. lie executed numerous works. Among those remaining, the 
following are the most important: Reliefs in marble represent inn- 
Dancing Children, executed lor the front of the organ in the Cath. of 
Florence, now in the I'lli/i: bron/e David, same (Jail.: bron/e statues 
of SS. Mark. 1'eter, and (Jeorge, on the exterior of Orsanmichele; 
the Magdalene in the Baptistery at Florence; bron/.e reliefs of two 
pulpits in S. Lorenzo, and a bron/e Judith in the Loggia de' Lanxi. 


At Padua, there is an equestrian statue of Francesco Gattamelata, 
which was the first one of importance in modern art, and is full of 
life and power. Many of his works are very excellent, but others, as 
the " Magdalene," are almost repulsive. He was much admired and 
patronized by Cosmo and Pietro de' Medicis. It is said that he con- 
sidered his " David," called Lo Zuccone (the bald head), his chef- 
d'oeuvre, and was accustomed to use as an affirmation, these words, 
" By the faith I place in my Zuccone." Donatello was buried in the 
ch. of S. Lorenzo with great pomp. His resting-place was near that 
of Cosmo de' Medicis, that, as he said, ' his body might be near him 
when dead, as his spirit had ever been near him when in life." See 

Doni, Adone or Done, born at Assisi, 1472. A pupil of Pietro 
Peruc-ino, whom he at first imitated, but later changed to the Roman 

O ' O 

style. In the ch. of S. Pietro, at Perugia, there is an " Adoration 
of the Magi " by him, in his first manner. It is graceful. He also 
painted Sibyls in the ch. at Assisi. 

Donzelli, Piero and Ippolito. Many contradictory things have 
been written about these brothers. The full extent of what is known 
seems to be that they were sons of Francesco d' Antonio di Jacopo, 
bailiff {'Ion zello~) of Florence. Piero was born in 1451, and Ippo- 
lito in 1455. The latter was apprenticed to Neri de' Bicci, and they 
were both in the " Studio " at Florence in 1480. It is hard to say 
which of the pictures attributed to these artists are genuine. They 
may have taken part in the frescoes at S. Severino in Naples, but 
that they were Florentines is certain, and also is it true that they 
lived later than the Neapolitan accounts have stated. 

Dorigny, Michel, born at St. Quentin (1617-1665). A painter 
and engraver. He married the daughter of Simon Youet, and is de- 
serving of notice principally as having engraved the works of that 

Dossi, Dosso, and his brother. Gio. Battista. The former was 
the most celebrated. He died in 1560. The brothers passed some 
time in Home, after the death of Raphael. Dosso shows his peculiar 
characteristics in mythological subjects, more than in religious pic- 
tures. The " Four Fathers of the Church," the " First Person of 
the Trinity," and the " Glory of the Yirgin," all in the Dresden 
Gall., have much merit. They are rich and dignified representations. 
But in the " Circe " of the Borghese Gall., there is freedom of action, 
naivete of expression, and pleasing individuality. The " Dream," in 
the Dresden Gall., is wild and fanciful. The bi'others worked together 
in the Ducal Pal. at Ferrara, in 1554. Many of their works are 
much injured, and in those that remain there is a mixture of excel- 
lence and hard conventionality. In the Borghese Pal., there are two 
landscapes by Gio. Battista. Dosso excelled in portraits, and painted 
that of Ariosto, by whom he was employed to make designs for his 



"Orlando Furioso." There are several pictures by Dosso in the 

linn-lies of Ferrara. 

Doudyns, William, born at the Hague (1630-1697). His ceil- 
ings were his best works. He executed several in the Town Hall of 
hi* native city. He deserves mention as one of the founders of the 
Aead. at the Hague, of whieh he was a Director. 

Doughty, Thomas, born in Philadelphia (1793-1856). He started 
in life a.s a leather manufacturer, but at thirty years of age, his love 
of art compelled liim to take up the brush, even in the face of the 
nppoMtion of his friends, and against all prudential considerations. 
He was one of the earliest American artists who represented our au- 
tumnal colors. His works were much admired in their time, and are 
now remarkable for their true feeling for nature. Col. William 
Doughty, of Georgetown, D. C., brother of the artist, has some of 
his pictures, others are in the collections of various gentlemen, and 
one of his landscapes is in the Boston Athenaeum; others are in the 
Philadelphia Acad. of Fine Arts. 

Dow, Douw.or Dou, Gerhard, born at Leyden (1613-1680). Son 
of a glazier, who, on account of his love for drawing, early placed him 

with a glass painter, named 
Kowenhoorn. At fifteen 
he entered the school of 
Rembrandt, where he re- 
mained three years, when 
he had become a finished 
painter. lie did not at- 
tempt to make his works 
tell romantic tales, but de- 
picted the every-day life 
of the humbler classes. 
His execution and finish 
are most iVmarkahl. 
minutely did he dwell on 
each part, that he was 
obliged to relinquish por- 
trait painting on account of 
the weariness to his sitters. 
He loved to paint her- 
mits, and Scriptural events, 
and. like Rembrandt, he 
often repeated his own 
face. His impasto is ad- 
mirable ; his color warm 
and transparent at times, and always excellent; he fully appreciated 
the picturesque, and excelled in his chiaro-scuro. His lights were often 
from lanterns and candles, and are wonderfully effective. In spite 

i-ii ii 1:1; IIY <;. in>\v. 
Vienna Gall. 


of his minute execution he finished more than 200 pictures. They 
are never large, and rarely contain more than three figures. Even 
in his own time his works were so much esteemed that President Van 
Spiring offered him 1 000 florins a year for the right to choose from 
his works; they now bring very large prices. There are specimens 
in all the large European galleries. The ' Woman sick of the 
Dropsy," in the Louvre, is often called his chef-d'oeuvre. This was ex- 
ecuted when he was sixty-five years old. It has a sunny, transparent 
lighting, and a marvellous execution. The " Evening School, " in 
the Amsterdam Mus., is his best candle-lighted picture. It is ex- 
tremely picturesque, and the lights are admirable. His best por- 
traits are in the same Mus., and represent a Burgomaster of Leyden 
and his wife, full length, in one frame. He excelled in the combi- 
nation of domestic, peaceful happiness, with masterly lighting, warm, 
beautiful color, and tender execution. 


Engraver, AMSTEL, Cornelius Ploos Van. A Lady seated at a 
Harpsichord; Ger. Douw, del., 1660; P. v. Amslel, fecit, 1767. 

Engraver, BAILLIE, Capt. William. The Pen Cutter. The Lace 
Maker. The Mother of G. Douw. 

Engraver, BAUSE, John Frederic. The Good Housewife. 

Engraver, BEAUVAKLET, James Firmin. The Double Surprise. 

Engraver, KAUPKRZ, John Vitus. The Flute Player. 

Engraver, MOITTE,' Peter Stephen. The Dutch Cook. The Fish- 

Engraver, VALK, or VALCK, Gerard. A Girl holding a Lamp. 

Enf/mver, VOYEZ, Nicholas Joseph. The Astrologer. An Old 
Man in Meditation. 

Engraver, WILLE. John George. A Lady Reading. The Housewife. 

Drevet, Pierre, the Elder, born at Lyons (1664-1739). An emi- 
nent engraver. He used only the graver, of which he was a perfect 

Drevet, Pierre, the Younger, born at Paris (1697-1 739). Son of 
the preceding, and a celebrated engraver also. His portrait of Bos- 
suet gained him a world-wide reputation. That of Samuel Bernard 
is almost as fine, and all his works are excellent. 

Drolling, Michel Martin, born at Oberbergheim (1786-1861). 
Pupil of David. Two decorated ceilings in the Louvre were by this 
master. His subjects were poetical and classical as well as religious, 
and lie painted some good portraits. He was a good academic 

Drost (1638-1690). A pupil of Rembrandt, and one of his most 
faithful imitators as far as his talents would allow. There is a 
" Christ with the Magdalene after his Resurrection," by Drost, in the 
Cassel Gall., and the " Daughter of Herodias with the Head of the 
Baptist," in the Mus. at Amsterdam. 


Drouais, Jean Germain, born at Paris (17G3-1788). An artist 
who gave great promise of excellence, hut whose early death pre- 
vented the execution of many works. His masterpiece was Ma- 
rius at Mintnrnae." This picture is illustrative of the imitation of 
the antique in the modern French school. 

Diummond, Samuel (1770-1844). An English landscape and 
portrait painter. His portraits were his best works. 

Dubbels. There have been at least three artists of this name, and 
all painted sea and river views. But few facts are known of them. 
Jan has been called both the scholar and master of Backhuysen, to 
whom, it is said, many of his pictures have been attributed. But his 
known works would indicate him to have been the instructor rather 
than the pupil, for the Dutch school can scarcely show a finer sea 
view than one of Dubbels, which is signed and in the Van der Hoop 
Coll. at Amsterdam. It represents an agitated sea breaking on the 
coa-t. It is almost equalled by another similar subject, also signed, 
in the Pitti Pal. In this a single figure is seen emerging from the 
breakers. The lighting is exquisite. The general tone of color is a 
silver gray, with gleams of sunshine on waves, sands, and horizon. 
One of this artist's rare works is in the Coll. of the Duke of Bedford, 
London. Hendrik and Thierry are the names of the other Dubbels. 

Due, A. In the Gall, at Dresden there is a picture of a peasant 
kneeling and begging his life of a soldier, and in the Vienna Gall, 
one of a lady and gentleman imploring the mercy of an infantry offi- 
cer, and both are signed A. Due. Otherwise he is unknown. These 
works show him to have been a good imitator of the style of 1'ala- 

Ducq, Jan le, born at the Hague (1633-1695). He is believed to 
have been the pupil of Paul Potter, but his pictures resemble those 
iif the Palamedes, whom he also surpassed. He had much delicacy 
of touch, and his heads are very truthful. His portraits were excel- 
lent, as may be seen in two small, delicately painted ones in the 
Dresden Gall. The Berlin and Munich galleries have good speci- 
mens of his scenes from soldier life. Le Ducq also executed a number 
of very skilful etchings, representing dogs and other animals. 

Duccio di Boninsegna, was to the Sienese school what Cimabue 
and Giotto were to that of Florence. He was a reformer who re- 
tained indeed much of the manner of those who had preceded him. 
but he added to it, and elevated it by creations all his own. The 
time of his birth is unknown. He was in Florence in 1285. He 
commenced his great altar-piece for the Cath. of Siena in 1308. and 
in June, 1310, it was borne, like the Madonna " of Cimabue, from 
his studio to the Duomo by a solemn procession, headed by the 
Archbishop, followed by clergy, monks, government and communal 
officers, women, and children. Music and the ringing of bells added 
merry inspiration, and Duccio was the "bright, particular star" 



to the Sienese of that day. His work remained nearly 200 years 
in its place, and is now well preserved in the transept and sacristy 
of the Cath. It is probable that at the time of the procession it 
was not all completed, for in the end it was painted on both sides, 
and from some records it Avould appear that a portion, at least, of the 
back part was done afterwards. The front was a representation of 
the "Majesty" of the A r irgin. Seated on avast throne, and hold- 
ing the Child, she was surrounded by angels and worshipped by 
saints. There was much 
gold, tapestry, and orna- 
mentation ; the group was 
characterized by grace 
more than solemnity or 
dignity. His drawing was 
careful ; his color soft and 
powerful ; his execution 
was patient and highly 
finished, and even his 
superabundant ornament 
was tasteful. A marked 
difference was made be- 
tween the treatment of 
the male and female fig- 
ures, but color was the 
best feature of Duccio 
and his school, who re- 
tained much of the old 
exaggeration of design, 
form, and action. On the 
other side of the work, 
he depicted the Passion 
of Christ, in 28 panels. 
The subjects commenced 
with the entrance into 
Jerusalem, and proceeded 
to the meeting at Em- 
maus. The whole has 
been divided into many 
pieces. In the Acad. of 
Siena there are other works of this master, and in the National 
(iall. a Virgin with saints and prophets. One of his finest works is 
in the Coll. of the late Royal Consort, Prince Albert. This ranks 
next the great altar-piece. In the Ramboux Coll. at Cologne there 
are two pictures of his. The successors of Duccio in the 14th cen- 
tury did nothing which exceeded him. 

Duchange, Gaspar, born at Paris, 1662. An eminent engraver. 


Cath. of Siena. 


His plates are remarkable, for the effect which he produced by the 
combined use of the etching-point and tin- graver. He reproduced 
the works of Correggio with peculiar skill. 

Duchatel,' Frans, l>orn at Brussels, 1625. Pupil of Teniers, his 
works so nearly resemble those of his great master that they have 
been mistaken for his. He had however been brought under the 
influence of Van der Meulen in France, and was. all in all, more 
independent in style than Teniers. His chief work is in the Mus. 
at Ghent, and represents " Charles II. of Spain receiving homage as 
Count of Flanders from the Estates of Ghent, in the person of his 
Stadtholder the Marquis of Castel Rodrigo." This picture is signed 
and dated 1668. It contains several most excellent portraits, and is 
good in general effect and keeping. In the Antwerp Mus. the pano- 
rama of Valenciennes has been called a Teniers, but good authorities 
now assign it to Duchatel. 

Dufresnoy, Charles Alphonse, born at Paris (1611-16G5). A 
very learned painter. lit- was classical in his taste, and after his 
death his friends published his Latin poem, ' De Arte Graphic;!,'' 
which was translated into English by William Mason, and enriched 
with notes by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Dufresnoy went when quite 
young to Rome, and became learned in antiquities, anatomy, and 
perspective, as well as in classical literature. His works are scarce. 
His subjects were landscapes, history, and architecture. They are 
correct in drawing and carefully executed, but are too studied to be 

Dunlap, William, born at Perth Amboy, New Jersey (17'!t'>- 
1839). The versatility of his talents and the circumstances of his 
life led him into so many different pursuits that it is difficult to 
know whether to call him a painter, an annalist, or a theatrical 
manager. He did however devote several years entirely to portrait 
painting, and his pictures are numerous. The sketch of his life is 
full of adventures and interesting stories. He should be mentioned 
as one of the active men in establishing the New York Acad. of 
Fine Arts, and indeed it is due him to say that he did much for 
artistic and literary enterprise at a time when little thought or >\ m- 
pathy was given to such matters. 

Dunwegge, Victor and Heinrich. Two painters of the West- 
phalian school. In the parish ch. of Dortmund there is what the 
Germans term a "Holy Kith-and-Kin picture," by these artists. 
It was painted in 1523, but seems about a century older in style and 
excellence, proving the school of Westphalia to have been behind 
others in Germany. 

Dupaty, Charles Mercier, born at Bordeaux (1771-1825). His 
father designed to make him a lawyer, but after his death in 1788, 
Dupaty studied painting. He was, however, compelled to enter a 
regiment of dragoons, and did not resume his studies until 1795. 


At length he devoted himself to sculpture under the teaching of 
Lemont. As early as 1799 he obtained the grand prize, but did not 
go to Rome until 1801. His first works were executed in the man- 
ner of his time and country, but when he went to Italy he adopted 
the antique, and made models for some mythological and historical 
statues, which were put in marble later. His chef-d'oeuvre was 
" Ajax pursued by Neptune," which gained him, deservedly, a great 
reputation. He executed various commissions for the government, 
among which was the principal group of the monument to the Duke 
de Berri. He also made the statue of the Virgin for the ch. of S. 
Germain des Pres. 

Duquesnoy, Francois, called "II Fiammingo," on account of 
his nationality, born at Brussels (1594-1646). The Archduke 
Albert sent him to Rome, but at the death of his benefactor he was 
forced to carve ivory figures to support himself. He made the ac- 
quaintance of Poussin, and they pursued their studies together. 
Duquesnoy soon gained a reputation for his beautiful statues of 
children, 1 and was commissioned to model the groups which adorn 
the columns of the grand altar of S. Peter's. He also made a 
colossal statue of S. Andrew for the same basilica, which is one of 
the best works of modern art, and occupied him five years. His S. 
Susanna for the ch. of S. Maria di Loretto has been much admired. 
It is said he was poisoned by his brother when on his way to France. 

Diirer, Albert, born at Nu- 
remberg (1471-1528). This 
artist, if not really the founder 
of the German school, perfected the art which already existed in his 
country. He was a sculptor, architect, and painter. He also wrote 
various theoretical works. He was capable of the severest study, and 
full of earnest and truthful feeling in art. His drawing was rich in 
life and expression; his coloring very unequal; his nude figures ugly 
and vulgar; and his love for the fantastic prevented him from be- 
coming what he might otherwise have been. His father was a gold- 
smith, and intended to have placed him with Martin Schoen, but the 
death of that artist caused him to become the disciple of Michael 
Wolgemuth, in whose atelier he remained three years. In 1490, he 
set out on his travels, and in 1494 returned to Nuremberg and settled 
himself as a painter. He remained there ten years, and did many 
important works in engraving. In 1505, he went to Venice, Padua, 
and Bologna. The following year he returned to Nuremberg, where 
he remained till 1520, and executed an immense number of paintings, 
drawings, engravings, and some carved works in box-wood and 
steatite. He then made a journey into the Netherlands, was absent 
about a year, and returned to his native city, never to leave it again, 

1 His figures of children are full of genuine nalvet^; he executed the foun- 
tain of the Manneken-Pis at Brussels. 



although Venice and Antwerp made him attractive proposals to re- 
main in those cities, and his own p-ople. within thirty years, paid 

him but 500 guilders. 
The only favor he 
asked was that the city 
should pay him five per 
cent, upon a capital of 
1000 guilders, which 
he had obtained by un- 
ceasing toil. In rep- 
resentin^ ecclesiastical 
subjects, Diirer disre- 
garded all fixed forms, 
and portrayed them 
with great power, but 
with perfectly human 
feeling. In 1498, he 
illustrated the book of 
Revelation by wood- 
cuts. In these the fan- 
tastic element forms 
the groundwork, but 
they are conceived in a 
singularly poetic spirit. 
In them, the marvel- 
lous and the monstrous 
are strangely united. 
In the Ufiizi, at Flor- 
ence, is a splendid 
" Adoration of the 
Kings," painted in 
1504; in the Monastery Strahoff, at Prague, the " Feast of Roses : '' 
in the Belvedere Gall., at Vienna, the Martyrdom of 10,000 Saints," 
full of terrible truth; 1508: in the same Gall., the " Trinity;" 1511; 
color clear, light, and fresh. From 1511 to 1515, he published many 
wood-cuts of religious subjects. The Madonnas are especially 
pleasing. In 1518, he represented the death of the Virgin, giving 
her the features of the deceased wife of the Emperor Maximilian. 
and making the other characters portraits of living personages. This 
picture is in England. Although his pictures are scarce, the large 
German galleries have -pecimen.s of his work. In 15 2(5, he painted 
on two panels, SS. John and Peter, and SS. Paul and Mark, and 
presented them to the council of Nuremberg. They have been called 
"The Four Temperaments," and are now in the Pinacothek, at 
Munich. Tin- (iall. has also five large pictures of the life of Christ. 
The portrait of his father, dated 1497, is in the Munich Gall. Cabi- 

S. clIIilsTOrilKK. BY ALBK1IT 

DURER. 259 

not*. No. 128; and his own portrait in the same Gall. Cabinets, No. 
124. One of his most celebrated pictures, the " Adoration of the 
Trinity," painted for a chapel in Nuremberg, in 1511, and a Virgin 
holding the Naked Child in her Arms, are now in the Belvedere, at 
Vienna. One of his most singular pictures is the " Knight, Death, 
and the Devil," in the Munich Gall. These are but a small part of 
the important works of Diirer. He also published, during the latter 
portion of his life, scientific works upon Geometry, the Art of Forti- 
fication, and the Proportions of the Human Body. He was one of 
the first artists in Germany who practised and taught the rules of 
perspective, which he is said to have learned from Lucas von Ley- 
den. He lived in the most frugal and unostentatious manner, apply- 
ing himself unceasingly to his profession, and receiving the honors 
which were paid him with quiet modesty. He had married (it is 
said, to please his father) the daughter of Hans Fritz, who proved 
a Xantippe, and rendered his life one of discomfort. She survived 
him, and he left her 6000 florins. He had joined the Reformers, 
but Pirkheimer states that he died a member of the Romish Church. 


Engraver, BRUYX or BRUIN, Nicholas de. The Knight, Death, 
and the Devil. 1618. 

His own Plates. 

Portraits on Copper : 

Albert Diirer represented at two different dates, 1509 and 1517, 
on each side of a piece of architecture, with a Latin inscription. 

Albert, Elector of Mcntz. 1523. 

Frederick, Elector of Saxony. 1524. 

B. Pirkheimer. 1524. 

Melanchthon. 1525. 

Erasmus, from statue at Rotterdam; 1526; scarce. 

Subjects on Copper : 

Adam and Eve with the Serpent ; 1504; fine. 

Adam and Eve after the Fall. 

The Nativity; 1504: called ' The Little Nativity." 

The Holy Family, S. Joseph resting on a Stone. 1500. 

The Holy Family, called " The Virgin with the Monkey." 

The Virgin and Child, called '' The Virgin with the Pear." 

The Virgin and Child, called " The Virgin with the Apple." 

The Passion of Christ; sixteen plates including frontispiece. 1507- 
1512; difficult to find complete. 

The Apostles. 

The Crucifixion, with the Maries and S. John at the foot of the 
Cross; small, circular; very scarce. 

Christ in the Garden; 1515; said to be engraved on iron: very 

260 DttRER. 

Angels with the Instruments of the Passion. 1516. 

The great Ecce Homo; 1512; Latin inscription; very scarce. 

Prodigal Son ; best impressions before the date. 1513. 

S. Hubert kneeling before a Stag with a Cross on its Forehead ; 
one of his finest works. 

S. Jerome in the Desert. 

S. Jerome seated in a Room, writing; 1514; very fine. 

A Woman with Wings, standing on a Globe, holding a Cup, im- 
properly called "Pandora's Box;" sometimes called "The Great 

A Naked Woman on a Globe, holding a Stick with a Thistle at the 
end, called " The Little Fortune." 

Melancholy; a Woman resting her Head on her Hand, holding a 
Compass; very fine. 

Three Women or Witches, with a Globe over their Heads, with 
the letters O. G. H., and an appearance of Hell in the background ; 
copied after Israel Van Mecheln; 1497; very scarce. 

An Armed Man on Horseback pursued by Death, called " Death's 
Horse:" best impressions before the date 1513. 

A Coat of Arms with a Skull, a Satyr, and a Young Woman; 
1503 ; called " The Death's Head." 

A coat of Arms, with a Lion and a Cock. 

A Horse, with an Armed Man with an Halberd following. 

A Man mounted on a Unicorn, carrying off' a Woman ; called ' The 
I v.i pi- of Proserpine ; " very scarce. 

Etchings : 

Christ seated, leaning his Head on his Hand, with a figure in front 
pointing towards Him. 

One of the Fathers of the Church, in a Cell, with two Books. 1515. 

The Virgin and Child asleep, with a Young Female kneeling. 

Moses receiving the Tables of the Law. 1524. 

The Cannon, with figures, at the Entrance of a Village; 1518; 
said to be etched on iron ; very scarce. 

Wood-Cuts (Portraits) : 

Albert Diirer, at the age of fifty-six, inscribed Albrecht Durer Con- 
terfeyt, etc. 

Albert Dureri Effigies, erfila ex linea tabula, etc. 

Bust of the Emperor Maximilian I. 1519. 

Ulrichus Varnbuler ; 1522; scarce. 

Wood-Cuts (Various Subjects) : 

The Life and Passion of Christ, in thirty-six cuts. 

The Life of the Virgin, in twenty cuts. 

S. Anne, with the Infant on her Knee, and the Virgin kneeling 
with two Saints; in ehiaro-scuro ; very scarce. 

The Holy Family in a Landscape, with two Angels crowning the 


Virgin, and three Rabbits; in the lower part of the print, S. Chris- 
topher carrying the Infant Jesus; scarce. 

The Emperor Maximilian, with the Virgin and several Saints wor- 
shipping the Saviour. 

The Siege of Vienna, in two sheets; 1527 ; scarce. 

The Triumphal Car of Maximilian I., in eight sheets. 

The Rhinoceros, with a German inscription; scarce. 

Six cuts of Ornaments for Tapestry and Embroidery. 

Engracer, HOPFEU, Jerome. S. Hubert. S. Jerome; smaller 
than the original. The Great Cannon. 

Enyracer, UOPFER, Lambert. The Life and Passion of Christ; 
fifteen small plates. 

Engraver, KARTARIUS, Marius. Christ in the Garden; Romae; 
1567. S. Jerome, seated in a Chamber. 

Engraver, MOXTAGNA, Benedetto. The Nativity, with Joseph at 
the Well; B. M. on a Tablet hung from the upper part of the house. 
The Sorceress; B. M. at bottom on the left. The Virgin suckling 
the Child; marked B. M. 

Engraver, PRESTEL, John Gottlieb. The Holy Family. 

Engraver, JLlAiMOXDi, Marc Antonio. Set of seventeen plates of 
the Life of the Virgin ; copied from the wood-cuts of Diirer, with his 
monogram; on the last plate the cipher of Marc Antonio. Set of 
thirty-six plates of the Life and Passion of Christ; copied in imita- 
tion of the wood-cuts of Diirer, without his mark. 

Engracer, SADELER, Giles. The Virgin and Child. Christ bear- 
ing his Cross. 

Engraver, STEEX, Francis Van der. The Martyrdom of the 11,000 
Viro-ins; from a drawing by Van Hoy, after the picture by Diirer. 

Engraver, WIERIX or WlB&lNX, John. The Little Satyr. Adam 
receiving the Apple from Eve; upon a tablet is inscribed Albert 
Durer inventor, Johanes Wierix fac., cut. 16. S. Hubert Kneeling 
before the Stag; reversed from the print by Albert Diirer, marked 
with the cipher of that artist. S. Jerome in meditation. 

Dusart, Cornelius, born at Haerlem (16637-1704). Pupil of 
Adrian Van Ostade. He represented subjects of vulgar merriment. 
His positions are extravagant, and his heads almost or quite carica- 
tures. His color was warm and powerful, and his chiaro-scuro well 
managed, but he wanted the Rembrandtish effect, and the more 
truthful spiritedness of Ostade. He used more colors in his inte- 
riors than others who painted his class of subjects. One of his best 
pictures is " A Fish-Market," and is in the Amsterdam Mus. Du- 
sart also executed a number of excellent etchings, and thirty-five 
plates in mezzotint. 

Dyce, William, born at Aberdeen (1806-1864). Director of the 
Government School of Design at Somerset House, from 1837 to 1844. 
He was a severe painter, a learned and precise man. His talents 


were versa ilo. He painted in oil and fresco, and while most of his 
subjects were religious and historical, he also executed some line 
landscapes. His works are in the House of Lords, in the Queen's 
Robing Room, and in All-Saints ch., Margaret Street. 


Earlom, Richard (1740-1822). An accomplished English me/- 
zotint engraver. His " Uathsheba leading Abishag to David," h;;s 
lieen called the ch<f-d'ceuvre of mezzotint engraving. His fruit and 
flowers after Van Huysuni are also much admired. Bovdell pub- 
lished the " Liber Veritatis," containing 200 plates by Earlom. 

Eckhout, or Eeckhout, Gerbrandt Van der, born at Amst. 
(1621-1674). Pupil of Rembrandt. He composed his picture.-, es- 
pecially his Biblical subjects, very much in the style of his master. Jn 
color, too, he approached the same excellence, although his whole 
effect is cooler than that of Rembrandt. His works are well eou.-id- 
ered. Among the best are the " Raising of Jairus' Daughter," Ber- 
lin Mns.; " Woman taken in Adultery." Ani>tcrdam Gall.: "David 
and Abigail," Schleissheim Gall.; " Christ Teaching in the Tem- 
ple," Cabinet, Munich Gall.; and "Hannah giving Samuel to be 
dedicated to the Lord," in the Louvre. 

Edeliuck, Gerard, born at Antwerp (1627-1707). An eminent 
engraver. Pupil of Cornelius Galle. It is diflicult to select the 
best of the numerous works of this artist. He interpreted Raphael 
with great truth, and his engravings after Le Brim and other French 
artists are very superior. He used the graver only. His plates are 
highly finished, and yet they are spirited and bold. " The Holy 
Family," after Raphael, and the '"Tent of Darius," after Le Brim, 
are among his best works. Some of his portraits are al^o very fine. 

Edema, Gerard, born at Friesland (1U52-1700). Pupil of Ever- 
dingen; like him he painted wild, rocky landscapes with waterfalls, 
etc. They were often Norwegian views, and he also went to New- 
foundland for the study of scenery. He did not equal Kverdingen, 
and his chief excellence was in the representation of falling water. 

Edmonds, John W., born at Hudson. New York (l.SU(i). He 
was known as a bu-inc>s man as well as an artist, for from his early 
years he was a clerk, and afterwards the cashier of a bank. lie re- 
moved to New York city in 1834. AYhen he first began to exhibit 
his pictures he used an assumed name, fearing that the reputation of 
being a painter would injure him in business circles. He was accus- 
tomed to paint both morning and evening, and this continued appli- 
cation weakened his health so much that in 1840 he went to Europe 
for re>t. Hi.- pictures may be called <jmre, and arc such as appeal 
very strongly to all classes and ages. His ' Gil Bias and the Anh- 


bishop " belongs to J. Taylor Johnston of New York ; " Dame in the 
Kitchen," to J. L. Claghorn ; " Boy Stealing Milk," and " Bashful 
Cousin," to Jonathan Sturges; and "Bargaining," the "Wind- 
mill," and the "Image-Peddler" to R. L. Stuart. "The Penny 
Paper " was one of his most successful attempts, and some of his other 
subjects are "Sparking," engraved by the Art-Union; "Comforts 
of Old Age;" " Dominie Sampson; " " Sam Weller," etc. 

Egg, Augustus Leopold (1816-1863). His subjects may be 
called high genre. His best pictures are " Catherine seen by Peter 
the Great for the first time;" " The Life and Death of Bucking- 
ham ; " " Past and Present ; " " The Night before Naseby; " and his 
last work, " Catherine and Petruchio. " He is noticeable for the 
ppirit of his pictures in both serious and comic subjects. He died 
at Algiers, when travelling for his health. 

Egmont, Justus Van, born at Leyden (1 GO 2-1 6 74). Pupil and as- 
sistant of Rubens He worked with his master on the pictures for 
the churches of Mechlin, on those illustrating the life of Marie de' 
Medicis, and others. Egmont was appointed painter to Louis XIII., 
and Louis XI Y r . He also painted in conjunction with Simon Vouet. 
In the Vienna Gall, there are two portraits of Philip IV. of Spain, by 
Egmont alone. They arc too smooth in execution, but good in color 
and expression, and prove him to have been a good painter. 

Eimbeck, Johann Raphon Von. In the choir of Halberstadt 
Cath. there is a triptych by this painter, dated 1508. The centre is. 
a picture of the Crucifixion, and the wings represent the Annun- 
ciation, the Adoration of the Magi and that of the Shepherds, and 
the Presentation. There is life and variety of expression, but the 
color is not good, and the whole effect is somewhat coarse. 

Elliger or Elger, Ottomar, the Younger, born at Hamburg (1666- 
1732). After some other instruction he became the pupil of Gerard 
Lairesse, whose style he imitated. He was, like Lairesse, very mind- 
ful of details in costume, etc., and his architectural representations 
were good. He painted historical subjects, such as the " Death of 
Alexander." which he did for the Elector of Mentz. His principal 
works are in Amsterdam. 

Elliot, Charles Loring, born at Scipio, New York (1812-1868). 
One of the very best of American portrait painters. His pictures are 
all that one can desire a portrait to be. Full of expression and char- 
acter, life-like in effect, and well colored. He executed an immense 
number, and among his sitters were many men eminent in different 
departments of life; clergymen, authors, artists, statesmen, and mili- 
tary men. His portrait of Fletcher Harper is considered a master- 
piece. Some of his pictures may be seen in the City Hall of New 
York, in the State Library at Albany, and in the Mercantile Li- 
brary of Baltimore. 

Elmar or Elmer, Stephen, lived principally in Farnham, hi Surrey, 


where he died about 1795. He painted still-life, such as dead game, 
fruit, and flowers. His pictures are eeen in old-fashioned collections 
and an- executed with spirited fidelity. 

Elstracke, Reginald, or Renold. An English engraver of about 
1620. He ensrraved some portraits which are prized for their con- 
nection with history, more than for their merits as engravinirs. When 
he did not sign his plates with his full name, he u^ed his initials, 
R. E. 

Elzheimer, Adam, born at Frankfort (1574-1620). He studied 
first under Philip Ufienbach, then went to Rome, where he was called 
II Tedesco. His pictures were often painted on copper, which was 
a disadvantage in regard to the "quality" (as artists say) of his 
color. He had an intense love of nature, and after studying a view, 
would go away and paint it with marvellous exactness, even to the 
shadows at the time of day he chose to represent, and all without a 
sketch. His pictures were always small, and exquisite in finish. He 
loved to introduce figures, and many times repeated the " Holy Fam- 
ilv " and " Tobit and the Angel." He was fond, too, of effective 
li-rhtH. and sometimes gave moon and torch light in the. same work, 
lie married an Italian, and had a numerous family, and though well 
paid for his pictures, he spent so much time on them that he became 
involved in debt and was thrown into prison. He died there, or very 
soon after his liberation. Rubens and the Chevalier Goudt as.-i>ted 
him, but in vain. His works became very valuable after his death, 
and the works of other painters were often called by his name. There 
are about CO engravings after the works of Elzheimer. Some of 
these are by Hollar, and seven by Count Goudt, who was also his 
pupil. He is said to have etched several plates himself, but that of 
"Tobit leading his Father " is the only authentic one. His ' Flight 
into Egypt," in the Louvre, has been called his masterpiece. Other 
important works are, " The Good Samaritan," Louvre; "Paul and 
Barnabas, at Lystra;" and "Christ at Emmaus," Sta'del Institute, 
Frankfort; " Flight into Egypt,'' Munich Gall: Repose in Kirypt," 
and another " Flight into Egypt," Vienna Gall.; and the Triumph 
of Phyche," Oi/i Gall. 

Empoli, Jacopo Chimenti da (1554-1640). An imitator of An- 
drea del Sarto. His Madonnas were much admired. A picture, of 
S. Ivo, Florence Gall., is one of his best works. lie was so injured 
by falling from a scaffolding, that he could not paint in fresco. He 
was so fond of good eating that he was called L'Emjiilo, which is to 
say, a stew-pan. 

Engelbrechtsen, Cornells, born at Leyden (1468-1533). Very 
little is known of this old painter. The only picture known to be his 
is an altar-piece in the Town Hall at Leyden. The centre has a pic- 
ture of the " Crucifixion," tin- wings those of the " Sacrifice of Abra- 
ham " and the "Lifting of the Bra/en Serpent;" the predella has the 


" Restoration of Mankind by the Atonement of Christ." It is very 
different from the works of the masters who had preceded him, but 
is hard and crude. The flesh tones are brown, and the heads very 

Es, or Essen, Jacob van, born at Antwerp. He painted flowers, 
birds, fish, lobsters, etc. He excelled in representing shell-fish. la 
the Antwerp Mus. there is a picture of fruit, dead game, vessels, etc., 
which is good. In the Vienna Gall., two large pictures of fish-mar- 
kets are excellent: the figures in them are by Jordaens. 

Escalante, Juan Antonio, born at Cordova (1630-1670). Pu- 
pil of Francesco Rici. He was an imitator of Tintoretto, and a 
painter of good reputation. In the churches of Madrid some of his 
pictures are seen, and in the Royal Gall, there are two: the "In- 
fants Christ and S. John," and the " Holy Family." 

Espagnondel, Mathieu, born at Paris (1610-1689). A sculptor 
of some merit. Several of his works are in the gardens at Ver- 
sailles, and he also executed many statues for churches. 

Espinosa, Jacinto Jeronimo de, born at Cocentayna, 1600; died 
at Valencia, 1680. He studied under Francisco Ribalta, and also in 
Italy. He was pious, industrious, and popular. Some of his works 
are little inferior to the woi'ks of the Ribaltas, to which they bear a 
strong resemblance. In 1647 the plague appeared in Valencia, and 
it is said that this artist placed himself and his household under the 
protection of S. Luis Beltran, who not only preserved them from con- 
tagion, but also cured the master of water on the brain. For these 
benefits Espinosa painted a series of pictures, and placed them in the 
chapel of the Saint, in the convent of S. Domingo. The Mus. and 
churches of Valencia contain many of his pictures. 

Etty, William, born a.t York (1 787-1849). This artist especially 
excelled in color, and when judged by that alone was one of the most 
highly distinguished English painters. His works were numerous, 
and embraced a large variety of subjects. In the year of his death 
130 of his pictures were exhibited in the room of the Society of Arts, 
at the Adelphi. He declared that his aim had been in all his large 
works to paint some great moral on the heart; par exemple, by three 
''Judith " pictures he would represent patriotism and self-sacrifice to 
one's country and God; by " Benaiah," David's great captain, he 
would picture valor, etc. 

Eusebio di San Giorgio. A pupil of Perugino. He was never 
above mediocrity. His pictures are dated 1505 and later. Most of 
his remaining works are in Perugia. 

Euty chides. A sculptor of Sicyon. He was a disciple of Lysip- 
pus and lived u. c. 300. One of his most famous works was a 
bronze statue of the Eurotas, " in quo artem ipso amne liquidiorem 
plurimi dixere." Several of his statues are known to us in the writ- 
ings of the ancients, and that of " Fortune " for the Syrians on the 
Oi'ontes, is represented by a copy in the Vatican. 


Everdingen, Aldert van, bora at Alkmaar (1621-1675). A fine 
landscape painter. His Norwegian views are admirable. They are 
poetic, with clear skies, roeky masses, aud tumbling waterfalls, and 
dark, lofty fir-trees. He painted storms at sea, but rarely. His col- 
oring is occasionally too heavy a brown. His pictures are in the 
Louvre. Berlin Mus., and Munich Gall., and in many private collec- 
tions. He was also a master in his handling of the etching point. 
He left 106 etchings, which are known, besides :>7 plates, which illus- 
trate the poem of " Reineke Fuchs." The original drawings fur these 
last arc in the British Mus., as are also some landscapes done in In- 
dia ink, bistre, and sepia. 

Eyck, Hubert Van, born at the small market town of Maascyek 
(about 13G6-1426). Little is known of his history beyond the facts 
that he spent, probably, his middle life at Bruges, and his later years 
at Ghent. That he effected a revolution in painting, is beyond a 
doubt. By his strong intellectual power he breathed life into the 
symbolic art which had preceded him. He represented Scriptural 
scenes and characters, but he did it through the medium of such peo- 
ple as he had seen in actual life. He gave his figures the appearance 
of men about him. He represented nature as he saw it, and did riot 
hesitate to use architectural backgrounds, or even to make well-fur- 
nished rooms the scenes of his " Annunciations" and other sacred 
incidents. For all the requirements of his brain, the mediums here- 
tofore used were inadequate, and as ever, necessity being the, mother 
of invention, he made great improvements in the preparation and use 
of colors. He used oil as a cement, and a new varnish, which from 
its brilliant freshness, gave a reality of effect, never seen by his eon- 
temporaries. His greatest work was an " Adoration of the Lamb,' 1 
executed for Judocus Vyts, and Lishetta. his wife, for the decoration 
of their funeral chapel in the ch. of S. Bavo, at Ghent. This was 
arranged with a centre piece and wings which could be closed. The 
inside was divided into twelve different pictures, and the outside of 
the wings was also painted. It is not known exactly how much of 
this great work Hubert did, for it was finished by John Van Kyck 
after his death; but the principal figures must have been by the elder, 
for they show a power which no work of John's approaches. Liibkc 
says, " Hubert is confirmed as an inventor, by contemporary records. 
To no other was such a depth of thought imputed, combined with 
such abundance of ideas, and with such grand power of characteriza- 
tion." The donors are represented on the outer wings in a masterly 
manner. The larger panels remain in their original place, the figures 
of Adam and Eve are in the Mus. at Brussels and six others are in 
the Berlin Mus. There are but two other works attributed to Hu- 
bert. One of these is in the Mus. in S. Trinidad, at Madrid, and 
represents the " Triumph of the Christian Church over the Jewish 
Synagogue." This is in the form of the front of a Gothic building 



with arches and towers, and the whole picture is made up of several 
different design*. The other represents " S. Jerome extracting a 
Thorn from the Paw of the Lion," and is in the Gall, at Naples. 


From the Ghent Painting. 

Eyck, John Van (1390-1440). Brother and pupil of Hubert. 
He lacked the power of his brother in conception and design, and 
preferred smaller works. But he finished with greater minuteness 
and nicety than Hubert, and was the founder of that school among 
his countrymen, remarkable for delicacy in detail and finish of exe- 




cution. There are a good number of the works of this artist remain- 
ing. The following is a list of the more important ones in chronologi- 
cal order. 

The " Consecration of Thomas h Becket," dated 1421, is in the coll. 
of the Duke of Devonshire, at Chats worth; " S. Francis receiving the 
Stigmata," 1428-29, is at the seat of Lord Heytesbtiry, in Wilt- 
shire; the wings of the " Adoration of the. Lamb," executed by dan 
Van Eyck, Berlin Mus.: the. "Virgin and Child," at Jnce Hall, 
near Liverpool, inscribed, " Completum nnno domini MCCCCXXXII, 
per Johannem da Eyck, Bruf/i.-i," with the motto, " A Is ich c]tn," or, 
" As well as I can; " the " Virgin suckling the Child," Suidel In- 
stitute. Frankfort, called the ''Madonna di Lucca;" portrait of a 
man, National Gall, with the above motto, and inscribed " Johea <l<: 
Eyck me fecit aho MCCCCSS, Oct. 21;" also in National Gall., por- 
traits of himself and wife. >i_nied, ./uli<int* ile Jli/rk fuit liir 11. 'M ; " 
this is one of the very best. an<l perhaps the best, of his works. Y;in 
Mandor says that the sister of Charles V., the Governess of the 
Netherlands bestowed a post of 100 guldens yearly upon a barber to 
whom this picture belonged. The Virgin and Child, with S. Barbara, 
Burleiirh House; another Virgin and Child, with the donor. Louvre; 
a Madonna and Child, with several saints and the donor, signed 


1436, Acad. of Bruges; portrait of Ja,n de Leeuw, same date, Belve- 
dere, Vienna; another portrait, same Gall.; picture of S. Ursula, 
Antwerp Mus.. 1437; Head of Christ as Salvator Mundi, 1438, 
Berlin Mus.; portrait of his wife, 1439, Acad. of Bruges; and a small 
highly finished altar-piece, Dresden Gall. There are embroidered 
ecclesiastical robes in the Imperial Treasury, at Vienna, that were 
probably executed from the cartoons of Jan van Eyck. 

Eyck, Lambert van. It is but recently that this third brother 
has been discovered, but the records of Lille declare him to have 
been a painter, and it is now thought that he must have executed 
the copy of the great Bruges picture, which is in the Antwerp 
Mus., No. 11. There is also a triptych in Louvain, now attributed 
to him. 

Eyck, Margaretha van. Sister of the foregoing artists; is said 
to have been a skilful painter, but no picture is known which can 
positively be ascribed to her. She was buried in the Cath. of 
Ghent, where Hubert rested before her. 


Fabris or Fabre. A painter of views in the vicinity of Naples. 
Some of his best works resemble those of Canaletto, and are- perspec- 
tive or architectural views, with figures, etc. The sombreness of his 
color is his greatest fault. He also visited Malta, and his works are 
in the collections of Valctta. 

Fabriano, Gentile da. This is the name by which this painter is 
known, but his true name was Gentile di Niccolo di Giovanni Massi, 
of Fabriano. Born between 1360 and 1370. Pupil of Allegretto 
Nuzi. It has been said that he was associated with Fra Angelico, 
either as master or pupil, but while in point of careful preparation of 
materials and in finish, they might be compared, in result they were 
totally at variance. He painted in Brescia, Venice, and Rome, and 
died in the latter city, and was buried in S. Francesca Romana. He 
also lived some time at Florence, and from existing records, probably 
went there about 1422. Jacopo Bellini, his pupil, went to Florence 
with him, and there seems to have been a strong friendship between 
them. It is not possible to tell when he went to Rome. Vasari says 
that Michael Angelo praised him and said that his manner corre- 
sponded to his name of Gentile. Van der Weyden thought him to 
have excelled all other masters of Italy. It is scarcely possible to 
believe that the first opinion could have been other than a sarcasm, 
for his style was characterized by bright contrasts in color, fusion of 
tone, with no shadow, and great minuteness in detail and finish, which 
would have found a response in the Fleming, without doubt. His re- 
maining works are portions of a " Coronation of the Virgin " at the 
Brera, Milan, the predella of which is at Fabriano ; a " Virgin and 


Child" in the Acad. of Venice ; " Adonition of the M. -..-!," Aca<l. of 
Arts. Florence: >ome side panels of a picture in the rh. of S. Xiceo'.o 
di Ik d'Arno, Florence; another panel in the same church repivseni- 
ing the Father sending the dove or Holy Ghost down to the Virgin 
and Saviour; a " Virgin and Child" purchased by Mr. James .Jack- 
son Jarves ; a mutilate* 1 remnant of a "Madonna" in the Cath. of 
Florence; in the ("asa Morichi. Fabriano, the "Coronation of the 
Virgin" and " S. Francis receiving the Stigmata," formerly making 
the two sides of a standard; a Virgin seated on a cu-hion with the 
Child on her lap. Pia Casa della Miserieordia, Pisa ; an enthroned 
Madonna with saints. Berlin Mus. ; and a few others, some of which 
are in private collections. 

Fabullus, called also Amulius, was a Roman painter, distinguished 
for his decorations of the " Golden House of Nero." One of his 
works there was a picture of Minerva, which was always looking at 
the beholder, from whatever point observed. Pliny says he painted 
hut a few hours a day, and so valued his dignity, that he would not 
lay aside his toga even when employed upon scaffoldings, or among 
machinery, and calls him ' gracix et sevens, i<ti mque floridus." 

Fachetti, Pietro, born at Mantua (1535-J01.'}). He went to 
Rome during the time of Gregory XIII., where his portraits wen- M> 
much admired that every person of distinction desired to be painted 
by him. He was also an engraver. Bartsch mentions two prints by 
him, which have been claimed by Niccolo van Aelst. One i- a 
" Holy Family," alter Raphael, and the other " Christ bearing his 

Facini, Pietro, born at Bologna (1560-1602). Pupil of Annihale 
Carracci, of whom it is said that the master became jealous. Facini 
later established an Acad. of his own. But he had little real merit 
beyond that of color. In this he was truly admirable, and resembled 
Tintoretto. Some of his works are in the churches of Bologna. 
There are also some prints attributed to Facini. 

Faenza, Gio. da. In Facnza there is a Madonna and Child with 
Angels and Saints, executed by this painter in 1506. It is in the 
Gymnasium (convent of the Serviti), and is a worthy specimen of 
that Umbrian school which preceded Raphael. 

Faes, Peter van der. See Lely. 

Fage, Raymond de la, born at Toulouse (1 648-1090). Cele- 
brated for his drawings with the pen. They are little more than out- 
lines, but are admirable for their grace and spirit. It is said that he 
visited Carlo Maratti in his studio, and was offered a palette and 
brushes. De la Faga declined them, saying he did not paint. Ma- 
ratti declared himself pleased at that, anil said that if he could paint 
as well as he could draw, he should himself abandon the brush. He 
also etched some <ii--i<_rns of his own, and others have been engraved 
by Audran. Vermenlen, etc. 


^ ^ Faithorne, William, the Elder, born in London; 

*/A /A' died 1091. An eminent engraver. His best works 

' were his portraits. These are executed with the graver 

almost entirely, and are admirable. His plates are numerous, and 

some which are scarce are very valuable. 

Falcone, Aniello, born at Naples (1600-1665). Pupil of Ribera, 
called Spagnoletto. The first painter noted for battle pieces. The 
school which arose from the influence of this master was connected 
with history, for under Masaniello it was organized as the " Com- 
jxiiptia della Morte," and took part in the insurrection. Aniello was 
the teacher of Salvator Rosa. His draAving was correct both in 
figures and horses; he gave much animation to his designs, and his 
color was effective. His easel pictures were good, and his works are 
well esteemed. After the death of Masaniello, Falcone went to 
France, and Salvator to Rome. There are a large number of engrav- 
ings attributed to this painter. 

Falconet, ^tienne Maurice, born at Paris (1716-1791). Pupil 
of Lemoine. He became an eminent sculptor, and was appointed 
Professor and Rector of the Royal Acad. He was invited to St. 
Petersburg by Catherine II. , and executed a bronze equestrian statue 
of Peter the Great. After his return to Paris in 1 7 78, he devoted 
himself to literary pursuits. His most important works in Paris were 
executed for the ch. of S. Roch and that of the Invalides. 

Falens, Karel van, born at Antwerp (1G84-1733). An imitator 
of Wouvermans, and a reputable painter. The smoothness of his 
touch takes from the spirit of his pictures. There is a work of his 
in the Berlin Gall., representing figures and animals in a landscape, 
and a " Departure of a party of Falconers," in the Dresden Gall. 

Fanelli, Virgilio. A Florentine goldsmith who practised his art 
in Italy and Spain. He executed, in 164G, the great chandelier which 
is still suspended from the dome of the Pantheon of the Escurial. 
This was made at Genoa, and has twenty-four burners, with many 
ornaments. He also executed the, throne for the Madonna del Sa- 
grario in the Toledo Cath. 

' ^-L Fantuzzi or Fontuzzi, Antonio. Said to 

/\ /> T \\4 have been born at Viterbo about 1520. There 

/ V XV? is much disagreement among the highest au- 

thorities regarding this engraver. Some say 

that he and Antonio da Trento are the same artist. His plates are 
chiefly after Primaticcio, and are scarce. The following are the 
principal ones : 

Silenus supported by two Bacchante and surrounded by Satyrs; 
after II Rosso. 1543. 

Dispute of the Muses with the Pierides; after Primaticcio. 

Alexander and Roxana; after the fame. ; circular. 

Festival given to Thalestris by Alexander ; after the name. 1543. 


Jupiter dim-tin;: Minerva, to dismiss Venus, Cupid, and Psyche; 
after the same ; oval. 1543. 

Titan reposing on the Bosom of the Ocean ; Bologna inventor. 

The four Cardinal Virtues. 

Farinato, Paolo (1526-1606). A great ornamental painter. Kug- 
ler calls him the worthiest predecessor of Paul Veronese, whom hi- re- 
sembled. His "Pagan Sacrifice " at Vienna is a fine picture ; his 
masterpiece is in the ch. of S. Giorgio at Verona, and was executed 
in his seventy-ninth year. Jt represents the " Miracle of the Lna\es 
and Fishes;" there are many figures introduced, and ainon'j, them 
are portraits of his own family. It is inscribed, MDCIV. Paulus 
Farinatus de Uberto fecit ce/atis sua; LXXIX. There is no doubt that 
some of the works of this painter are called those of Veronese. Fari- 
nato and his wife died the same day. 

Farrington, Joseph (1742-1821). An English painter, pupil of 
II. Wilson. He was a good painter of park scenery. 

Fassolo, Bernardino, born at Pavia. A picture of the " Virgin 
and Child " in the Louvre, is inscribed " Bernard inus Faxolus de 
Papia faciebat anno 1518." It is so much in the style of Leonardo da 
Vinci that it is believed that Fassolo must have been his pupil. 

Fattore, H. See Penni. 

Feke, Robert. An early colonial painter. One of his remaining 
works is dated 1746. It is said that " he was taken prisoner and 
carried to Spain," and there learned to paint. Upon his return he 
settled at Newport, R. I., as a portrait painter. A portrait of the 
wife of Governor Wanton, painted by him, is in the Redwood 

Ferg, Paul Francis, born at Vienna (1689-1740). Painter of 
landscapes with architectural adornments and figures. His works 
are often seen in England, where he lived about twenty year? before 
his death. Most of his small pictures are on copper. His skies are 
silvery ; his figures are generally engaged in merry-making, and his 
horses and donkeys are well done. He occasionally painted sea 
pieces, but his landscapes are his best works. He was much accus- 
tomed to introduce an obelisk into his pictures; frequently with no 
apparent meaning. 

Fernandez, Antonio, de Arias, born at Madrid; died 1684. 
Pupil of Pedro de las Cuevas. He was an excellent colorist and ex- 
ecuted with great rapidity. He was one of the most noted Spanish 
artists of his time. In the Queen of Spain's Gall, there is a picture 
by him of the " Pharisees questioning Christ concerning the Tribute 

Fernandez, Vasco, born at Viseu, 1552. But little is known of 
this Portuguese artist. He is popularly known as Gran-Vascot. 
Count Raczynski, in his " Dictionnaire Historico-Artistique du 



Portugal," gives two illustrations of the work of this artist. The 
" Calvary," in the Cath. of Viseu was his chef-d'ceurre. It resembles 
the. works of Albert Du'rer so closely that it has been attributed to 
him. The other illustration is " S. Peter as a Pope." 

Mantegna. There are many 
They are peculiarly fantastic, 

Ferrara, da. Pupil of 
works of his in the Brera at Milan, 
but have considerable merit. 

Ferrara, Ercolc da. See Grandi. 

Ferraresino. See Berlinghieri. 

Ferrari, Gaudenzio, born at Valdugga (1484-1549). An artist 
of the Milanese school ; he greatly improved by the study of the 


works of Leonardo, and later in life he worked under Raphael at 
Rome. In his style all the different influences under which he had 
formed himself may be traced, and in addition there is a large fan- 
tastic element all his own. His design is correct, his execution fin- 


ished, and his coloring brilliant but wanting in harmony. He is. 
however, after Da Vinci, one of the very best Milanese painters. 
His works are very numerous, both in fresco and oils. An early work 
of i:rcat merit is a Group lamenting over the Dead Christ, Royal 
Gall.. Turin. A "Martyrdom of S. Catherine," in the Bivra, Milan, 
together with a " Visitation " in the Solly Coll.. and a " Madonna " 
in the Cath. of Vercelli, are among hi- best easel-pictures. In the 
Brera there are several frescoes formerly in S Maria della Pace. 
His most extensive and best works are at Varallo. which was the 
pilgrim shrine of Piedmont. He also painted in the convent of the 
Minorites; in S. Maria di Loreto, near Varallo; in S. Paolo, at Ver- 
celli; in S. Christoforo; in the ch. of Saronno, near Milan: and his 
la.-t work was a " Scourging of Christ," in S. Maria delle Gra/ic at 
Milan. This is dated 1542, and is powerful and spirited. 

Ferri, Giro, born at Rome (1634-1689). Pupil of Pietro da Cor- 
tona. and one of his best imitators. He excelled most in his studies 
of children, infant angels, or amorini. His color was very agreeable. 
Among his finest works are his frescoes in the Pitti Pal., at Florence, 
and at S. Maria Maggiore, at Bergamo. His works are in some of 
the churches at Rome. 

Ferucci, Andrea di Piero, born 1465. He was an architect and 
sculptor whose first works were done in Naples, from which city la- 
went to Fiesolc and executed the high-altar in the Duomo. Another 
similar work, made for S. Girolamo of Fiesole, is now in the South 
Kensington Mus. Some of his sculptures are in the Cath. of Flor- 
ence, and in the ch. of S. Felicita. His works are somewhat pleas- 
ing, but he was not above mediocrity. His chef-d'atwr* was the 
baptismal niche in the Cath. of Pistoja. in which the figure of Christ 
is fine, and the adoring angels beaurtful. 

Fesele, Martin. An imitator of Albert Altdorfer. There are pic- 
tures of his at Nuremberg, and in the Schleissheim and Munich nai- 
leries. That in the latter represents the siege of Rome under Por- 
senna, and was painted about 1530. 

Feti, Domenico, born at Rome (1589-1624). Pupil of Ludo\icn 
Cardi. He painted small pictures, and many of these illustrated the 
New Testament parables. His coloring is powerful, and his heads 
full of expression. A mourning figure which is called a k Magdalen " 
in the Louvre, and " Melancholy," in the Acad. of Venice are ex- 
cellent. His works are not at all numerous. There are a number in 
Florence, and several in the Dresden Gall. 

Fiammingo, II. Sec Duquesnoy. 

Fiammingo. It is very difficult to distinguish the artists called 
by this name in Italian writings. Zani mentions 64 such, and there 
are undoubtedly more. 

Fiesole, Fra Oio. da, called AnirehVo and II Beato; born at Vic- 
chio, in the province of Mugello (1387-1455). In 1407, with his 


brother Benedetto, he became a novice in the Dominican convent of 
Fiesole. He had been christened Guido, but now took the name of 
Giovanni. At this time the convent at Fiesole had no novitiate, and 
the brothers were sent to Cortona to the care of the master of nov- 
ices. This explains the fact that the earliest works of Angelico are 
at Cortona. It is believed that he returned to Fiesole in 1418, where 
he spent eighteen years. In 1436 his order received the monastery 
of S. Marco, in Florence, where Angelico executed many works; here 
he remained until called to Rome by the Pope, in 1446. With the 
exception of a few months in Orvieto, he remained in Rome until his 
death, and was buried in the ch. of the Minerva. The title of the 
Angelic could scarcely be more fittingly applied than in the case of 
this holy man. His life was one of simple piety. He would paint 
only saintly subjects, and would receive no pay. He commenced a 
work with earnest prayer, and would never change his design, be- 
lieving that he was divinely assisted, and any change would thus be 
sacrilegious. He excelled all others in depicting religious sentiment. 
His works were finished with exquisite care, and there is a harmony 
both in composition and color in all he did. His draperies gave dig- 
nity and character to his figures, and, in short, "every part con- 
tributed to that unity of tenderness, inspiration, and religious feeling, 
which mark his pictures, and which are such as no one man had ever 
succeeded in accomplishing." Of human anxieties and struggles he 
was so entirely ignorant, that he failed to depict them well, and the 
hatred of Christ in his enemies is but feebly expressed when attempted 
by Angelico. This is noticeable in his representations of the Cruci- 
fixion, of the persecutions and martyrdoms of saints, etc. The " An- 
nunciation," and the " Crowning of the Virgin " were favorite and 
oft-repeated subjects of his, as was also the " Last Judgment." He 
painted a great number of small panel pictures. The best ones are 
in the Acad. of Florence. Those which were formerly upon the 
presses for the silver of the SS. Annunziata at Florence are very 
line. At S. Domenico in Perugia, there are many of his works, and 
another collection of his small pictures is in the Uffizi, where a " Cor- 
onation of the Virgin " deserves especial attention. In the Vatican 
there is a predella illustrating the life of S. Nicholas of Bari, which 
well displays his power of representing what might be called semi- 
f/"nre subjects. At the Stadel Institute, Frankfort, there is a fine en- 
throned Madonna, and in truth, these small works are seen in many 
European collections. Of his larger works I will mention those at 
his own convent in Florence : a " Deposition from the Cross," in the 
Acad. of Florence; the doors of a large tabernacle in the Uffizi; a 
" Coronation of the Virgin," in the Louvre; frescoes in the chapel 
of the Madonna di S. Brizio in the Cath. of Orvieto; and lastly, two 
chapels in the Vatican which are greatly restored. The pictures in 
the monastery of S. Marco are in better preservation. While in 




In the Acad. of Florence. 

Rome the Pope desired to make Angelico Archbishop of Florence, 
but he refused the honor, and recommended Fra Antonio of his order 
for the office. The Pope acted upon his suggestion, and the good 
qualities of Antonio proved the wisdom of Angelico. 

Fiesole, Mino da (1400-1486). A sculptor whoso works arc in 
Florence and Rome, and are remarkable for their ornamental decora- 
tions rather than for the figures. 

Figino, Ambrogio, born at Milan, 1590. A pupil of Gio. Paolo 

Lomazzo, and a successful imitator of Michael Angclo. His works 

'arc more remarkable for the elegance and correct drawing of a few 

figures than for the numbers represented. Some of his best works 

are in the churches of Milan. 

Filippi, Sebastiano, called also Gratella. born at Ferrara (l.j:>:>- 
1602). After studying under Camillo Filippi, his father, he entered 
i In- -rhool of Michael Aniiclo. at Rome, and became one of his best 
disciples. He was called Grntolla on account of his squaring lame 
works when reducing them to a smaller size. This he learned of 
Michael Angelo. His best works are in the churches of his native 

Filocamo, Antonio and Paolo. Natives of Messina, who ;:ftcr 
attending the school of Carlo Maratti at Home, established an Acad. 
at Messina. They worked together both in oil and fresco. ;uid both 
died of the plague in 1713. Their principal works are in the churches 
of Messina. 


Finiguerra, Maso. Flourished about the middle of the 15th cen- 
tury. He was a goldsmith and niello-worker, and is very generally 
acknowledged to be the inventor of engraving on metal. Before his 
discovery, metal workers had been accustomed to make sulphur casts 
of their works, and to engrave from them, but Finiguerra being em- 
ployed to make a Pax, and wishing to see the effect of his work, filled 
the lines made by his graver with a preparation of oil and lamp-black, 
and the plate being laid by chance on a pile of damp linen, he found 
his design reproduced upon it. From this time it was customary to 
use damp paper, and a roller to take off the designs wished for. The 
" Coronation of the Virgin," the subject of the Finiguerra Pax, was 
engraved in 1452. The original plate is in the Uffizi Gall., and the 
only known impression from it is in the Bibliotheque de Paris. 

Fink, Frederick, born at Little Falls, N. Y. (1817-1849). He 
went to Europe in 1840, and was employed in making copies after 
Murillo and Titian. He manifested good talent for genre subjects, 
but died before reaching the excellence he had reason to anticipate. 
His original works are, " The Young Thieves; " " A Negro Wood- 
lawyer; " " The Shipwrecked Mariner ; " and " An Artist's Studio." 

Finoglia, Paolo Domenico, born at Orta, in the kingdom of 
Naples; died 1656. One of the best pupils of Stanzioni. His prin- 
cipal works are in the Certosa of S. Martino, which towers above 
Naples on the steep rock of St. Elmo. In this convent the best 
specimens of Neapolitan art are gathered together. 

Fiore, Colantinio del. Much has been written and said of this 
artist. He has been called the disciple of Francesco Simone, and 
certain works have been attributed to him, but tha more recent re- 
searches of art writers and students have failed to establish what has 
been related of him, and some even doubt if he ever existed He is 
usually said to have lived from 1354 to 1444, and a " S. Jerome ex- 
tracting a Thorn from the Lion's foot," in the Gall, at Naples, was 
called his best work. This picture is in tempera, although it has 
been affirmed that he painted in oil. 

Fiore, Jacobello del. A Venetian painter, who flourished in the 
first half of the 15th century. About his time a change took place 
in Venetian art, which seemed to foretell the excellence or coloring 
reached there later. As an example of this progress his " Madonna," 
in the Manfrini Gall., dated 1434, is a work of interest. He had a 
good reputation in his day, but the extreme ornamentation of his fig- 
ures and draperies is not admired in more modern times. 

Florentine, Stefano. The usual account of this old painter 
is that he was born aj; Florence, and was the grandson and pupil 
of Giotto (1301-1350). Vasari says that he surpassed Giotto in 
everyway; that he established the rules of perspective, and prac- 
tised foreshortening. A " Virgin and Child," in the Campo Santo 
at Pisa, are claimed to have been painted by him. But there is 


nothing really known of him or his works, and all that is said of him 
must be taken as a pleasant tale which lacks evidence of truthfulness. 

Fieri, Mario di. See Nuzzi. 

Fisher, Alvan, born at Needham, Mass.; died l.s(!;3. A portrait 
painter. His likeness of Spurzheim is a valuable picture. He had 
good success in painting children with dogs, rabbits, etc. 

Flaxman, John, born at York (1755-1826). His father kept a 
plaster-cast shop in London, and the son went to that city early in 
life. He commenced drawing and modelling very young, and gained 
his first prize for a model, when eleven years and five months old. 
At thirteen he received a second prize, and was admitted to the 
Royal Acad., at fourteen. In his youth, he painted a few pictures in 
oil. In 1 782 he married Miss Denmau, and five years later went to 
Italy. He remained there seven years, and was a close student of the 
antique, and an incessant worker. While there, he executed a large 
group for Lord Bristol, representing the " Fury of Athamas," from the 
Metamorphoses of Ovid, and a smaller one of " Cephalus and Aurora," 
for Mr. Hope. It was also in Rome that he made the designs from 
Homer, JEschyhu, and Dante, which have now a world-wide reputa- 
tion. In 1794 he returned to England, where he was constantly em- 
ployed on important works until his death. It is not possible to give 
an entire list of his works in the space allotted him here, but many of 
his sepulchral monuments are seen in the cathedrals and churches of 
England. In Glasgow are his statues of Mr. Pitt and Sir John 
Moore, in bronze, and in Edinburgh that of Robert Burns. He exe- 
cuted many works for the East Indies, one of which was not qui'e 
completed when he died. One of his best, perhaps the best of his 
works in England, is the group of the '' Archangel Michael and 
Satan." This was one of his latest works, and was made, for the Earl 
of Egremont, who had also a life-size " Apollo,'' which is veiy beauti- 
ful. He was elected Associate of the Royal Acad., in 17!) 7, Acad- 
emician in 1800, and Professor of Sculpture in 1810. His lectures in 
the Acad. have been published. He was singularly pure in heart and 
life, and characterized by a cheerful and attractive manner, which 
made him the beloved friend of old and young. The very last work 
he did, was to make designs for the exterior embellishments of 
Buckingham Pal., which would have been executed partly by him, 
and entirely under his direction, had he lived. The friezes on the 
front of Covent Garden Theatre were all designed by Flaxman. and 
one of them, and the figure of " Comedy." were executed by him. 
His wife possessed an intelligence of mind and love for art, which 
enabled her to appreciate and assist the studies and labors of her 
husband, and her death, in 1820, was a grief from which he never 

Flemael, Bertholet, born at Liege (1C 14-1 t:7. r >). Pupil of Ge- 
rard Douffet. He visited Italy, and on his return was much em- 


ployed, and gained a good reputation in Paris. The Chancellor 
Seguier employed him at Versailles, and he painted in the Carmelite 
and Augustin churches. He went to Liege, but was invited again 
to Paris, where he was employed in the Tuileries. He was made a 
professor in the Royal Acad. and every inducement was offered him 
to remain in France. But he returned to his beloved Liege, and was 
employed in embellishing its churches. His works show the influence 
of the French school. He loved to make the foreground figures 
especially fine, and finished them with great care, but his color was 
feeble, and there is little feeling in his works. One of his pictures, 
representing " Pelopidas arming against the Lacedaemonians," is in 
the Dresden Gall. 

Flinck, Govaert, born in Cleves (1615-1660). He was, after 
Eckhout, the scholar, most like their great master, Rembrandt. His 
chief occupation was portrait painting, but he succeeded well in genre 
subjects, and sometimes painted historical pictures. He was also a 
successful imitator of Murillo. He settled in Amsterdam, and re- 
ceived the freedom of the city in 1652. He made a fine collection of 
drawings and engravings from the best masters, and casts from an- 
tique sculpture. It was sold for about 12,000 florins. In the new 
Hotel de Ville of Amsterdam is his picture of the " Regents," dated 
1642; in the Amsterdam Gall., his picture of the " Archers " is re- 
markable for its fine portraits; in the same Gall, is " Isaac blessing 
Jacob," one of his few historical pictures; in the Berlin Mus., the 
" Expulsion of Hagar ; " and in the Munich Gall., a genre picture of 
the " Guard Room." At the time of his death, he had finished the 
sketches for twelve large pictures, which the Burgomasters of Am- 
sterdam had commissioned him to paint. 

Florigerio, Sebastiano, born at Udine. Flourished about 1533. 
Pupil of Gio. Bellini, and an imitator of Giorgione. His frescoes at 
Udine have perished, but some of his oil-pictures remain in the 
churches there, and two Madonnas with Saints, in the Venice Acad., 
are his works. His color was pale and cold, but his figures are well 
drawn, and the composition is arranged after the antique manner. 

Floris, Frans, born at Antwerp, real name Frans de Vriendt 
(1520-1570). Pupil of Lambert Lombard. He opened a school in 
Antwerp, which was much frequented. He had great facility of exe- 
cution and power of invention, but there is much want of grace and 
sentiment in his pictures, and he knew too little of drawing to be a fine 
painter. His life was very wild, and his intemperate habits prevented 
his attaining the fame and fortune which the patronage and favor 
of his friends placed before him. His chef-d'oeuvre is in the Ant- 
werp Mus., and represents the " Fall of the Angels." Other works 
of his are in the same place, and a picture of Vulcan showing Venus 
and Mars, whom he has in a net, to the Gods, is in the Berlin Mus. 
While this displays the mastery of his hand, it is very tasteless; it is 
dated 1547. 


Fogolino, Marcello. A Friulan who flourished about 1525. He 
spent his youth at Vicen/.a, where some of his works remain. Hig 
pictures are more intere.^ting as illustrations of the style of his time 
and country, than for any merit of their own. In the Berlin Mus.. 
there is a " Virgin and Saints " by him, and in the Acad. of Venice, 
a " Madonna and Saints " which has been attributed to Bernardino 
Licinio. He also painted in the churches of Pordenone and Trent, 
where his pictures may still be seen. 

Folo, Giovanni, born at Bassano (17G4-1836). An eminent en- 
graver. He studied in the school of Volpato, but later he made 
Raphael Morghen his model. His ' S. Andrew," after Domenicliino, 
is very highly esteemed, and is considered his chef-d'oeuvre by many. 
The " Madonna de' Candelabri " of Raphael ami the ' Mater Dolo- 
rosa " of Sassoferato were engraved by Folo. His style was best 
suited to large subjects, and his plates are after the works of the best 
masters, namely, Raphael, M. Angelo, Guido, Titian, Poussin, Thor- 
waldsen, Canova, etc. 

Fontana, Domenico. A famous architect, whose life was writ- 
ten by Milizia, and who is especially interesting to all who visit Rome, 
on account of his having removed the Egyptian obelisk from its an- 
cient position to the Square of S.Peter's. This was done in 1586, 
and was a memorable occasion in Rome. After great preparations, 
the morning came when the obelisk was to be raised. Fontana. re- 
ceived the blessing of the Pope, who also told him that failure would 
cost him his head. The workmen received the Holy Eucharist. The 
concourse of spectators was immense, the priests, soldiers, and people, 
high and low, were crowded in the streets and on the housetops. 
When the obelisk was raised, the guns of S. Angelo were all dis- 
charged, and joy was universal, and when, a few months later, the 
removal was completed, and the obelisk was placed on its pedestal, 
the people carried Fontana on their shoulders in a triumphal proces- 
sion, with drums and trumpets. Fontana was made a nobleman and 
a Knight of the Golden Spur; he had a pension of 2000 crowns, 
which descended to his heirs; ten knighthoods; 5000 crowns ready 
money, and all the materials he had used, which were valued ;U 
20,000 crowns. Two bronze medals of him were struck, and on the 
ba.-e of the obelisk, a Latin inscription was cut to perpetuate his 
name and honor. 

Fontana, Prospero, born at Bologna (1512-1597). He had a 
fine mind, good invention, and many requisites for a good artist, but 
he often painted so hastily and carelessly, that his works were very 
imperfect. His pictures are still seen in Bologna. He also painted 
portraits, and was distinguished in that branch of art at Rome in the 
time of Julius III., and later. 

Fontana, Lavinia, born at Bologna (1552-1614). Daughter of 
the preceding, whom she excelled. Her portraits were excellent, 


and in her historical subjects, her manner is clever and spirited. 
Some of her works are in the churches of Bologna. 

Foppa, Vincenzo, born at Foppa, territory of Milan. Nothing 
positive is known of him until 1456 ; died 1492. It is said that he 
was a pupil of Squarcione, and some of his works would confirm this. 
He was an artist of more than usual merit, and his later pictures are 
much better than his earlier ones. His outlines were well drawn, his 
faces expressive, and his color good and well blended. He lived at 
Brescia in his youth and returned there in his old age, and was 
buried in the ch. of S. Barnaba. He also resided at Pavia, and 
painted at Milan and Savona. In the Brera there is a S. Sebastian, 
taken from the ch. of S. Maria di Brera, and the only one remaining 
of a whole cycle which he painted in that church. It is called his chef- 
iVceuvre. His works are also in the Carrara Acad. , Bergamo; in S. 
Maria di Castello, Savona; in the National Gall.; and in different 
places in Brescia. 

Foppa, Vincenzo, the Younger. Very little is known of him. 
He was a subordinate Brescian artist of the 16th century. Son arid 
probably pupil of the preceding. The works attributed to him are 
in several churches of Brescia, in the Scuola Elementaria, and in 
the Tosi Gall. 

Forli, Melozzo da, born at Forli; died 1494. Count Girolamo 
Riario, nephew of Pope Sixtus IV., governed Forli, and through his 
influence Melozzo went to Rome, where he was appointed painter to 
the Pope, and received the honor of knighthood. Only small por- 
tions of his works remain, but they prove him to have been a won- 
derful painter. His principal work was the " Ascension of Christ," 
in the ch. S. Apostoli. Portions of this have been removed, and are 
preserved in the sacristy of S. Peter's, the Quirinal Pal., and in the 
Lateran. Grimm says, " I can place nothing of the same date by the 
side of these figures as regards boldness of composition. For an im- 
agination, before which human forms hovered in such bold foreshorten- 
ing, and a hand such as the painter possessed who could sketch so 
freely and firmly what his mind perceived, I find combined in no 
painter hitherto." The foreshortening or painting of figures in per- 
spective, on vaults and ceilings, was his invention and was perfected 
a half century later by Correggio. His draperies were somewhat form- 
less; his principal figures grand; and his cherubs and angels, graceful 
and beautiful. In the Vatican there is a picture by him of Sixtus IV. , 
surrounded by his nephews. Melozzo da Forli was a very important 
artist, but his place in the history of art is small, on account of the 
paucity of his existing works. 

Forment, Damian, born at Valencia; died 1533. He went to 
Italy to study, and it is supposed that he formed his style after the 
works of Donatello. In 1511 he executed a work at Zaragoza, 
which is considered one of the finest monuments in Arasron. It is an 


altar-piece of alabaster, for the Cath. " of the Pillar." This work 
occupied Forment nearly nine years. It represents the Assump- 
tion of the Virgin, the Nativity, and the Purification. In 1520 he 
be< r an a retablo for the high-altar of the Cath. of Huesea. This oc- 

o o 

cupied thirteen years. It is of alabaster, and represents the " Death 
and Passion of Christ." The Emperor, Charles V., invited him to 
enter his service, but he died soon after. He left a large estate. 
His school never numbered less than twelve scholars. 

Fosse, Charles de la, born at Paris (1640-1 71G). He was ad- 
mired for his coloring, which he acquired from the study of Venetian 
art. He was much employed on the churches and palaces of Paris, 
Vrrsiillcs, etc. He visited England, and ornamented the mansions 
of some of the nobles. His design was incorrect and inelegant, and 
his color, which was good, was much inferior to that of Titian or 

Foucquet, Jean. Flourished 1461-1485. He was a miniaturist, 
illuminator, and painter to Louis XI. A Boccaccio which he illumi- 
nated, is at Munich, and portions of a Book of Hours, also by him, 
belong to the coll. of M. Brentano Laroche, at Frankfort. There 
is a " Virgin and Child " in the Gall, at Antwerp, attributed to him. 
The Virgin is said to be a portrait of Agnes Sorel, the beautiful mis- 
tress of Charles VII. This picture is pale and flat. 

Fouquieres, Focquier, or Foucquier, James, born at Antwerp 
(1580-1659). Pupil of Mompert and Jan Breughel. He was a 
fine landscape painter, and was employed in the Louvre by Louis 
XIII. That king made him a knight, and this, with other flattering 
attentions, rendered him so vain that he became unendurable. 
Nicholas Poussin, who was employed at the Louvre at the same time 
with Fouquieres, left Paris on account of his insolence and overbear- 
ing conduct. His drawing was good and his pencil free. His color 
was somewhat cold, though fresh and clear. He chose picturesque 
scenes, and bis wagons, figures, etc., were well put in. 

Fragonard, Jean-Honor^, born at Grasse (1732-1806). He 
painted historical subjects, conversations, and bacchanals with con- 
siderable success. 1 Some rather stiff portraits are attributed to him, 
and he also executed several etchings from his own designs, and those 
of other masters. 

Francesca, Pietro della, born at Borgo S. Sepolero. He is dis- 
tinguished for having advanced the study of perspective. Sonic of 
hi- frescoes remain in his native place; in S. Francesco, at Rimini, 
and in S. Francesco, at Arezzo. In the National Gall, there is a 
profile portrait in tempera, attributed to him. In the Uffizi there 
are portraits of Federigo di Montefeltro and his wife, by bis hand. 
He is said to have been the teacher of Signorelli and Pietro Perugino. 
He was living in 1494. 

1 Four fine pictures, by Fragonard, belonging to Mr. Henry Lee, were burned 
in the great fire in Bo-ton, November 9, 1*7-'. 


Franceschini, Baldassare, called II Volterrano, born at Volterra 
(1611-1CS9). He was most distinguished as a fresco painter, but 
his oil pictures were very commendable. His correctness of design 
was remarkable; his knowledge of foreshortening perfect; his color 
harmonious ; and his figures spirited. His works both in fresco and 
oil may be seen in Florence and Volterra. 

Franceschini, Marcantouio, born at Bologna (1648-1729). 
Carlo Cignani was his chief teacher, and so fond of him that he gave 
him attentions and privileges beyond all his other pupils. He ex- 
celled as a machinist. His compositions were copious but without 
confusion. His inventive powers were large, and he had facility of 
execution. Many of his works are at Bologna. His easel pictures 
were good; his angels were especially beautiful. 

Franciabigio or Francia Bigio, real name, Francesco di Cristofano 
(1482-1525). Pupil of Mariotto Albertinelli. He was a friend of 
Andrea del Sarto, and resembled him in his manner of painting. In 
1513, Francia Bigio was employed at the Servi in Florence, and it is 
said was associated with Del Sarto. He painted, in the court of the 
Servi, a picture of the " Marriage of the Virgin." Just before it was 
finished, a day observed with especial solemnity by the Servites came 
round, and the monks removed the screens which were before the pic- 
ture. Francia Bigio was so angry at this that he took a hammer and 
did much injury to the Virgin's head, and to other portions of his 
work, and moreover, he could never be persuaded to restore it, 
neither would other artists do so, and the injuries remain to this day. 
In 1518-19, he worked at the Scalzo, and in 1521, together with Del 
Sarto, at the Medici Pal. in Poggio a Cajano. He was always a 
reputable painter, but he was not a man of great genius, and there- 
fore could not equal many others. During the later years of his life, 
he painted with great rapidity, and took every order that was offered 
him. Several of his frescoes remain, and a number of portraits by 
his hand, are in various collections in Europe. The " Bath cf Bath- 
sheba," at Dresden, was painted but two years before his death 
One of his portraits is at Windsor Castle, and another at Stanstead 

Francia, Francesco, real name Francesco di Marco Raibolini, 
born at Bologna (1450-1518). As a goldsmith, he was first dis- 
tinguished, and was steward of goldsmiths in 1483. He was also 
master of the mint to the Bentivoglio, and to Julius II. at Bologna. 
It is impossible to say exactly when lie began to paint, but his earliest 
known work is a Madonna surrounded by six saints, dated 1490 or 
1494. This is one of the treasures of the Bologna Pinacothek. His 
first pictures are Umbrian in style, and much resemble those of 
Perugino, which is easily accounted for by the fact that the works of 
that master were taken to Bologna near the close of the 15th century. 
Later in life, Francia became Raphaelesquc in manner, and his pic- 


tures have been attributed to both these masters whom he imitated. 
His most striking characteristic is a tender and agreeable expression 
of deep religious feeling. His figures express calmness more than ac- 
tion; his color is warm, and his finish delicate and careful. His only 
remaining frescoes are in the oratory of S. Cecilia, at Bologna, and 
represent the marriage and entombment of that saint. An altar- 
piece in the Bentivoglio chapel in S. Giacomo Maggiore, representing 
the enthroned Madonna, with saints and angels, is very beautiful. 
The color is especially fine. Various other works of his are in Bo- 


logna; in Munich is a " Virgin adoring the Infant Jesus." which is 
very attractive; in the Brera, another enthroned Madonna; many 
portrait*, half length Madonnas, and Holy Families arc seen in 
various European galleries. All have the same oval faces, and soft, 
dark eyes; the same calm and thoughtful expression, and are always 
pleating. He retained his full powers : ,t the time of his death. 
When the S. Cecilia of Raphael was finished, he sent it to Francia 
and requested him to care for it and see it properly hum: in its place. 
He did so, and soon after died, it has been said, because of his dis- 


covery of his great inferiority to Raphael. It is well known that 
these two masters were friends, and corresponded, but it is not 
known that they met. There are few, perhaps no other specimens 
of the antico-moderno style, equal to the works of Francia. His por- 
traits were excellent, and in some of his groups he introduced the 
likeness of the donor with good effect. He had more than 200 

Franck or Francken. There are at least eleven painters and en- 
gravers by this name, and probably more. There is some difficulty 
in distinguishing between them. The most important are Hans 
Franck, who was one of the earliest engravers on wood, and is be- 
lieved to be the same as Jan Franck, who worked for Albert Durer 
at Nuremburg ; Frans Francken, the Elder (1544-1616), Ambro- 
sius Francken, the Elder (1545-1618), and Jerome Francken, the 
Elder (1542 ?-1620) were pupils of Franz Floris, and painted in his 
style. The Antwerp Mus. has a number of pictures by Ambrose. 
There were three younger Franckens having the same names as the 
elder ones. Of these Frans, the Younger, was the most important. 
Born at Antwerp (1581 ?-1642). His works are characterized by fine 
keeping and a spirited touch, with much feeling for graceful action. 
His drawing was good, and he had fine inventive talents. No picture 
better displays his powers of imagination than that of the " Witch's 
Sabbath," in the Vienna Gall., dated 1607. His color was often 
heavy. He sometimes painted the figures in the pictures of Pieter 
Neefs, Van Bassen, and Jesse Momper. He was one of the best 
f/cnre painters of his time. Jean Baptiste Francken was the son of 
Sebastian, and was instructed by him. Born at Antwerp, 1600, 
sometimes called Old Francks. He improved by the study of the 
works of Rubens. His best pictures are the interiors of museums 
and galleries, and he so well imitated the manner of different artists, 
that however small his representations are, the style and color of the 
painter can be distinguished. He painted vases, suits of armor, and 
objects of natural history with wonderful exactness and finish. 
Many of the figures which he introduced were portraits. He some- 
times painted figures in the pictures of Neefs, and sometimes the 
figures which he painted were encircled with flowers by Daniel 

Franco, Battista, called II Semolei, born at Venice or Udine 
(1498-1566?). He went to Rome where he diligently studied the 
works of Michael Angelo. A few of his works remain in Venice. 
The finest of these are small decorations upon ceilings, such as those 
in the chapel of S. Francesco della Vigna, and in the Scala d'Oro of 
the Doge's Palace. His most important large- works are also in the 
above-named chapel. A good portrait of Sanswino, by Franco, is in 
the Berlin Mus. This artist merits honorable mention as an en- 
graver. He is believed by some to have been the pupil of Marc An- 


tonio. Bartsch mentions more than 100 plates by him. His drawing 
is often incorrect, but he showed great love for the antique, and re- 
spect for the traditions of the past, in the choice of his subjects. He 
worked entirely with the graver, and marked his plates B. F. V. F., 
for Batista Franco Venetux fecit. 

Fraii9ois. There are three painters by this name, Lucas, Peter, 
and Simon. The first two were father and son, and born at Mechlin; 
the latter was a native of Tours. They are of no especial importance. 

Francois, Jean Charles, born at Nancy (1717-1786 ?) The in- 
ventor of the engraving called the Chalk style, which represents 
crayon drawings. He received a pension of 600 livres, for this in- 
vention. He also executed some portraits with the graver. 

Fraser, Charles, born at Charleston, S. C. (1782-1860.) A very 
successful portrait painter. In 1857 his works were exhibited in 
Charleston, and numbered 313 miniatures and 139 landscapes and 
other compositions. 

Fratellini, Giovanna, born at Florence (1666-1 731). Her talents 
attracted the attention of the Grand Duchess Victoria, who provided 
her with masters. She painted in oil, miniature, and crayons, and 
excelled in the latter. Her reputation spread all over Italy, and she 
painted the portraits of many nobles and eminent persons. In the 
Ducal Gall., Florence, there is a portrait of herself engaged in paint- 
ing that of her son, which is one of her best works. 

Frazee, John, born in Rahway, N. J., 1 790. A sculptor in spite 
of many hindrances, for in his youth there was no brightness but 
that of his mother's love; and it was not until 1824 that he was able 
to execute his first bust. This was a portrait of .John Wells, and 
was placed in Grace Church, New York city, and is, according to Dun- 
lap, the first marble portrait from a native hand. At this time he 
had opened a marble-yard on Broadway, with Launitz, and it was 
there that Crawford first practised in statuary. After this Fra/ee 
made busts of several notable men, and in 1831 that of John Jay, for 
which Congress made an appropriation. 

Fredi, Bartolo di, born at Siena about 1330. He was associated 
with Andrea Vanni, in 1353. In 1361 he was employed by the 
government of Siena, and in 1362 went to S. Gimignano, where he 
remained several years. After his return to Siena he was honored 
with some public offices. He was the founder of the noble house of 
the Bartoli Battilori. Had his reputation depended alone on his 
real artistic merit, he would not have occupied a leading position. 
His color was hard, and his picture* very flat; and he was excelled 
by many artists of his day in Pisa and Siena, while he could not be 
mentioned beside those of Florence. His remaining works are some 
pictures in S. Francesco of Montalcino; an ' Adoration of the Magi," 
in the Acad. of Siena, and another in the liamhoux Coll. at Co- 
logne ; and a " Virgin giving the Girdle to S. Thomas," in the ch. 


of S. Maria, at Bettona, near Assisi. His " Descent from the Cross," 
in the ch. of S. Francesco, is dated 1382. 

Freminet, Martin, born in Paris (1567-1619). He studied some 
time in Italy, and on his return was made painter to Henri IV., and 
also to his successor, Louis XIII. He was much employed at Fon- 
tainebleau. A picture in the Louvre, representing " Mercury admon- 
ishing ./Eneas," is a good example of his work. 

Frey, James, born at Lucerne (1681-1752). An eminent en- 
graver, and better known by his Italian name of Giacomo Frey. He 
studied in the school of Carlo Maratti, at Rome. He left a large 
number of fine plates after the works of some of the best Italian 

Frey, Jchn Peter de, born at Amsterdam, 1770. He became a 
distinguished engraver, though he could only use his left hand. His 
prints after Rembrandt, Flink, and G. Dow are much esteemed, es- 
pecially the " Anatomical Lecture," the " Family of Tobias," the 
" Presentation in the Temple," and the " Ship-builder and his Wife." 

Frisius, Simon, born at Leuwarde, in Friesland, about 1590. An 
eminent engraver, and the first who brought etching to perfection. 
His prints are scarce and much valued. He sometimes marked his 
plates S. Y. fecit, and frequently fecit only. 

Fruitiers Philip, born at Antwerp (1625-1677). He first painted 
historical subjects in oil, but changed to distemper and miniature. 
He was very celebrated for his water-color portraits, and so much 
admired by Rubens that he employed him to paint himself and fam- 
ily. He also made some etchings, among which the portrait of 
Queen Hedwig Eleanor, of Sweden, is distinguished for its excel- 

Fuessli, John Caspar, born at Zurich (1706-1781). A good por- 
trait painter, and the author of the " Lives of the Swiss Painters," for 
which work he designed and engraved the portraits and vignettes. 

Fiiger, Henri, born at Heilbronn (1751-1818). He was appointed 
Director of the Imperial Gall, at Vienna, in 1806. His works in that 
Coll. are not his best. German writers considered him one of the 
most eminent artists of his time. 

Fulton, Robert, born in Lancaster County, Penn. (1765-1815). 
It is well known that this great mechanician was also an artist. But 
very few of his works remain. There is in Philadelphia a portrait 
by him of Mr. Plumst cad's sister; it belongs to her family. Fulton 
executed the first panorama ever exhibited in Paris. His love for 
art was very great, and he wrote from London to urge the people of 
Philadelphia to buy West's pictures as the nucleus of a Gall., an I 
bought himself the " Lear" and " Ophelia," and gave them to the 
New York association of artists. There is a print from one of his 
pictures representing Louis XVI. in prison, with his family. 

Fuugai, Bernardino, born at Siena. Flourished about 1512. 


There arc numerous works attributed to this artist in guide-books 
and catalogues. They are all lifeless, badly drawn, and confused in 
arrangement. Several of these are in the churches and Acad. of 
Siena. They an- also seen in various European galleries. 

Furini, Francesco, born at Florence (1604-1646). Pupil of his 
father, and afterwards of Passignano and Roselli. He became a 
priest in 1G40, but continued to paint until his death. He has been 
called the Guido and Albano of Florence. His heads are sometimes 
very powerful: his face shadows are deep brown. His pastoral sub- 
jects are half Spanish iu appearance. His best works are easel pic- 
tures, and are much esteemed. His women and children are elegant 
and delicate, and he excelled in the representation of nymphs and 
kindred subjects. 

Furness, William Henry, Jr., born at Philadelphia (1827-1807). 
A su<-ces>ful painter of portraits. He studied at Diisseldorf, and 
after his return to America established himself in Boston. His pic- 
tures are in the possession of the families for whom they were 
painted, and are much esteemed. 

Fuseli or Fu'ssli, Henry, born at Zurich (1 741-1825). He was ed- 
ucated for the church, and took holy orders, but in 1763, having u 
difficulty with a magistrate of Zurich, he went to England, where he 
lived until his death, with the exception of eight years passed in 
Italy. He intended to devote himself to literature, but by advice of 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, who had seen his drawings, he became an 
artist. As a painter he was entirely original, and remarkable for his 
wonderful imaginations and fantastic conceptions of his subjects. He 
had a good knowledge of anatomy, which is fully shown in his pic- 
tures. His best works are his Milton Gall., and eight pictures 
painted for Roydell's Shakespeare Gall. These are all extravagant 
and incorrect, but extraordinary in design. As a writer and critic 
of art, he ranks hi-jh, but is not free from the same extravagance in 
his intellectual efforts which characteri/es his paintings. lie. held 
the offices of Professor of Painting, and Keeper of the Royal Acad. 
He delivered twelve lectures in all. He was very witty and sarcas- 
tic, and spared none who came in his way: still he was liked by the 
students, for they knew that he endeavored to build up the best in- 
terests of the Acad. He had a passionate temper, and was sometimes 
overcome by depression of spirits, when his wife was accustomed to 
make him angry, as a fit of passion restored his cheerfulness. He 
was very learned, and could speak eight Lin^uai-vs. When not em- 
ployed in painting, he took up the pen; and when eighty years old 
declared himself to have been happy in the fact that he had al\\ ay< 
been occupied in something that he liked. There are many sharp 
and witty sayings of his recorded, and his life, published by his 
executor, John Knowles, is very interest ing. From his choice of 
strange subjects, his fellow-artists called him " painter-in-ordinary to 


the devil;" he laughed at this, and said, " Aye, he has sat to 11:0 
many times." A student once showed him a drawing, saying, " I 
finished it without using a crumb of bread." " All the worse for 
you," answered Fuseli; "buy a two-penny loaf and rub it out." 

Fiiterer, Ulrich. In the Gall, of Schleissheim there is a large 
''Crucifixion" by this artist, who flourished about 1480. It is 
painted in compartments of Gothic architecture to in:itate sculpture. 

Fyoll, Conrad. Flourished from 1461 to 14 76. There are pic- 
tures by this artist in the St'adel Institute, at Frankfort, and in the 
Berlin Mus. Kugler says, " He has something tender and mild in his 
heads, and a delicate, silvery, and, upon the whole, cool tone in his 

Fyt, Jan, born at Antwerp (1609-1661). After Snyders, he is 
the greatest Flemish animal painter. His greyhounds cannot be 
equalled by any master. His live dogs are excellent, but he was 
most successful in representing dead animals. The fur of animals 
and the plumage of birds was rendered by him with more detail of 
finish than by Snyders, and with wonderful truth. His composition 
was good, and he had much animation; in drawing, he is not always 
accurate, but his effects of light are fine. He may be well studied 
in the Munich and ^ 7 ienna Galleries, which have fine pictures by him. 
There is a work of his in the British Mus., and others are in private 
collections in England. He sometimes painted in conjunction with 
Jordaens and Willeborts. Jan Fyt also executed the folowing 
etchings, which are much esteemed : 

Eight plates of Dogs and other animals; marked Jo. Fyt. 1640. 

Seven plates of different kinds of Dogs with landscape back- 
grounds; 1642; inscribed Johannes Fyt pinx. et fecit. 

A set of eight small plates comprising a Horse, a Cart, a Dog, 
Goats, Foxes, and three of Cows; very scarce. 


Gaal or Gall, Barent, born at Haerlem (1650-1703). Pupil of 
Philip Wouvermans. His village scenes are good pictures of their 
class. His figures have no special merit, but his effects of light and 
shade are fine, particularly when, like Ruysdael, he paints heavy 
clouds with the sun shining on distant fields. 

Gabbiani, Antonio Domenico, born at Florence (1652-1726). 
The works of this artist occupy an honorable position in the Floren- 
tine galleries and palaces. His landscapes with mythological subjects 
resemble those of Domenichino. His distant scenery is grand. His 
Cupids are. as a rule, his best figures, and his greatest deficiency is in 
drapery. lie was a pupil of Giro Ferri. 

Gaddi, Gaddo, born at Florence (1239-1312). A friend of 
Cimabue, whom he survived twelve years. The friend also of Andrea 


Tafi, and a worker in mosaics. He nuule a fortune which was the 
foundation of the. position his family occupied later. Vasari speaks 
of many of his works, both paintings and mosaics, but the oaly 
remaining ones that can be attributed to him are some mosaics in the 
portico of S. M iria Ma-zgiorc, at Rome, executed in 1308, and 
possibly others in the cathedrals of Florence and Pisa, and in the 
Baptistery at Florence. 

Gaddi, Taddeo, born at Florence (1300-1366?). Son of the 
preceding. He was held at the baptismal font by Giotto, and became 
the favorite disciple of that great master. His pictures are, in 
general, in the style of Giotto. Vasari, who saw many of his works 
which are now destroyed, thought he excelled his instructor. His 
works still remaining are frescoes from the life of the Virgin, on the 
walls of the Giugni (formerly the Baroncelli) chapel in Santa Croce, 
at Florence, and some smaller panel pictures in the Florentine Acad. 
and the Berlin Mus. There is much truth and feeling in the frescoes, 
and the small pictures are beautifully executed. His countenances 
are less characteristic than those of Giotto, and his entire manner 
more mechanical, the almost unavoidable result of having been the 
assistant of his master, for more than twenty-four years. When he 
was asked to name the greatest painter in Italy, he replied, " Art has 
fallen very low since the death of Giotto," and it was the misfortune 
of Taddeo and others who followed Giotto, to study liis works and 
practise his rules, rather than to draw their inspiration from nature, 
and reproduce her more perfect models. Taddeo was also an archi- 
tect, and made the plans for the Ponte Vecchio and Ponte a Santa 
Trinita, in 1336, and was employed at Orsanmichele and the Cam- 

Gaddi, Agnolo. Son of the preceding. Time of birth not 
known. Died 1396. The pictures of Agnolo are sometimes imposing 
at a distance, but do not bear close examination. A finely drawn 
head is often spoiled by disregard to the details of the features; his 
hands and feet are bad, and the folds of the flesh are indicated by 
linos. His color is clear and transparent, and his relief better than 
Taddoo's. The best preserved works of this master are in the 
chapel of the Holy Girdle in the Cath. of Prato, and in the choir of 
Santa Croce, at Florence. The latter are a series illustrating the 
history of the Holy Cross, and are full of allegorical allusions. 

Gaeta, Scipione da. See Pulzone. 

Gainsborough, Thomas, born at Sudbury. in Suffolk (1727-1788). 
Pupil of Francis Hayman. He became very eminent as a portrait 
painter, and his landscapes are much esteemed, while his fancy pic- 
tures are also excellent. He settled in London in 1774. It is said 
that he never put his name on any picture. When he died, he had 
56 paintings and 148 drawings. The latter are much valued by con- 
noisseurs and collectors. Several of his fine landscapes are in the 


National Gall., and the excellent portraits of Mrs. Siddons and Dr. 
Ralph Shomberg are, also there. In the Edinburgh Gall, there is a 
fine likeness of the Hon. Mrs. Graham. Some of his best pictures 
of genre subjects are, the " Shepherd Boy in a Shower; " the " Wood- 
man and Dog in a Storm; " the " Cottage Door; " and the" Cottage 
Girl with Dog and Pitcher." His pictures command high prices, 
one having been sold in 1867 for 1800. Many of his works have 
been engraved. 

Galanino, called Baldassare Alloisi, born at Bologna (1578- 
1G38). Pupil of the Carracci, and one of the ablest artists of their 
school. lie was very busy in Rome in painting portraits of the 
most illustrious men of the time of Urban VIII. His larger works 
were for the churches of Bologna, and the great altar-piece for the 
ch. of Gesu e Maria, at Rome. 

Galassi, Galasso, born at Fcrrara, 1380. But few of his works 
remain, and these are in the churches of Bologna. It has been said 
that he learned the use of oil colors from Van der Weyden, but all 
his known paintings are frescoes. 

Galaton. A Greek painter who probably lived under the earlier 
Ptolemies. lie executed a picture probably intended to ridicule the 
Alexandrian epic poets. It represented Homer vomiting, and other 
poets gathering up what fell from him. 

Galestruzzi, Gio. Batista. Of his paintings 
little is known, but he was the friend of Delia Bella, 
whose manner he imitated in engraving, and acquired 
a good reputation. His plates are numerous, and 
some of them are rare. He flourished about the middle of the 17th 

F-p^ Galle : Philip, born at Haerlem, 1537. The first 
Jc~ of a family of engravers consisting of Theodore, 
/ Cur 1560, and Cornelius the Elder, 1570 (sons of Philip), 
and Cornelius the Younger, 1600. Cornelius the 
Elder excelled the others, and after studying in Rome established 
himself in Antwerp as an engraver and print-seller. He left a con- 
siderable number of plates, which are well esteemed. 

Gallegos, Fernando, born at Salamanca, probably about 1475. 
He followed the manner of Van der Weyden and Memling. He has 
been called a pupil of Albert Diirer, and his works are said to resem- 
ble those of that master. His best picture is a Madonna, in the 
chapel of S. Clement, in Salamanca. 

Galli, Gio. Maria, called Bibiena from his birthplace (1625-1665). 
The first of a family who distinguished themselves in art. He was a 
pupil of Albano, whose gracefulness he successfully imitated. Some 
of his finest works are in the churches of Bologna. 

Galli, Ferdinando, called Bibiena, born at Bologna (1657-1 743). 
Son of the preceding, he was very eminent as an ornamental and 


decorative painter, and was sought by all the sovereigns of Europe, 
lit- served the dukes of Parma and Milan, and went to Vienna \>y 
invitation of the Emperor Charles VI. He arranged public festivals 
with inueh magnificence, and made great improvements in the dec- 
orations and illusive effect of scenic decorations. He also painted 
many architectural and perspective views, which are in the galleries 
of Italy and are well esteemed. He published a work on architect- 
ure. He had three sons, Alessandro, Antonio, and Giuseppe, who 
became distinguished as decorative artists at several European 

Galli, Francesco, called Bibiena, born at Bologna (1659-1739). 
Brother of the preceding, to whom he was inferior. He painted the 
same class of subjects, and was invited to Spain and appointed prin- 
cipal architect to Philip V. 

Garbo, Raffaellino del, born at Florence (1476-1524). Pupil of 
Filippino Lippi. His earlier works are characterized by amiability, 
and an elegant tenderness of feeling. His works in the Berlin Mas. 
especially display this. His " Resurrection," in the Florentine 
Acad., shows the same dramatic power which his master had. Later 
in life, when he attempted to follow M. Angelo and Raphael, he was 
less admirable, as may be seen in his ceiling pictures in the chapel of 
S. Thomas Aquinas in S. Maria Sopra Minerva at Rome. His works 
are also seen in the Louvre, Dresden Gall., Uffizi, Acad. of Venice. 
Mus. of Naples, and in some private collections. 

Gargiuoli, Domeiiico, called Micco Spadaro, born at Naples 
(1612-1679). Pupil of Salvator Rosa, and painted landscapes and 
small figures. His works in the Studj Gall, at Naples are very in- 
teresting as historical representations of the events of his time. One 
series delineates the whole tragedy of Masaniello, and the horrors of 
the plague of 1656 form the subjects of others. 

Gaiofalo was called by this name from his custom of painting a 
gilliflower in the corner of his pictures, but his real name was Ben- 
venuto Tisio. Born at Ferrara (1481-1559). He executed some fres- 
coes in Ferrara which caused him to be considered the head of the 
Ferrarese school, but he is best known by his easel pictures, which 
are in various galleries, especially in Rome. An " Entombment," at 
the Borghese Pal., is his most celebrated large work, and another, 
very similar, is in the Studj Gall, at Naples. The Doria Gall., the 
Acad. of Venice, and the English National Gall., have fine specimen> 
of his works. His pictures at Ferrara were painted after his return 
from Rome, and show the effect of his study there. His color was 
good, and his pure, positive tints have not faded, and equal in this 
respect the works of the early Venetian artists. He was blind nine 
years before his death. 

Garzi, Ludovico, born at Pistoja (1638 ?-l 721). A favorite 
pupil of Andrea Sacchi, and a rival of Carlo Maratti. He was em- 


ployed in Naples in churches and palaces, and in Pescia; his prim-i- 
pal works at Rome are the cupola of the Capclla Cibo in S. Maria 
del Popolo, and his celebrated " Prophet Joel," in the Lateran. 

Gassel, Lucas. Flourished middle of IGth century. His style is 
fantastic, his color cool and monotonous. Vienna Gall., a landscape, 
with Judali and Thamar, 1548. 

Gasser, Hans (1817-1868). This Austrian sculptor was remark- 
able for his portrait busts, among which are those of Jenny Lind. 
Marko, Rahl, and S/echenyi. His ideal figures were also worthy of 
praise. This may be seen in the new opera-house at Vienna, the 
Karl Theatre, and the arsenals at Vienna and Trieste. 

Gatti, Bernardino, called II Soiaro or Sogliaro, from the occupa- 
tion of his father. There is much doubt about the facts of this 
painter's life, and it is not known whether he was a pupil or an imi- 
tator of Correggio. His works were in the manner of that master, 
and the most important were executed at Parma, Cremona, and 
Piacenza. Died 1575. Gervasio Gatti, his nephew, was also his 
pupil, and called II Soiaro. Bryan names five painters and one en- 
graver of the name of Gatti. 

Gaulli, Gio. Battista, called Bacicio, born at Genoa (1639-1709). 
He had great celerity of invention and execution, and became dis- 
tinguished as a machinist. One of his most important works is the 
great vault of the Gesu, at Rome. He painted in several Roman 
churches, and is said to have succeeded in portraiture, especially in 
making good likenesses of those who were dead. For the latter he 
was accustomed to draw an ideal face, which he would change ac- 
cording to the suggestions of those who had known the subject, until 
he made a satisfactory picture. 

Gault de St. Germain, Pierre Marie, born at Paris, 1754. A 
painter of large historical subjects and portraits. He also wrote 
several books relative to painting. 

Gaywood, Robert. Flourished about 1660. The plates of this 
eminent English engraver are much esteemed by collectors. He was 
a pupil of Wenceslaus Hollar, and his most interesting works are his 

Geddes, Andrew, born at Edinburgh (1789-1844). He painted 
landscapes and portraits. He was most successful in the latter, 
although many of his small landscapes are pretty, particularly his 
canal views. He also painted one large altar-piece, and a picture 
of" Christ and the Woman of Samaria." His picture of the " Dis- 
covery of the Regalia of Scotland " includes a portrait of Walter 
Scott, and several distinguished men of Edinburgh. 

Gelder, Aart de, born at Dort (1645-1727). Pupil 
of Rembrandt, and a good imitator of his style, though 
not equal to him in impasto and transparency of color. 
Many of his pictures pass for those of his master, and 


his works are not numerous in public galleries. The Amsterdam 
Mus. has a portrait of Peter the Great, and the Dresden (Jail, a 
man's portrait and an Eeee Homo, by De Gelder. 

Gelee, Claude. See Lorraine. 

Genga, Girolamo, born at Urbino (1476-1551). Pupil of Luea 
Signorelli and Pietro Perugino, and fellow-pupil of Raphael. Few 
of his works are known, as he painted much in conjunction with 
other masters, and was also employed as an architect, rather than 
painter, by the Duke of Urbino. 

Gennari, Benedetto, born at Cento (1633-1715). Nephew and 
pupil of Guercino, whose style he imitated so perfectly, that the 
copies which he made from the master's works could scarcely be 
distinguished from the originals. He painted some historical pictures 
for the churches of Bologna, Padua, and Cento, and in the reign of 
Charles II. went to England and was appointed painter to the 
King, in which office he was confirmed by James II. His principal 
works in England, were portraits. Cesare Gennari, brother of 
Benedetto, and Lorenzo, probably of the same family, were also 

_^^ Genoels, Abraham, born at Antwerp (1G40-1 723). One 
r/\ of the best landscape painters of his country. In France, 
JL V. he was employed by Le Brun, to paint the backgrounds to 
his " Battles of Alexander the Great." His drawing is cor- 
rect, his touch spirited, his color clear, and his figures in the antique 
style. His works are rare. The Amsterdam Gall, has one, and 
there is another in the Brunswick Gall. He is also distinguished 
for his etchings. Bartsch enumerates seventy-three, and Wei^d 
gives thirty-one more. In Rome, he was called Archimedes, on ac- 
count of his mathematical knowledge, and he sometimes signs his 
etchings with that name. 

Gentileschi, real name Orazio Lomi, born at Pisa (1563-1047). 
He painted in several Roman palaces in conjunction with A-jcostino 
TasM. He also painted historical subjects at Turin and (ieno'i. 
He was invited to England by Charles I. Several of his pictures 
are now at Marlborough House. Vandyck painted his portrait, which 
was engraved by Vorsterman. Gentileschi, Artemisia (1590-Ki !:>), 
was the daughter of the above, and accompanied him to England, 
where she painted both portraits and other pictures, but she passed 
most of her life in Bologna and Naples. She was the friend of Guido, 
and was much admired. She excelled her father in portraits. In 
the Florence Gall, there is a "Judith," painted by her. Gentileschi, 
Francesco, brother of the precedini:, was also an artist, and resided 
chiefly at Genoa, where he painted for several churches. 

Gerard, Francois, born at Rome (1770-1837). The best French 
portrait painter of his time, and distinguished also for his lar-_ r e his- 
torical pictures. His chff-il' ceuvre of this kind is the " Entrance of 


Henry IV. into Paris," at Versailles. He was a great favorite with 
Napoleon, and painted portraits of the Emperor, his wives, and the 
King of Rome. He was also principal painter to Louis XVIII., who 
made him a baron. 

Gerard, Mark, born at Bruges. Painter, designer for glass-paint- 
ing, and architect. He was not an eminent artist, but some por- 
traits he painted in England are interesting. Those of Queen Eliza- 
beth, Lord Burleigh, and Lord Essex are at Burleigh House. 

Gerard of S. John. Van Mander says he was thus called from 
the monastery of S. John, at Haerlem, where he resided. Two panels 
attributed to him are in the Belvedere Gall., at Vienna, and three, 
pictures which form a triptych in the Pinakothek of Munich, are also 
called his. These works are far from excellent, and seem to belong 
to the 16th century. 

Gerard of Ghent is one of the painters said to have executed the 
celebrated Grimani Breviary, in the library of S. Mark, at Venice; 
1 25 of the illuminations are attributed to him. It has been said that 
he was identical with Gerard Van der Meire. 

Ge'ricault, Jean Louis, born at Rouen (1791-1824). The chef- 
d'cRuvre of this artist is his immense picture of the " Wreck of the 
Medusa," in the Gall, of the Louvre. 

Gessi, Francesco, born at Bologna (1588-1649). A pupil and 
successful imitator of Guido lleni. His early works are the best, for 
in later years he became a cold and languid mannerist. His pictures 
are in several churches of Bologna. 

Gessner, Solomon, born at Zurich (1734-1788). A poet and 
artist. He was an amateur painter, until he was thirty years old, 
when he began to study landscape painting. He is known by his 
etchings, some of which he executed for his literary works, and 
some for separate publication. They are all well finished and 

o Ghein or Gheyn, James, the 

* Tylrv * Elder, born at Antwerp (1565- 

B 1C15). Pupil of Henry Goltzius. 

^ e became a skilful engraver, and 
his plates are much esteemed. Some 
of them are scarce. 

Ghent, Justus Van. This old painter must have been born 
about 1400, as he was a pupil of Hubert Van Eyck. The only re- 
maining work known to be his, is in the ch. of the Fraternity of 
Corpus Cbristi, at Urbino. It represents " Christ giving the Chalice 
to the kneeling Apostles." and has many points of merit. The por- 
traits it contains are excellent. 

Ghiberti. Lorenzo, born at Florence (1378-1455). A goldsmith 
and sculptor, he also painted some pictures at Rimini, whither he 
fled from the plague in 1398. He is best known by his bronze gates 



to the Baptistery of Florence, which Michael An-clo thought " wor- 
thy to IK- the gates of Paradise," and which have never been sur- 
passed in some respects. There was much controversy as to who 
should obtain the honor of making these Ljates, and after (ihiberti re- 
ceived it, he spent twenty years upon the first, and as much more 
time upon the last. It b easy to see in them the marks of the gold- 
smith's minute and finished manner; but Ghiberti introduced a new 

feature in bas-relief when he attempted to represent distance in 
background. In this he of course failed, but in beautiful ornamenta- 
tion, and perfect form and finish of all minor parts, he has never 
been surpassed. Ghiberti also made three statues for the eh. of Or- 
saniniclielc: t wo bas-reliefs for the Cath. of Siena, and the Sarcoph- 
agus of S. Zcimhius. in S. Maria del Fiore, of Florence. All these 
works still remain, but the sarcophagus and the gates are the most 



excellent, and, indeed, are today among the finest works of art in 
Italy. Ghilierti had been a student of the antique as far as was 
possible for him. and in his records of art describes the ancient works 
lie had seen. The earliest known work of this master is in the Uffizi, 
and is a bronze relief of the " Sacrifice of Isaac," which he made when 
contending for the commission for the Baptistery gates. 

G-hirlandaio. Real name, Domenico di Tommaso Curradi di Doffo 
I5i'_ r ordi. Born at Florence (1449-1494). It is said that his father 
was a goldsmith, who made such exquisite garlands for the hair that 
he was called Ghirlandaio (the garland-twiner), which name de- 
scended to his children. There are certain characteristics of Dome- 
nico's pictures which might result from a knowledge of the gold- 


S. Maria Novella, Florence. 

smith's art, such as precision in drawing, the modelling of figures, 
and the arrangement of drapery. Ghirlandaio was a pupil of Alessio 
Baldovinetti, and became a mosaist and celebrated painter. There is 
much of interest in the works of this master. They plainly show the 
advance from his earlier to his best manner : he introduced in his 
pictures the portraits of celebrated and important personages of his 
time, and was original in many ways. His life is a landmark in 
the history of Florentine art. His especial greatness is that of a 
composer. He preferred large spaces, and worked in the old system 
of tempera. His portrait figures were not the actors in the scene 
represented, but he placed them, generally, in detached groups. 
Kugler says this gave a solemn effect, and compares them, in their 


relation to the picture, to the chorus in a Greek tragedy. He laid 
his scenes in the streets of cities known to us, his architecture and 
costumes were familiar, but he did not run into the fantastic, and 
his works are never unpicturesque. His study of the antique is espe- 
cially apparent in his draperies. In the technicalities of fresco-paint- 
ing he excelled, and his works were highly finished. His remaining 
fivsf-i.i-s are those in the eh. and refectory of ()<_ r nissanti. Florence, 
dated 1-180; in the Palazzo Vccehio, and Palaz/.o Pubblico, Flor- 
ence. 1481-85; in the Sixtine Chapel. Rome, only the " Calling of 
Peter and Andrew" remains; in the Chapel of S. Fiua, at S. Gi- 
mignauo; in the Sassetti Chapel, in S. Trinita, Florence, and the 
choir of S. M. Novella (1490), same city. His smaller works are an 
" Adoration of the Magi," in the Uffizi ; two pictures in the Acad. of 
Florence, in one of which, an " Adoration of the Shepherds," an an- 
tique sarcophagus serves as the manger;' a "Visitation," in the 
Louvre; six pictures in the Berlin Mus., and others in the Dn.-ilen. 
Munich, and National galleries; while a few more are in other public 
and in some private collections. Ghirlandaio was the master of Mi- 
chael Angelo. Very little is known of the mosaics which he exe- 
cuted, although he called mosaic work " painting for eternity." 

Ghirlandaio, Ridolfo, born at Florence (1483-1560). Son of 
Domenico. The works of this master may be classed in three divis- 
ions : those of his early time, his middle and best works, and his 
later and more mechanical manner. The first are characterized by 
thin, stiff figures, hard enamel, and thick substance of color, which 
may be seen in an " Annunciation," in the Abbey of the Montoliveto, 
outside Florence. His middle and best manner was largely influ- 
enced by his association with other artists, and the study of their 
works. It has been said that he studied with Fra Bartolommeo and 
was the intimate friend of Raphael. It is true that the latter doircd 
Uidolfo to go to Rome to work with him in 1508, and about this 
time Ridolfo excelled all Florentine artists in oil-painting, as his 
father in his day had excelled in mural decorations. To this time 
belong his '* Nativity," Berlin Mus., and another in the Ksterha/y 
Coll., at Vienna; a female portrait in the Pitti; the Miracle and the 
Burial of S. Zanobius, Ullix.i; and various others in churches and 
galleries, in some of which he employed the assistance of his pupil 
Michele di Ridolfo. There was an old precept among shopkeepers, 
that an artist, if he kept a shop, should execute all orders brought matter how small. Domenico believed this, and his son prac- 
tised it. lie did much merely mechanical work from 151") to 1541 for 
the public occasions, both of joy and sorrow, in which the Medici 
were the principal actors. This had a tendency to injure his man- 
ner, for he hastily executed scenes for plays, banners to be carried in 
processions, and gaudy triumphal arches. Then, too, he had a good 
fortune, fifteen children, and was growing old, indeed, he suffered 


so much from gout that he was wheeled about in a chair for some 
time before his death; still he did not resign his profession, but re- 
mained a silent partner, as it were, in his own business, and as late 
as 1543 undertook a series of frescoes for the monastery of the An- 
geli. where his brother Bartolommeo was in orders. Ridolfo sur- 
vived most of his contemporaries except Michael Angelo. 

Gliisi. This is the name of a Mantuan family of engravers. 
Gio. Battista Ghisi, called Mantuano, was the eldest, and flourished 
about the middle of the 16th century. He was a painter, sculptor, 
architect, and engraver, in which latter profession, he is best 
known. He is said to have been a pupil of Marc- Antonio Rai- 
mondi, but his drawing is incorrect and his prints wanting in harmony. 

G-m -7. j Giorgio Ghisi, born 1524, son of the preceding, was 
V p a much more eminent engraver, and his works are 
much esteemed by collectors. Fine impressions of 
his prints are scarce. f.,\ Adamo and Diana 

Ghisi were the brother / C*\ /S\ an( ^ s * ster f Giorgio, 

and were instructed by / J- *- him. Diana was the 
best artist, and executed some plates of great merit. They were all 
called Mantuano. 

Ghisolfi, Gio., born at Milan (1G23-1683). He studied under 
several masters, the best of them being Salvator Rosa. His pic- 
tures abound in Milan, Geneva, Naples, Rome, and are well repre- 
sented in England. He painted some historical subjects, but is best 
known by dark pictures of ruins, corridors in perspective, and court- 
yards paved with marbles. His works are in the choicest collections. 

Ghezzi, Cavaliere Pier Leone. Chiefly known by his etchings 
and his caricatures, which are numerous in Roman collections. 

Giamberti. See San Gallo. 

Giambono, Michele. An old painter and mosaist of the middle 
of the 15th century. An altar-piece in the Acad. of Venice, signed 
by him, represents Christ with S. Bernardino and other saints. At 
S. Marco, in the wagon roof of the Madonna de' Mascoli, there is a 
mosaic with his name, and at Padua, in the Coll. of Conte Riva, 
an exquisitely finished " Virgin and Child," inscribed " Michael Jo- 
hannes Bono, venetus pinxit. " The Berlin Mus. Catalogue calls No. 
1154 a Giambono. It is the " Assumption of S. Magdalen." 

Gibbon, Grindling. A sculptor of the reign of Charles II. 
Some of his remaining monumental works are seen in the churches 
of England, but his wood-carving is most worthy of notice. His 
birds, flowers, foliage, and imitations of lace are remarkable for fine 
and elaborate execution. Some of the best of these are at Hampton 
Court, Windsor Castle, Chatsworth, S. Paul's Cath., and S. James' 
ch., Piccadilly. He died in 1721. 

Gibson, Richard (1615-1G90), usually called the Dwarf, was 
only three feet ten inches in height, and was married in the presence 

300 GIBSON. 

of Charles I., whose page he was, to Anne Shepherd, who was ex- 
actly his own height. 'I hey had nine children, who lived and were 
of a proper si/.e. Vandyck painted the portraits of this remarkahle 
couple. The King observed the talents of Gibson, and placed him 
with Cleyn for instruction. He made a reputation in water-color 
painting- He painted a miniature of the " Parable of the Lost 
Sheep," which the King valued and gave to his medallist Vander- 
doort for safe keeping. When Charles desired to have it, Vander- 
doort had forgotten where he had put it, and became so nervous 
alwut it, that he hanged himself; after his death it was found. A 
drawing of Queen Henrietta, by Gibson, is at Hampton Court. He 
was sent to Holland to instruct the Princess Mary in drawing, and 
also was honored by being the teacher of Queen Anne. 

Gibson, John, born near Conway, North Wales, 1790; died at 
Rome, 18G6. When nine years old, his parents went to Liverpool 
with the intention of emigrating to the United States, lint this plan 
was abandoned, and Gibson sent to school in Liverpool. Before tins 
he had been in the habit of drawing whatever he saw that pleased 
him. He now began to study the prints in the shop windows, and 
sold his little drawings to his fellow-pupils. He attracted the atten- 
tion of a print-seller, who lent him some studies and casts from the 
antique. At fourteen he was apprenticed to a cabinet maker, but at 
the end of a year, he persuaded his employer to change his indent- 
ures, and was bound to a wood-carver. He soon made t the ac- 
quaintance of Messrs. Francis, who had marble works, and after much 
trouble and negotiation with his master, he was again apprenticed to 
the occupation which he had determined to follow. In modelling, 
drawing, and working in marble, he was truly happy, and made most 
rapid improvement. After a few months he fell under the notice of 
William Roscoe, who became his friend and patron. From this time 
until he was twenty-seven years old, he remained in Liverpool and 
executed many busts, bas-reliefs, etc. He had improved his oppor- 
tunities, but they were small, and he greatly desired to travel. In 
1817 he went to Ivondon with a few letters of introduction, and ob- 
tained several commissions. In September of the same year he left 
England for Rome, where he arrived in October. By means of a 
letter, he was presented to Canova. who took him under his protec- 
tion and introduced him into his Acad., where he had an opportunity 
to draw from life. He had also the advantage of associating with 
artists, and listening to conversations on art. in which the most 
talented sculptors, such as Canova and Thorwaldsen, were engaged, 
In 1819 he received his first commission from the Duke of Devon- 
shire, which was for a group of Mars and Cupid. From this time, he 
advanced steadily in his profession, and was fully employed. He 
lived twenty-seven years in Rome, spending his summers principally 
at InnsbrUck. In 1844 he went to Liverpool to superintend the plac- 

GIBSON. 301 

ing of his statue of Mr. Huskisson. He was received there with 
great enthusiasm. He had also executed a statue of Mr. Finlay for 
the Merchants Hall of Glasgow, to which city he was invited, to wit- 
ness its erection. The compliments here paid him were more flatter- 
ing than those of Liverpool, on account of the absence of all ties of 
asxiriation or residence. During this visit, he was invited to Wind- 
sor to make a statue of her Majesty. This was completed in Rome. 
The Queen was represented in a classical costume, and the diadem, 
sandals, and borders of the drapery were colored. This created 
much controversy; but Gibson always answered, " Whatever the 
Greeks did, was right." The Queen and Prince Albert were much 
pleased with the statue. In 1853 he received Miss Harriet Hosiner 
as his pupil. She is the only one he ever professed to teach, and 
they became devoted to each other, not only as teacher and pupil, 
but as friends. In 18G2 he modelled a sacred subject, a bas-relief of 
" Christ blessing Little Children." In 1851 Gibson sustained a 
great loss in the death of his brother Ben. to whom he was greatly 
attached, and who had resided with him in Rome for fourteen years. 
On the 9th of January, 186G, when seventy-six years of age, and ap- 
parently in perfect health, he was seized with paralysis, and died on 
the 27th of the same month. He was buried in the English cemetery 
at Rome ; and as he had been decorated with the cross of the Legion 
of Honor, a company of French soldiers joined the funeral procession 
and fired a salute above his grave. The inscription upon his monu- 
ment, written by Lord Lytton, gives a concise and truthful account 
of him as an artist, and as a man : " His native genius strengthened 
by careful study, he infused the spirit of Grecian art into master- 
pieces all his own. His character as a man was in unison with his 
attributes as an artist, beautiful in its simplicity and truthfulness, 
noble in its dignity and elevation." A monument was also raised to 
Gibson in the ch. at Conway. He left the models of all his works, 
and the greater part of his fortune, to the Royal Acad. Many amus- 
ing stories are told of his absent-mindedness, and he was scarcely fit 
to go outside his studio alone. He could never master the ins and 
outs of railroad travelling, and when started in the right train at the 
riirht time, was sure to get out at the wrong place at the wrong time. 
Miss Ilosmer said of him, " He is a god in his studio, but God help 
him when he is out of it." On one of his journeys, having arrived, 
as he supposed, at the right place, he desired a porter to show him 
the way to the Cathedral. In his own account he said, " But the 
scoundrel would have it that there was no cathedral in the place, and 
at last had the impudence to ask me if I knew where I was. Then I 
discovered that instead of being in Chichester, where I had a par- 
ticular appointment with the Dean and Chapter, I was safe in Ports- 
mouth, where there was no cathedral at all." He found his entire 
happiness in art, and worked on, to use his own words, " happily, 


and with ever new pleasure, avoiding evil, and, with a calm soul. 
making images, not for worship, but for the love of the beautiful. 
The beautiful elevates us above the crowd in this world; the ideal. 
higher, yes higher still, to celestial beauty, the fountain of all. Soc- 
rates said that outward beauty was the sign of inward: in the life of 
a man, as in an image, every part should be beautiful." The tributes 
of respect, which were shown him, he thoroughly enjoyed; and those 
of which anv man might be proud, he received with a simplicity of 
self-respect which added a higher worth to them. The following 
are a portion of his works : 

Mars and Cupid; Chatsworth. 

Psyche borne by Zephyrs; Palazzo Torlonia, Rome, and S. 

Hylas surprised by Nymphs; National Gall. 

Sleeping Shepherd Boy; Mr. Lennox, New York. 

Cupid disguised as a Shepherd; often repeated; Mr. Appleton, 

Narcissus; Royal Acad. 

Portraits of the Queen; Buckingham Pal. and Osborne. 

Sir Robert Peel: Westminster Abbey. 

George Stephenson ; S. George's Hall, Liverpool. 

Eighteen portrait-busts, among which are those of Mrs. Jameson 
and Sir Charles L. Eastlake. 

Sixteen bassi-relievi, mostly of mythological subjects, and sixteen 
monumental relievi; a large part of the last are in Liverpool Ceme- 
tery Chapel. 

Gillray, James, born at Lanark (1757-1815). This celebrated 
caricaturist began life as a goldsmith, then ran away with a strolling 
company of players, and at last went through a course of study at the 
Royal Acad. His first caricatures were, done about 1779, and he 
worked diligently in this department of art until 181 1. He left more 
than 1200 of these prints. He seized upon every circumstance of 
politics and manners which could be turned to ridicule, and in this 
art has had no rival. His intemperate habits undermined his health. 
and induced an insanity several years previous to his death. There 
are a few engravings of Gillray's of subjects not caricatured, of which 
the impressions are rare. 

Gilpiii, Sawrey, born at Carlisle (1733-1807). An animal and 
landscape painter, who painted whole pictures by himself, but was 
also accustomed to work in conjunction with Barret, who painted the 
land-capes for Gilpin's animals, which the latter repaid by painting 
animals in the pictures of Barret. 

Gimignani, Giacinto, born at Pistoja (I Gl 1-1 680). A disciple 
of Pietro da Cortona. He assisted Carlo Maratti, at the Lateral). 
in Rome. A picture of his in the Ducal Gall., at Florence, has 
been attributed to Guercino. His works are also at the Palazzo Nic- 


colini, Florence; in S. Giovanni at Pistoja, and in other churches of 

Giordano, Luca, born at Naples (1G32-1705). Pupil of Ribera, 
called II Spagnoletto. He went to Rome while still young, and was 
employed by Pietro da Cortona. His facility of execution was mar- 
vellous. He made copies from various masters, and his style became a 
mixture of all. This was greatly to his disadvantage. His father, who 
had always been very poor, followed him to Rome, urged him to haste 
for the sake of money, and was accustomed to repeat to him "Luca, 
fa presto," by which appellation he is known. In 1690 he was in- 
vited to Spain, where he executed a vast amount of work for Charles 
II., in the Escorial and elsewhere. He returned to Naples with 
much wealth and a great reputation. His works are very numerous, 
and varied in style. They are in all large galleries. Perhaps his 
masterpiece is the " Expulsion of the Fallen Angels," in the Belve- 
dere, Vienna, signed Jordanus, F. 16C6. painted equally 
well in oil and fresco, and is at times remarkable for beauty, glow of 
color, and dramatic effect, but sacrificed so much to hasty finish that 
it is painful to see what he has done and feel how much less it is than 
what he might have done. He also left some very spirited etchings, 
executed with free and masterly touch. 


Engraver, AVELINE, Peter. The Death of Seneca. 

Engraver, BEAUVARLKT, James Firmin. Lot and his Daughters. 
Susanna and the Elders. Perseus combating Phincus. Acis and 
Galatea. Judgment of Paris. Rape of Europa. Rape of the Sa- 

Engraver, DENNEL, Louis. Triumph of Galatea. 

Engraver, EARLOM, Richard. Galatea. Judgment of Paris. 

Engrarer, EREDI, Benedetto. Death of Lucretia. 

From 7iw own designs, engraved by him'sclf. 

Elijah calling down Fire on the Priests of -Baal. 

Virgin and Child. 

SS. Joseph and John. 

Penitent Magdalene. 

The Woman taken in Adultery. 

Christ in the Temple with the Doctors. 

S. Anne received into Heaven by the Virgin. 

Engraver, MAXNL or MAENNL, Jacob. Martyrdom of S. Bartholo- 
mew. Philosopher meditating on a Skull. A Geometrician. 

Engraver, RAVENF.T, Simon Francis. Sophonisba receiving the 
Nuptial Present. 

hnijravc.r, SORXIQUE, Dominick. The Rape of the Sabines. 

Engraver, VASSEUR, John Charles Le. Apollo and Daphne. 


Engraver, WAOXF.R, Joseph. Meeting of Jacol) and Rachel 
Rebecca receiving the presents from Kliezer. 

Enyraver, Zrrrm, Lorenxo. David with the Head of Goliath. 

Giorgione, real name Giorgio Harbarelli. horn at Castelfranco 
(1477-1511). The first Venetian who cast off the Beliineaque nilc 
and handled brush and colors freely. Grimm says. His outlines 
disappear into something almost unessential. As when living beings 
approach us, we only see colors and movement, so in his pictures; 
there is none of the fixed, statue-like appearance; the living, moving 
character alone seems produced by magic." This artist had great 
personal beauty, and a dignified deportment. Giorgione means 
George the Great, and he acquired this name on account of his tall. 
noble figure. He had also an intense love of beauty ; he was a good 
lute player, and composed songs which he sung; in short, his nature 
was full of harmony and sentiment. This shows itself plainly in his 
works, and Mrs. Jameson says, " If Raphael be the Shakespeare, then 
Giorgione may be styled the Byron of painting.'' Very little is known 
of his life. The Venetian traditions give the following: He was 
fond of pleasure, but never profligate, and his love of his art would 
not allow him long to neglect it. Pietro Lux/o. a painter known as 
Morto da Feltri, lived in the same house with (Jiorgione, where was 
also a girl whom he passionately loved. He made Morto his confi- 
dant, of which he took advantage to seduce and carry off the -_ r irl. 
Giorgione never recovered from the double grief caused by the faith- 
lessness of his mistress and his friend, and sank into a despondent 
state of mind, in which he died. Morto fled from Venice, entered 
the army, and was killed at the battle of Zara, 1519. Giorgione was 
much employed in decorative painting, and worked with Titian on 
the Fondacho dei Tedeschi, at Venice. He had great influence upon 
Titian. If any of the frescoes of Giorgione remain in Venice, they 
are but parts of pictures. The dampness of the climate, fires, and 
the effect of time have effaced them. His pictures are rare, and it 
is difficult to give a list of them, for there have been so many differ- 
ences of opinion among the best judges, concerning the genuineness 
of those assigned to him, that few remain upon which no doubt h:is 
been thrown. He painted but few historical subjects. Among the 
works acknowledged as his, the first place should be given to an 
altar-piece in the eh. at Castelfranco. It represents the Virgin and 
Child between SS. Francis and Liberate. A study in oil for the 
figure of S. Liberate is in the National Gall. This altar-piece was 
executed before 1504. In the Belvedere Gall, at Vienna, there is a 
picture called the " Chaldean Sages," in which a company of as- 
tronomers study the heavens. In the Manfrmi 1'al.. Venice, is Hu- 
so-called " Family of Giorgione." He the subject what it may. it is 
an exquisite picture in which the painter succeeded in throwing great 
interest into a simple and natural arrangement of common objects. 



At Kingston-Lacy, there is an unfinished picture of the " Judgment 
of Solomon." " The Concert," at the Pitti Pal., is one of his most 
beautiful and famous works. There are many portraits, sibyls, and 
other pictures in various galleries, attributed to Giorgione, but the 


Pitti Gall. 

above are almost, if not quite all, which are universally acknowledged 
to be genuine, although it may be quite true that others are so. 
Among those very generally admired, as the works of this master, 
are the portrait of a lady with a lute, Manfrini Pal.; his own portrait, 
Munich Gall.; the " Daughter of Herodias," the portrait of Gaston de 
Foix, and a " Holy Family," in the Louvre; " Jacob meeting Rachel," 
Dresden; the " Finding of Moses," Brera, Milan; the Sea-storm, 
with the patron saints of Venice in a boat, demons and monsters all 
about, and a city in the distance, Acad. of Venice; etc., etc. 


Engraver, DUPUIS, Nicholas Gabriel. Amusement of Pastoral Life. 

Engraver, KESSEL, Theodore. A Riposo. Magdalen at the feet 
of Christ. 

Engraver, MANNL or MAENNI,, Jacob. A Warrior giving his 
Hand to a Man. 

Enr/raver, PETIIEK, William. A Warrior; half length. 


Oiottino. Yasari calls the name of this painter Tommaso di 
Stefano called Giottino, and says hi- was born in 11524. Tin- only 
work remaining of those assigned to him is the chapel of S. Sil- 
vestro in Santa Croce in Florence, in which is a series of pictures 
illustrating the legend of S. Sylvester. These are well composed, tin- 
drawing is firm, the movement animated, the heads individual, and 
the color warm and clear. There are other pictures at Assisi and 
in Florence, in the same manner as these, but not known to be by 
the same master. 

Giotto di Bordone, born at Ycspi<_niano (1276-133t!). It is a 
custom to call Cimabue the father of modern painting, and it is true 
in the sense that he discovered the genius of Giotto and placed him 
where it could benefit the world. Cimabue's pictures are in the 
Byzantine manner, but Giotto drew his inspiration from nature, and 
seems almost an opposite to Cimabue rather than a follower of his. 
When tending his flock, Giotto was accustomed to draw on the large, 
flat stones, and while thus employed, Cimabue came upon him, was 
filled with admiration of his work, and obtained the consent of his 
father to his taking him to be his pupil. Giotto became a painter, 
sculptor, and architect. His principal works were his fresco paint- 
ings, which were in most of the large cities of Italy. The Bell- 
tower of Santa Maria del Fiore is his most famous architectural 
monument. He did not live to see it finished, but he left a perfect 
model for it, which was largely, though not entirely followed in its 
construction; for before it was completed the Gothic pyramidal spire 
which he had used was no longer admired, and had, in fact, come to 
be regarded with contempt. But the main construction, the stories, 
the windows, the sculptured ornaments are his plan, and "form a 
matchless whole." Giotto was the friend of Dante, and it is most 
reasonable to believe that much of what appears original in the con- 
ception and treatment of his subjects was derived from his intercourse 
with the great poet, and the ideas he received from him. Dante's 
portrait, which he painted on the wall of the palace of the Podesta at 
Florence, and which has been restored to the world, is one of his 
most famous works, and in spite of its destruction and restoration it 
is full of wondrous power. Of his small pictures there are twenty in 
the Florentine Acad., two in Berlin, and four others in private col- 
lections, which originally formed a series of twenty-six, illustrative 
of the lives of Christ and S. Francis in reference to each other; or 
representing circumstances in the two lives which seem to have a cer- 
tain likeness in them. Par exfiti/ilc. opposite to the " Incredulity of 
S. Thomas," in the Life of Christ, he places a picture of S. Francis 
on a bier, while a pious disciple examines the marks of the Stigmata. 
A divided altar-piece is in the Brera of Milan and the Gall, of Bo- 
logna. Some pictures on wood are in the. Sacristy of S. IVter's at 
Rome, and in the vestibule of that basilica is his mosaic, called the 



"Navicella." This has been changed from its original place, and 
has been often injured and restored, until it is probable that no part 
of the original work remains, but the design is that of Giotto. His 
large frescoes were in series. Those in the Carmine at Florence were 
destroyed by fire in 1771, but there are engravings of them. In the 
ch. of Santa Croce, a " Coronation of the Virgin," and the " Last 
Supper," in the refectory, still remain. In Padua, in the chapel of 
the Madonna dell' Arena, he painted the Life of the Virgin in forty- 
two different pictures. In the lower ch. at Assisi, ha represented 
scenes from the Life of S. Francis. In the Incoronata at Naples he 
painted the " Seven Sacraments," which are very well preserved. 
His sculptures and reliefs, both upon the bell-tower, and in the 
facade of the Duomo, were also arranged in cycles. In order to form 



From the painting in S. Maria dell' Arena, Padua. 

a correct judgment of the works of Giotto, one must always keep in 
mind the time in which he lived, and the opportunities he had for 
study. Then it will be felt that he was eminent in his composi- 
tion, design, and color, and that he gave a wonderful impetus to art 
in various directions. Some of his followers devoted themselves to 
form, some to color, some to relief, and thus each branch progressed, 
until in Raphael the different parts were again united in a compar- 
atively perfect manner. The works of Giotto were so numerous that 
it would be impossible in such an account as this to even mention 
all of them, but it should not be forgotten that one of his most 
original conceptions was that of the crucifix. Before him there had 
been two representations. In one Christ was erect and alive on the 
cross, held by the nails. In the other every effort was made to de- 
pict simple physical agony, the effect being that of vulgar realism 
only. Giotto made more perfect anatomical proportions, and gave up 


the dreadful contortions while he still indicated pain; he gave the 
expression of suffering to the head, and to the face tenderness, abne- 
gation, and heavenly resignation. In truth it would be a dill'ienlt 
task to paint a hetter type of crucifix than that of this master. Two 
of his crucifixes are in S. Marco, and in the Gondi Dini chapel, in 
Ognissanti, at Florence; another at S. Felicita u also ascribed to 
him, but with less certainty. At the time of his death, Giotto had 
been architect and master of S. Maria del Fiore two years. He was 
buried there, and afterwards a monument was erected to him upon 
which his portrait was carved by Benedetto da Maiano. There is 
much of interest in the life of Giotto, and it is to be regretted that 
no more is known of it. He lived in stormy times, when Guelf and 
(ihibelline hated and persecuted each other, times in which Dante 
made enemies; but Giotto, though free from mental slavery, inde- 
pendent, and judging for himself, seems to have been so poised 
towards all humanity as to have impressed himself upon his sur- 
roundings, rather than to have stirred up any bitterness. His con- 
temporaries acquiesced in his success and fame, and his successors 
have enlarged it, Giotto was personally so ugly that his friends all 
joked about it, but he was charming in conversation, witty, and 
withal modest. He would not accept even the title of " Magister," 
although in his day such honors were much coveted. There are 
various jokes and witticisms attributed to him, such as the following. 
The king of Naples asked him to paint his kingdom, and he drew a 
saddled ass smelling at another pack-saddle at his feet. When the 
kin.: asked him to explain, he said, " Simply that the ass, your 
kingdom, not satisfied with one royal saddle, is always sunning 
around for another.*' There has been a story oft repeated, that in 
order to paint his crucifixes so well, he persuaded a man to be 
bound to a cross for an hour for him to study, and that when he had 
him there he stabbed him, and thus succeeded in making his fine 
representation of the subject. His picture pleased the Pope so well, 
that he would have it for his own chapel, but when Giotto told him 
all the truth, and showed him the dead man, the Pope threatened 
him with death. Then Giotto brushed the picture over so that it 
seemed to be erased, which the Pope so regretted that he promised 
forgiveness if it were done airain. Giotto exacted the promise in 
writing, and then removed the wash with a wet sponge, and the 
crucifix was as perfect as before, and, according to tradition, is that 
from which all famous crucifixes were afterwards drawn. Giotto 
had a wife and eight children, of whom nothing is known but that 
Francesco became a painter. 

Girardon, Francois, born at Troyes (1630-1715). A reputable 
sculptor who was assisted in his studies by Chancellor Segnier. 
Louis XIV. gave him a pension while he studied in Rome, and many 
commissions after his return. He was finally advanced in office 


until he became director and chancellor in the Acad. A portion of 
his works were destroyed by the revolutionists, but many still exist 
in France. 

Girodet, Anne Louis (1767-1824). He adopted 'the name of 
Trioson in 1812. The favorite pupil of David. The only excellence 
he possessed was that of drawing the figure correctly. For this rea- 
son, his drawings are better than his paintings. His principal works 
are in the Louvre. 

Girtin, Thomas (1775-1802). Pupil of Dayes. A good water- 
colorist. His manner of treatment is simple and pleasing. He made 
sketches of twenty views in Paris, and etched the outlines of the 
plates, which were finished by other artists. 

Glass, James W., born at Cadiz. His mother was an American, 
and he commenced his studies as an artist in the studio of Hunting- 
ton, in New York. He chose to paint horses and such subjects as 
required them. He was very successful and gained a good reputa- 
tion in London, where he lived for some time. It has been said that 
his picture of the Duke of Wellington was the best portrait ever 
made of him. It was sold to Lord Ellesmere. His pictures are all 
well esteemed, but they are not numerous, for he did not live to fulfil 
the promise of excellence he had given. He died in .New York in 
1856. " The Battle of Naseby," "Safe," "Royal Standard," 
" Puritan and Cavalier," and " Edge Hill," are some of the subjects 
he painted. 

Glauber, Jan, born at Utrecht (1646-1726). Pupil of Bcrghem. 
He studied in Italy, and became an imitator of Poussin. He settled 
in Amsterdam, and was the friend of Gerard Lairesse, who often 
painted figures in the landscapes of Glauber. His compositions are 
poetical, and his drawing excellent. His color is al^o admirable. 
His pictures are seen in the Louvre, Dresden, Berlin, and Munich 
galleries. He also executed a number of etchings from his own de- 
signs and those of other artists. 

Glaucus, an artist of Chios, who worked in bronze, and is dis- 
tinguished as the inventor of the art of soldering metals. Eusebius 
says he lived about 69 u. c. 

Glockenton, Albert, born at Nuremberg 
about 1432. The plates of this engraver are 
stiff and neat, and executed with the graver 
alone. The following are his : 

Twelve plates of the Passion of Christ; after Martin Schnen; fine 
and scarce. 

Ten plates of the Wise and Foolish Virgins; after the same. 

Christ bearing his Cross ; after the same ; scarce. 

Death of the Virgin ; after (he same. 

The Virgin and Child seated on an Altar. 

Glover, John (1767-1849). An English landscape painter. His 


pictures ;ire highly finished, and become tedious if large, but bis 
small works an- pleasing, especially those cool in color. His rocky 
seenerv is pretty, and his views well selected. 

Olycon. The Athenian who executed the " Farnese Hercules " 
in the Mus. at Naples. It represents Hercules resting on his club 
after one of bis lal>ors. The right hand is modern. It is believed to 
l>e a copy of the " Heracles" of Lysippus, of which there are several 
imitations, but none so fine as this. It was found in the Baths of 

Oobbo, Pietro Paolo Boiizi, called II (1580-1640). The hunch- 
back of Cortona, and known as II Gobbo da' Frutti on account of his 
pictures of fruit, in which he excelled. His works are in the finest 
collections. He ornamented several Roman palaces in fresco. 

Goebouw or Gobau, Anthony, born at Antwerp (1G25-1G77). 
His best pictures are merry-makings, and subjects like those of Te- 
niers. He also painted landscapes, sea-ports, and battle-fields after 
the conflict; the latter with such truth as to reach the horrible. His 
pictures are much admired in his own country. 

Goes, Hugo Van der, born at Bruges (1405 7-1480 ?) It is said 
that he was a scholar of Jan Van Eyck, and a distinguished painter. 
Many of his .works perished by the hands of the Dutch and Flemish 
Iconoclasts. About fifty pictures are now attributed to him, bat 
there is little certainty about many of them. A large altar-piece in 
the choir of S. Maria Nuova, at Florence, is undoubtedly his work. 
and a portrait of his is in the Pitti Pal. The Munich Gall, has a 
"S.John in the Wilderness," signed II. V. D. Goes, 1472. It is 
delicately finished. There are no others that can be positively given 
to him. He retired, late in life, to the convent of Rooden, near 
Brussels, where he died. 
T /IV Goltzius, Heinrich (1558-1617). A distinguished en- 

iTI graver. He left a great many plates more than 500. 
AM/ Those which imitated Albert Diirer and Lucas Van 
Leyden are the most successful. His own portrait is a master- 
piece of engraving. He visited Italy and became enamored of tin- 
works of Michael Angelo, and in his attempts to imitate him, he 
made some very distorted pictures. Late in life he commenced to 
paint, but his works were few and much inferior to his plates. His 
" Circumcision,'' in the manner of Diirer, and his " Adoration of the 
Kiit'_ r s." in that of Lucas Van Leyden, are very celebrated engravings, 
and indeed, all his plates are much esteemed by intelligent collectors. 
Some of his paintings are in the Imperial Gall, at Vienna. 

Gomez, Sebastian, was the mulatto slave of Murillo, and prac- 
tised painting secretly, until at length he so perfected himself, that 
he ventured one day, to paint the head of a Virgin which his master 
had sketched and left on his easel. Murillo promoted Gomez, and 
was happy in the thought that he had made him a painter. His 


pictures were full of faults, but his color was much like that of his 
master. In the Mus. of Seville, there are two pictures by Gomez, 
representing SS. Anne and Joseph, and the Virgin appearing to S. 
Dominic. lie died soon after his master, in 1682. 

Gondolach, Matthaus. This painter settled in Augsburg, and 
died in 1G53. IIu married the widow of Joseph Heinz, and suc- 
ceeded that artist in the favor of Rudolph II. He painted small pic- 
tures on copper in the manner of Heinz, some of which are in the 
Gall, of Vienna. 

Good, T. S. Painted very pretty small interiors with figures, and 
other similar subjects. 

Gool, John Van, born at the Hague (1 685-1 7G3). He painted 
landscapes and animals indifferently well, and was a writer on art. 

Gortzius, Gualdorp, called Geldorp, born at Louvain (1553- 
1618?) Pupil of Frans Franck, the Elder, and Frans Pourbus, the 
Elder. He settled in Cologne, and a few of his works are preserved 
there. His portraits are better than his historical pictures. 

Gossaert. See Malmse. 

Goudt, Henry, Count de, born at Utrecht, 1585. This amateur 
engraver was a Count of the Palatinate, and the benefactor of Adam 
Elsheimer. He bought some of the works of the latter, and engraved 
them in a manner quite his own. They are powerful in effect, cor- 
rect in drawing, and some of them are very beautiful. Some of his 
prints are scarce. 

Goujon, Jean. French sculptor. He was much employed in the 
time of Francis I. He was also an architect and medal engraver. 
He made a medal for Catherine de' Medici which is curious and rare. 
He perished in the massacre of S. Bartholomew, being shot while on 
a scaffold carving a ri/ievo at the Louvre. Many of his works are 
preserved in different parts of France. In the Musee des Monuments 
Francais, there are some bas-reliefs, which are good specimens of his 

Goya y Lucientes, Francisco, born at Fuente de Todos, 1746; 
died at Bordeaux, 1828. Studied some years in Rome and returned 
to Madrid, where he attracted the attention of Mengs. He became 
a favorite in fashionable society, and lived in good style at a fine villa 
near Madrid. Charles IV. appointed him painter in ordinary, in 
1789. He painted pictures of religious subjects, and portraits; and 
found continual employment among the nobility. But his chief ex- 
cellence was that of a satirist with the pencil. He may be called the 
Hogarth of Spain. He parodied the religious pictures, and painted 
priests in the form of asses or apes, and was never weary of making 
the Jeronymite and Franciscan friars ridiculous. He painted with 
dashing boldness, and as often used a sponge or stick as the brush. 
He sometimes executed an entire piece with his palette-knife, and 
put in the delicate touches of sentiment with his thumb. He was 


skilful in the use of the graver, and published eighty prints which 
he called Caprichos. These attained great celebrity. They were 
Kitirieal representations of the Spanish customs of law, physic, the 
pulpit, the cloister, etc. lie w,as also the author of a series of 
sketches of the French Invasion, in which he represented in the most 
exaggerated manner the hanging of citizens, the shooting of prisoners, 
and sacking of convents. Besides these, he published thirty-three 
prints of scenes in the Bull-Ring; and etchings of some of the works 
of Velasquez. In the Gall, of the Queen of Spain are the portraits 
of Charles IV. and his Queen, by Goya. The National Mus. has a 
picture of two dark-eyed Spanish ladies, with fans and mantillas ; 
and the Louvre a full length portrait of the Duchess of Alba. 

Goyen, Jan Van, born at Leyden (1596-1656). The works of 
this landscape painter are not of great merit, but he is worthy of 
notice as having introduced a new manner of treating nature among 
the artists of his country, which was afterwards very generally 
adopted. His characteristics were truthfulness and a light and easy 

Gozzoli, Benozzo. Real name Benozzo di Lese di Sandro. A 
pupil and assistant of Fra Angelico (1424-1 49G ?). Remarkable for 
the great amount of work he did, and the number of his pictures re- 
maining, rather than for wonderful talents. He had an influence 
upon Umbrian art which adds to his importance. His industry was 
marvellous, and he excelled in a sort of aptitude which enabled him to 
sci/e and applv different Liens and elements collected from the works 
of various masters. He also possessed a somewhat extravagant fancy. 
He painted for churches in various cities of Italy, an 1 many of his 
works remain, but the most important are those in the Campo Santo 
at Pisa. These were twenty-four in number, and are in good preser- 
vation, with tjie exception of two or three. He was occupied sixteen 
vears in this work. The Pisans presented him with a tomb directly 
under these pictures, where his own works were an appropriate mon- 
ument. He seems to have had an overpowering sense of beauty. lie 
was the first to represent backgrounds rich with cities, rivers, trees, 
bold rocks, and cultivated fields. He introduced all kinds of animals 
wherever he had room. If his scene is interior or architectural, it is 
of the richest kind, and his color added to the richness, as did also the 
gilding and embroidery which often- exceeded good taste. His 
smaller works are rare. In the. Louvre is a picture of S. Thomas 
Aquinas; it is the most valuable of his panel paintings. The Acad. 
of Pisa has two of his works, and the National Gall, two, an en- 
throned "Virgin and Child," and the ' Rape of Helen." It was a 
custom with this artist to introduce the portraits of his friends into 
his pictures, and some of them are excellent. 

Graff, Anton (1736-1803). He resided at Augsburg and Dresden, 
and was one of the best portrait painters of his time. He had an ap- 


3 IX 

pointment at court in Dresden, and also worked in Berlin and Leip- 
sic. He painted many notable persons. Some of his pictures are 
in the Dresden Gall. 

Graat or Grait, Barent or Bernard, born at Amsterdam (1628- 
1709). He painted landscapes and garden scenes with family groups. 
His pictures arc pleasing and well-finished. He also painted a few 
historical pieces. 

Grammatica, Antiveduto (1570-1626). A distinguished por- 
trait painter. He was honored by being elected president of the 
Acad. of S. Luke, but was afterwards accused of substituting a copy 
he had made after Raphael for the original work, which he attempted 
to sell. He was removed from his chair by sanction of the Pope, and 
did not long survive the disgrace. His copy is now in the ch. of S. 
Luca, and the original is in the Acad. 


Granacci, Francesco, born at Florence (1469-1543). A fellow- 
pupil with Michael Angelo in the atelier of the Ghirlandai. His 
fondness for Michael Angelo was great and endured for many years. 
In 1489 Lorenzo de' Medici desired to have some pupils trained for 
sculptors, and consulted Domenico Ghirlandaio upon the subject. 
Granacci and Michael Angelo were selected by the latter us his host 
pupils, and placed under instruction. Granacci soon proved himself 
better fitted for a draughtsman, and was constantly employed by 
Lorenzo in the festivities with which he was accustomed to amuse 
the Florentines. He was a good-tempered, congenial man, and 
always ready to acknowledge and admire superiority in others. He 
was associated with the best masters of his age. For many years his 
style showed his devotion to Michael Angelo, and an attempt to imi- 
tate him; later he studied and imitated Raphael, and sometimes seems 
also to have Fra Bartolommeo for his model. In 1508, when Michael 
Angelo sent to Florence for artists to assist him in the Sixtine chapel, 
Granacci was prominent among those who went to Rome. But the 
experiment failed, and when the great master was convinced that he 
could not employ assistants, he locked the doors of the chapel and 
his house against them, and they returned to Florence. This was 
severe treatment for an old friend like Granacci, and from that time 
he ceased to show in his works his allegiance to Michael Angelo. 
His remaining pictures are seen in the various Florentine collections, 
at Berlin, Munich, and in a few English galleries. 

Grandi, Ercole, called Ercole da Fcrrara, born at Ferrara (1491- 
1531). Pupil of Lorenzo Costa, and an unimportant painter. 

Grandi, Ercole Robert!. According to Crowe and Cavalcaselle, 
this Grandi was a pupil of Mantegna. and the painter of the Gar- 
ganelli frescoes at Bologna, which Vasari says were much praised by 
Michael Angelo. There are works attributed to him in the Dresden 
Gall., the Liverpool Institution, and the Gall, of Modena. 

Granet, Francois Maurice, born at Aix (1775-1849). A fine 
architectural painter. He lived much at Rome. He was a member 
of the Institute. This is the highest honor for men of cultuie in 
France, and but fourteen painters are admitted in the division ci the 
Beaux Arts. His interiors are remarkable for their effects of ;i-_'ht 
and shade. He left his large fortune to found an Art Mus. in his 
native town; One of his pictures is in .the Royal Coll. of England, 
and cost 800 sterling. The " Interior of the ch. of S. Francis, at 
Assisi," is a fine specimen of his style, and is in the Louvre. 

Graziani, Ercole, born at Bologna (1688-1 7G5). A reputable 
artist, whose assiduity was such that the number of his works was 
simply prodigious. Many of them remain in the churches and public 
edifices of Bologna and Piacenza. 

Grebber, Pieter de, born at ILierlem (l.'j!)0-1656?). Pupil of 
Henry Goltzius. He was older than Rembrandt, but he adopted his 


style. His works are in the collections of Holland, especially at 
Hacrlem. He left several engravings. An etching of " Christ and 
the Woman of Samaria " is very spirited. 

Greff, Jerome. An engraver of Frankfort who flour- 
ished about 1520. He copied the wood-cuts of Albert 
Diirer, and his set after those of that artist of the 
" Apocalypse of S. John," are very finely executed, 
and the same size of the originals. lie was also called Jerome von 

Green, Valentine, born in Warwickshire (1739-1813). An 
eminent mezzotint engraver. In his line he has rarely been equalled. 
The number of his works is large, nearly 400. They embrace sub- 
jects of almost every kind. 

Greenough, Horatio, born in Boston, U. S. A. (1805-1852). 
His taste for the life of a sculptor was apparent while he was still 
a mere child. He had a fine intellect, and entered Harvard Univer- 
sity at sixteen. During his college life he was constantly in familiar 
intercourse with Washington Allston. He went to Italy just before 
the end of his collegiate course. Before this he had made the plan 
for the exterior of Bunker Hill Monument which was accepted. He 
rose rapidly to his place among sculptors. He was the first Ameri- 
can who executed a group in marble. This was done for our nov- 
elist. Cooper, and was exhibited in America. It was called the 
" Chanting Cherubs," and was, no doubt, the means of his receiv- 
ing the commission for the statue of Washington for the Capitol ; 
his group called " The Rescue " is also at the Capitol, and is intended 
to illustrate the struggle between the Anglo-Saxon races and the 
Aborigines. His ideal subjects were very beautiful, and speak more 
fully of the quality of the mind which conceived them than words 
could possibly do. His " Medora," illustrating Byron's description 
of the Corsair's bride, is one of his most charming works. He had 
a favorite greyhound, and a representation of it was for years in 
the library of Edward Everett, who was his faithful friend and 
admirer. He lived many years at Florence. In 1851 he returned 
.to America. Enthusiastic for art, a consistent republican politically, 
a cultured scholar and writer, a large-hearted man and friend, he 
anticipated a happy life here. But his health soon failed. It was 
then that he wrote, " I am arrived at that mezzo del carnmin, that 
half-way house, where a man sees, or thinks he sees, both ways. If 
my head is not white, it is whitening. I begin to love to sit alone - 
to look upon the skies, the water, and the soft green the face of 
the mighty mother ! I feel that she thus sweetly smiles on me, more 
sweetly than formerly, because she means to call me home to her 
own bosom. I would not pass away and not leave a si<jn that I, for 
one, born by the grace of God in this land, found life a cheerful 
thing, and not that sad and dreadful task with whose prospect they 


scared my youth." His last summer was spent at Newport, in de- 
lightful social intercourse with his family and 1'ricnds, and then- he 
dfed, December 18, 1852. 

Greuze, Jean-Baptiste, born at Tournus, near Mat-on (17-j.~>- 
1805). Pupil of Gromdon. A portrait and genre painter. He 
especially excelled in painting beautiful women and lovely children. 
His works now command enormous prices. A " Young Mother and 
her Children " at Buckingham Pal. is a fine work of his, and the 
Louvre has several of his most noted pictures. In sonic respects he 
\\a- a very able artist, but he was also mannered; and his most 
beautiful female heads are affected and sometimes extravagant. His 
most pleasing subjects are his single heads of young girls and chil- 
dren. His color is very agreeable, and while he never painted thinly, 
but with considerable impasto, his works arc Mnnetimes as delicate! v 
finished as if done on ivory. He painted some male portraits which 
possess considerable merit. 

Grien or Griin. See Baldung. 

Griffier, Jean, born at Amsterdam (1656-1720?). Pupil of 
Roland Rogman, and it is believed also of Philip Wouvermans. He 
was. however, an imitator of Hermann Saftleven. His works are 
attractive, picturesque in design, tender in execution, and delicate in 
finish. They may be seen in the Amsterdam Mus., the Dresden 
Gall., and Berlin Mus. His son, Robert Griflicr, was born in Lon- 
don, where his father resided for some years (1688-1750). His 
pictures are chiefly Rhine views, and are much esteemed in Holland. 

Grimaldi, Gio. Francesco, called II Bolognese, born at Bologna 
(1COG-1680). A disciple, of the Carracci. His landscapes are grand 
and imposing, and sometimes very finely colored; but they are not 
equal in excellence, nor uniform in style, fin- some of his works are 
more like Poussin than like the, Carracci; and his figures are some- 
times classical, and again in the homely style of the Dutch painters. 
He was of a generous disposition, and the following story is told of 
him. A Sicilian nobleman, who had been exiled from his country, 
lived with his daughter, in great poverty, directly opposite to Gri- 
maldi in Rome. He pitied them and desired to assist them without 
mortifying their pride. He went therefore after dark and knocked 
at their door, and when it was opened threw in a well filled purs", 
and ran away. This he repeated until the nobleman caught him in 
the act, and overwhelmed him witli thanks. Grimaldi then took 
the exiles to his own house and cared for them many years. A 
series of Grimaldi's works is in the Borghese (Jail., at Rome, and a 
good picture by him is in the Berlin Mus. Grimaldi was an en- 
graver, and left some good etchings, and also many pen drawings, 
some of which Bartolozzi has engraved. 

Grimou, Grimoux, orGrimoud, Alexis, born in the Swiss canton 
of Friburg (1680-1740). He is said to have instructed himself by 


making copies after Vandyck and Rembrandt. His own portrait and 
several other pictures of his are in the Louvre. He excelled in por- 
traits, and his best pictures are half-lengths of ladies in picturesque 
costumes. He received much honor in Paris and became very proud 
of himself. His habits of life were dissolute, and it is said that as he 
was returning one night from a drunken frolic, he heard a sudden 
roaring noise and screamed out, " Je suis Grimoux," as if his great 
name could avert all danger. 

Gros, Pierre le, born at Paris (1656-1719). This eminent sculp- 
tor was first instructed by his father, and gained the grand prize at 
tlis Acad. when but twenty years old. He then went to Rome where 
he soon became so distinguished as to receive important commissions 
for S. Peter's and other churches. With the exception of two years 
spent in Paris, Le Gros resided at Rome for life. His statue of " Si- 
lence," executed for the gardens of the Tuileries, was much admired; 
he also executed works for the Hotel Crozat. He was constantly 
employed at Rome until his death. 

Gros, Antoine Jean, born at Paris (1771-1835). A painter of 
historical subjects. He had great power, but was coarse in exe- 
cution and design. His picture of " Napoleon visiting the Sick at 
Jaffa," is disgusting. Some of his works were more delicate, and some 
of his portrait figures were fine. He was also a successful decorator, 
and was made a baron by Charles X., as a reward for his painting 
of the cupola of S. Genevieve. He was so overcome by the criticisms 
of his works exhibited in 1835 that he drowned himself in the Seine. 

Griinewald, Matthew. Nothing is known of this artist, except 
that he lived at Aschaffenburg, and was much employed by Arch- 
bishop Albrecht of Mayence. He died about 1530. As a painter he 
ranks next to Diirer and Holbein among the Germans of his time. 
The only work positively known to be his is an altar-piece, having 
six panels, now in the Munich Gall. The figures are colossal, 
masterly in drawing, dignified, and individual. His color is harmo- 
nious and pleasing. There are various other works existing of which 
parts were executed by this master. One is an altar-piece in the 
ch. of Our Lady, at Halle; another is a Rosary picture in the Cath. 
of Bamberg; and in the Coll. of the Prince Consort at Kensington 
there is an altar-piece with the Virgin and Child in Glory, adored 
bv SS. Catherine and Barbara. 

Gryeff or Griff, Anthony. Flourished about the middle of the 1 7th 
century. Painter of landscapes with dead game, dogs, etc. Many of 
his pictures are small, and his works are unequal in excellence, some 
being very good and others quite inferior. 

Guardi, Francesco, born at Venice (1712-1 793). Pupil of Ca- 
naletto. He painted the same class of subjects as his master, and the 
works of the two are sometimes confounded; but those of Guardi 
are more sketchy than Caualetto's. They are spirited and life-like, 


have countless figures, gondolas, etc., all of which show a certain 
raggedness of execution, while his sharp touches of light and bright 
colors give spirit and sparkling effect. Many of his skies are too 
sombre to be agreeable. 

Guercino. So called from having a squint; real name Gio. Fran- 
cesco Barbieri. Born at Cento, near Bologna (1 590-1 666). He 
may be said to have been largely self-taught. He was faithful to 
nature, and his works are life-like and brilliant in color, but some- 
times very heavy in the shadow sot' the llesh. His earlier works have 
a power which he afterwards lost, and -his later style is ctleminate 
and shallow. In the Villa Ludovisi at Rome, then- is an ' Aurora " 
by him; in the Spada Pal., a picture of the " Last Moments of 
Dido;" and in the Capitol the famous " S. Petronilla." in which the 
Saint is being raised from her tomb to be shown to Flaccus, her be- 
trothed. In Bologna Gall., a "S.William of Aijiiitaine," and the 
" Virgin appearing to S. Bruno," are remarkable; his works are 
seen in almost all large European galleries. A small " Dead Christ," 
in the National Gall., is a specimen of his better style. His works 
are very numerous, are much esteemed, and command good prices. 
He also left an immense number of drawings, many of which were. 
engraved by Bartolozzi. He painted 250 large pictures besides his 
frescoes and numerous smaller works, many of which are in private 


Engraver, BLOEMAKRT, Cornelius. S. Peter raising Tabitha from 
the Dead; best plate of this master. 

Engraver, CAKMOXA, Emanuel Salvador. Angels appearing to 

Engracer, CUXKGO, Domenico. The Prodigal Sen. Rinaldo and 

l-'.iKjraver, DORIGXY, Sir Nicholas. S. Petronilla. 

Engraver, DI-NKAI: K.\. Robert. Christ at Emmaus. Four snli- 
j -ets from the Life of Joseph. 

Kngrarer, EAIU.OM. Richard. Holy Family. Virgin and Chill. 

Kiujrnrrr, F.M.CK. Jeremiah. Concert of Sfusic. 

Engraver, THEY, James. Death of S. Petronilla. 

From his own Dcsif/na. 

S. Anthony of Padua; half length. Juan Fr. Cent. 

S. John; same mark. 

S. IVter; Jonn /'. llnrltipri, f. 

S. Jerome with a Crucifix; same mark. 

Bust of a Man with ;; Cap and Beard. 

Bust of a Woman. 

Bust of a Man in Oriental Dress. 


In the Capitol, Home. 


Engrave>; LOHEXZIXI, Fra Antonio. David with the Head of 
Goliath. Christ at Emmaus. 8. Peter delivered from Prison. 

Engraver, OTTAVIAXI, Gio. S. Jerome with a Crucifix. S. Ce- 
cilia. Angelica and Medora. Mars and Venus. Three Women 
bathing, surprised by a Young Man. Diana and Aetseon. 

Engraver, PASQUILINI or PASCALINI, Gio. Battista. Christ dictat- 
ing the Gospel to S. John. Resurrection of Lazarus. Christ giving 
the Keys to S. Peter. Christ taken 'in the Garden. Angels showing 
the Instruments of the Passion to the Magdalene. Christ at Em- 
maus. Incredulity of S. Thomas. The Virgin and Child, with an 
Angel presenting Fruit. Virgin and Child, with S. John present- 
ing an Apple. S. Charles Borromeus. S. Felix restoring a Dead 
Child to Life. Tancred and Erminia. Tithonus and Aurora. 

Engraver, PESXK, Jean. A set of Landscapes; fine. 

Engraver, PITAU, Nicholas. The Virgin holding the Child, and 
Reading. The Dead Christ, with Angels weeping. 

Engraver, POOL, Matthew. Cupid taken in a Net by Time. 

Engraver, Pozzr, Francesco. The Aurora; F.Pozzi. 1780. 

Engraver, RAVENKT, Simon Francis. Return of the Prodigal. 

Engraver, Rossi, Girolamo. Two Cupids playing. Another 

Guerin, Pierre Narcisse, born at Paris (1774-1833). A painter 
whose style is a literal representation of Greek sculpture in color. 
His works are devoid of life or motion. " .ZEneas telling Dido of the 
fate of Troy," in the Louvre, is a fine specimen of his pictures. He 
was distinguished r by Napoleon I. and Louis XVIIL, and made a 
Laron by Charles X. 

Guido. See Reni. 

Guillain, Simon (1581-1658). This sculptor executed the 
statue of Louis XIV. as a boy of ten, now in the Louvre, and those 
of his parents, also there. Originally they decorated the Pont au 
Change. Other works by Guillain are in the same Mus. 

Gyssens or Ghysells, Peter. There is some uncertainty as to the 
name and personality of this painter. Some of his works are mis- 
taken for those of Jan Breughel. It is not improbable that two 
painters of this name existed, and the younger was a pupil of Breu- 
ghel. His subjects are dead game, dogs, etc., and often represented 
on terraces. They are highly finished and bear the closest examina- 
tion. There are fairs and views on the Rhine attributed to the elder 
Ghysells, which have numerous figures, and are better painted than 
the pictures of Breughel. 


Haansbergen, Jan Van, born at Utrecht (1642-1705). A 
painter whose works are rarely seen out of Holland. He painted 


portraits principally; his other works were small cabinet pictures in 
the style of Poelemburg. 

Haarlem, Cornelia Van. See Cornelisser. 

Haarlem, Deerick Van. See Stuerbout. 

Hackaert, Jan, born at Amsterdam about 1636. The landscapes 
of this artist are very highly esteemed. He excelled in his effect of 
sunshine, and the representation of it shining through trees was his 
forte. He failed in figures, and other artists supplied them for him. 
His mountain views are attractive, but his Dutch views are the best. 
His works are in the Berlin, Dresden, Munich, and Amsterdam gal- 
leries, and a few good specimens are in England. He also left six 
etchings, which are much inferior to his paintings in execution and 

Hackert, Jacob Philip, born at Prcnzlow (1 737-1807). This ar- 
tist resided many years at the court of Naples under most fortunate 
circumstances. He painted many beautiful views of Italian scenery. 
which are well considered. He used both oil and water colors. His 
finish is extreme and careful, almost as if his pictures were on ivory. 
His outlines are very sharp and precise, and his colors brilliant. His 
foregrounds have many small objects finished with great labor. 
These detract from the force of his work. He left a great number 
of drawings in bistre ami sepia. 

Hagen, Jan Van der, born at the Hague ( 1 635-1 G 79). The 
landscapes by this artist have suffered from deterioration of color, 
caused by his use of " Haarlem blue," which was in vogue in his 
day. They are well composed. He frequently represented a river 
in which the houses and trees on the bank were reflected, and men 
and animals gave animation to the scene. In the new Town Hall of 
Amsterdam, there is one of his best works, and another is in the 
Mus. of the same city. Nos. 188 and 189 in the Louvre are also 

Ilainzelmann, Elias, born at Augsburg (1640-1693). An en- 
graver who studied with Francis Poilly and followed his manner. 
His portraits are his best plates, and have much merit. 

Haldenwang, Christian, born at Durlach (1779-1831). An emi- 
nent landscape engraver. 

Haller, John, born at Innsbruck (1792-1826). After limited 
study he entered the Royal Acad. at Munich, where he sunn 
attracted the attention of the Crown Prince Louis to his skill in 
modelling. In 1817 he received the commission for the colo>sal 
statues in the niches on the front of the Glyptothek. He executed 
also a " Child on a Dolphin " in sandstone, and the caryatides for 
the Royal box in the Royal Court and National Theatre. He then 
received the commission for the statuary for the gable end of the 
Glyptothek. This was to be done in Rome. He went there and 
first finished two of tin- (inures for the front, made several busts and 


a small model for the gable end, but his health compelled him to re- 
turn home. The theatre had been burned, and he again made the 
caryatides, several busts of notable men, and three of the figures for 
the gable, when his health entirely failed, and he died in his thirty- 
fifth year. He was a sculptor of great promise, and the works which 
he executed do him much honor. 

Hals, Frans, born at Mechlin (1584-1C66). Very little is known 
of the life of this artist, except that it was a merry one, and that he 
was fond of drinking and good living. It is said that Carl van 
Mander, the Elder, was his master. His pictures are very unequal. 
He is really of great importance in the Dutch school, for he was the 
first to introduce the free, bold treatment which later artists more 
fully developed. His facility of execution was wonderful. He was 
much accustomed to paint laughing or grinning faces. These are 
pleasing in his fancy subjects, but quite the contrary in portraits. 
His mode of life often exhausted his means, and he painted hurriedly 
to replenish his purse. He painted large pictures of archers and civic 
guards. The best of these may be seen at Haerlem, in the Hotel de 
Yille; and are spirited, energetic, warm in color, and happy in in- 
dividualism. In an apartment of the " Oude Man Huys," a be- 
nevolent institution, there are two other fine works of this class. 
The Munich Gall, has an excellent specimen of his family groups. 
His single portraits are rare (life-size), and his small, genre like 
works still more so. The Berlin Mus. has two small portraits. For 
anecdote of Hals, see Vandyck. 

Hamilton, Philip Ferdinand Von, born at Brussels (1664-1750). 
A descendant of James Hamilton, who, in Cromwell's time, went 
from Scotland to Germany. Philip Ferdinand was the best painter 
of the many artists of this name. His subjects were those of the 
chase. His pictures may be best observed in the Vienna Gall. 
There is one also in the Gall, of Munich. Johann Georg Von 
Hamilton, born at Brussels (1666-1740). Brother of the preceding. 
A painter of animals of no great excellence His pictures are also at 
Munich and Vienna. 

Hamilton, Gavin, died 1797. Of Scotch descent, he resided 
many years in Italy, and is more noticeable for his collections of an- 
tiquities and his interest in the progress of art, than as a painter. 
He was a finished scholar. His subjects were classical, and by good 
attention to costume and proprieties of detail, he attained a respecta- 
ble place among the artists of his day. He published a very interest- 
ing work, with the purpose of showing the advancement of art, from 
the days of Da Vinci to those of the Carracci, with the title of the 
" Schola Italica Picturae." 

Hamilton, William, born in London, of Scotch parentage (1751- 
1801). He resided some years in Rome. After his return to Eng- 
land, he was engaged largely in the illustration of books. His 
Colored drawings wore verv fine. 


Hanneman, Adrian, born at the Hague (101 1-1C80). He went 
to Kii'_ r lan<l during tin- rei^n of Charles I., and became an imitator 
of Vandyek. There is a portrait of Charles in the Vienna (Jail., 
painted by Ilanneman. 

Harding, Chester (1 792-1 8G6). Born in New England; his family 
removed to Pennsylvania while he was still a boy. lie commenced 
his artistic career as a sign painter, but rose to the profession of por- 
trait painting with wonderful rapidity. He went to England, where, 
he received ranch kindness from Leslie and Lawrence, and painted 
the portraits of several men of note. His portrait of Daniel Web- 
ster is much esteemed, as well as other works of his. His life was 
full of adventure, and he wrote a sketch of it for his children under 
the title of "My Egotistography." It has been printed but not 

Harlow, George Henry, born in London (1787-1819). A good 
portrait painter. Pupil of Lawrence. He painted some historical 
subjects of which the most celebrated is the " Trial of Queen Cath- 
erine," the principal figures being portraits of the Kemble family. 
When in Rome he made a copy of Raphael's " Transfiguration," in 
eighteen days. Through the influence of Canova he was made a 
member of the Acad. of S. Luke. 

Hartmaim, Johann Jacob, born in Bohemia. Flourished about 
1716. In the Vienna Gall, are four landscapes by him, which repre- 
sent the Four Seasons. 

Haydon, Benjamin Robert, born at Plymouth, England (1786- 
1846). This painter had an ambition to be considered tho. source of 
progress to the art of his country. He had inordinate vanity, and 
became disaffected with people and things, so that his life had much 
of unhappiness. On the other hand he found some appreciative and 
faithful friends, and from them received great kindness and assist- 
ance, His principal works were " Dentatus," the "Judgment of 
Solomon," " Christ's Entry into Jerusalem," the ' Raising of Laz- 
arus," "Nero watching the Burning of Rome," the "Banishment 
of Aristidcs," etc. Towards the close of his life he was overcome 
with pecuniary difficulties, and greatly disappointed in not obtaining 
an order to paint a fresco in the new House of Parliament, and at 
length, losing all hope, he took his own life in his studio, where he 
was painting a large picture of " Alfred the Great and the first Eng- 
lish Jury." 

Haymann, Francis, born at Exeter, England (1708-1776). The 
best works of this artist are his small porfraits in genre style. The 
dresi of his period and the antique furniture harmonized and ren- 
dered his interiors very picturesque. His coloring was clear, not 
bright, and his finish careful and correct in every part. His per- 
spective was good and the a<'<-<-s-<>ries well managed. 

Head, Guy. An English painter whose chief works were copies 


of Italian and German masters. His copies from Rubens are in the 
Royal Acad. He died in 1801. 

Heaphy, Thomas, died 1835. This artist was so versatile in 
his talents that he scarcely did his best at anything. He first painted 
fish-markets and scenes from vulgar life, then portraits, and made 
many excellent copies of celebrated works of art. He was one of 
the first members of the old Water-color Society, and active in the 
Society of British Artists, but gave up his connection with both. 

Hearne, Thomas (1744-1817). Educated as an engraver under 
Woollett, he became an excellent draughtsman, and may be called 
the originator of English water-color landscapes. He was also much 
employed in the illustration of " The Antiquities of Great Britain." 
His works are not numerous, and are in private collections. 

Heath, James, born 1765. An eminent English engraver, whose 
works are much esteemed. 

Heck, Nicholas van der, born at the Hague (1580-1638). His 
best works are in the Town House at Alkmaer, in which place he as- 
sisted to found an Acad. His pictures have a fine effect of chiaro- 

Heda, Willem Klaasz, born at, Haarlem (1594-1678?). A 
good painter of still-life. One of his works is in the Landauer 
Bruderhaus at Nuremberg. 

Heem, Jan David de, born at Utrecht (1600-1674). The best 
painter of flowers, fruit, etc., of the school to which he belonged. 
He also excelled in representing glass or crystal. His works are 
very valuable. The two finest are in the Berlin and Vienna gal- 
leries. Others are at the Hague and Amsterdam museums, and in 
the Louvre. The Dresden and Cassel galleries also have fine pic- 
tures by De Heem. 

Heem, Cornells de, born 1630. Son of the preceding, he painted 
the same subjects with almost equal merit. His works are in the 
Munich, Vienna, and Dresden galleries. 

Heere, Lucas de, born at Ghent (1534-1584). His father was a 
sculptor and architect, and his mother painted miniatures. Lucas 
was placed under the instruction of Frans Floris and became profi- 
cient in making designs for tapestry, glass painting, etc. He was 
employed by the Queen of France to make designs for the tapestry 
at Fontainebleau. He visited England, and there is a very curious 
picture of his at Kensington, which represents Queen Elizabeth 
richly dressed, with crown, sceptre, and globe, coming out of a 
palace accompanied by two female attendants. Juno, Venus, and 
Minerva fly before her. Juno drops her sceptre, Venus her ro^t-s, 
while Cupid throws away his bow and arrows and clings to his 
mother. De Heere was a poet as well as artist, and it is probable 
that the following lines, which are upon the frame, were written by 
him : 


Juno potens seeptris, et mentis acumine Pallas, 
Et rosco Vcneris fulj^et in ore decor; 
Adfuit Klisiiliftli: .luno |>fivulsa rofugit; 
Obsttipuit 1'allas, erub i quo Venus. 

His small portraits and miniatures were delicate and well painted. 

Heil, Daniel van, born at Brussels (1604-1662). lie painted 
landseapes, but changed to the representation of conflagrations, 
towns on fire, and kindred subjects, in which the brilliancy of efi'cct 
was surprising. He also painted winter scenes very well. John 
Baptist Ileil was brother to the preceding. Born 1609. He. painted 
history and portraits, and was much employed in the churches of his 
native Brussels. His portraits were good and many of them re- 
main in the Low Countries. Leo van Heil, the younger brother of 
the foregoing, was more of an architect than painter. He etched a 
plate after Rubens for his own amusement. 

Heins, Heinsius, or Ens, Gioseffo, Flourished about 1660 and 
worked in Venice. He painted capricci which were so admired as 
to obtain for him the appointment of chevalier of the Order of the 
Cross from Urban VIII. Some of his works which were brought to 
England are very curious. He executed a few more serious pictures. 
An altar-piece by him in the Ognissanti is very beautiful. 

Heiiitsch, Johann Georg. Lived in Prague, died 1713. His 
heads of women and children are especially beautiful, full of grace, 
and expressive of purity and sweetness. There arc three remarkable 
works of his in Prague, namely: " Christ Disputing in the Temple," 
in the Estates Gall.; a standing figure of the Virgin, painted in I(i96 
for the ch. of the Karlshof ; and " Christ after the Temptation, with 
Angels ministering to Him," in the Strahow Convent. 

Heinz, Joseph (about 1565-1609). Pupil of Van Achen. He 
was a favorite of the Emperor Rodolph II., who sent him to Rome to 
study. He thus modified his manner formed under Van Achen, and 
painted several mythological subjects for the Emperor. Some of his 
smaller works are better than his larger ones. His pictures are seen 
to the best advantage in the Vienna Gall. 

Ilelmbrecker, Theodore, born at Haarlem (1624-1694). Pupil 
of Peter Grebber. He studied in Rome, and only returned to Hol- 
land for a short time, preferring to live in Rome. His best works 
are his easel pictures of markets, fairs, and Roman views with groups 
of poor people, monks distributing food, alms, etc. He was much 
employed by the Jesuits in Rome, and painted some of his best pic- 
tures for them. 

Helmont, Matthew van, born at Brussels (1653-1719). Pupil 
of David Teniers. His subjects were like his master's, fairs, markets, 
and scenes from peasant life. In the An-inlier^ (Jail, there is a large 
Fair scene by him, with numerous figures. Louis XIV. admired him 
vsry much, and some of his best works were executed for that king. 


His son, Segres James van Helmont (1683-1 72C), painted history. 
His works are well considered, and are seen in several churches in 

Heist, Bartholomew Van der, born at Amsterdam (1613-1670). 
One of the most renowned Dutch portrait painters. Sir Joshua 
Reynolds said of his picture painted to celebrate the peace of West- 
phalia, and representing an Archery Festival, " This is perhaps the 
first picture of portraits in the world, comprehending more of those 
qualities which make a perfect portrait than any other I have ever 
seen." His principal works are in the Gall., and the new Hotel de 
Ville, of Amsterdam. No. If) 7, Louvre, is a small replica of one of 
his finest works, and is considered superior to the large picture, which 
is in Amsterdam. 

Hemessen, Jan Van (about 1500-1566). A pupil or imitator of 
Quentin Massys. His pictures have little merit, are vulgar and dis- 
agreeable in expression, hard in outline, and ugly in color. They 
may be seen in the Munich and Vienna galleries. 

Hemling, Hans. See Memling. 

TV Ti- Hemskerk, Martin. Real name Martin van Veen. 

M V M Born at Ilemskerk (1498-1574). The remaining works of 
this painter are not numerous, neither are they such as to 
cause regret of this fact. He attempted to imitate Michael Angelo. 
but his manner is repulsive, hard, and mannered. At one time his 
pictures were very popular in Holland, and some still remain at Delft 
and Haarlem. There is one of his works in the Berlin Mus., and 
another in the Vienna Gall. 

Hemskerk, Egbert. There were two painters by this name, 
father and son. They painted the same subjects, drunken scenes and 
drolls, interiors of Dutch ale-houses with boors and the usual accom- 
paniments. There is some merit in their works, but they have been 
so much surpassed by Teniers and others, that they are held in small 
esteem. These artists flourished in the middle of the 1 7th century. 

Hendreks, Wybrand, born at Amsterdam (1744-1830). He 
painted a variety of subjects, but his best works are flower pieces and 
dead game, resembling those of Weenix. All his pictures have con- 
siderable merit, and are seen in fine collections. In the Amsterdam 
Mus. there is a view of Haarlem, by Hendriks. 

Herlen, Frederick, died 1491. This artist is important from the 
fact that he carried the art of the Van Eyck school into upper Ger- 
many. He was an imitator, and his works so much resemble those of 
Rogier van der "Weyden, that it is probable the latter was his master. 
His chief works are in the churches of Nb'rdlingen and Rothenburg 
(on the Tauter). 

Hernandez, Gregorio, born at Pontevedra, 15GG; died at Vulla- 
dolid, 1G36. An eminent sculptor in the reign of Philip III. He 
never quitted Valladolid after he went there to study, except when 


he went to Vittoria to execute a high-altar in the ch. of S. Miguel, 
and to Plascencia for the same purpose. Bosarte called liiiu the 
" sculptor of religion." Stirling calls his style tender and graceful, 
and his works full of devotional feeling, and says, "They seem to 
have bern executed under the influence of the same pirns inspiration 
which wanned the fancy of Juni, and guided the pencil of Factor." 
Many of his works are in the Alus. of Valladolid, where, of course, 
they lose much of the effect which they had when in the chapels for 
which they were designed. Hernandez was devout in character, and 
accustomed to works of charity, and often provided decent burial for 
the poor. A large bas-relief of the "Baptism of Christ," now in the 
Alus., is one of the finest specimens of Spanish sculpture. The last 
twenty years of his life he passed in the house where Juni had lived. 
At his death his body was embalmed and buried, according to his will, 
in the monastery of the Carmen, where, in the principal chapel, his 
portrait hung many years. 

Herp, Gerard van, 1604. Pupil of Rubens, he painted moderate 
sized genre subjects. He Avas a good draughtsman and colorist. 
A picture of "Monks distributing Bread," by Van Herp, is in the 
National Gall., and other works of his are in the Berlin Alus. and 
Aremberg Gall. 

Herrera, Francisco de, the Elder, born at Seville (lo7G-lG"j(>). 
Pupil of Luis Fernandez, but he adopted not the style of any other 
painter; he was original, and probably the most remarkable artist 
who studied in Andalusia only. He had no timidity, used large 
brushes, laid on color in masses, and produced vigorous and effective 
results. His violent temper 'drove away his children and pupils. lie 
could engrave on bronze, and made false coins. When his forg- 
eries were detected, he took refuge with the Jesuits. While in 
their convent he painted the story of S. Ilennengild, one of the 
patron saints of Seville. When Philip IV. saw it he gave him his 
liberty. His picture of S. Basil is in the Mus. of Seville, and his 
" Last Judgment " hangs in its original place in the ch. of S. Ber- 
nard. In 1650 Herrera went to Aladrid and found Velasquez, one 
of his runaway pupils, in great favor there. 

Herrera, Francisco de, the Younger, born at Seville (1622- 
1085). Son and pupil of the preceding. lie passed six years in 
Italy and became a very fine painter. He was as ill-tempered as 
his father, and very jealous. He sometimes painted his name on 
his pictures on a representation of a piece of paper torn by rats. 
These were intended to represent other artists. At Seville he was 
appointed director of the Acad. of which Murillo was president. This 
did not please him, and he went to Aladrid. Stirling says he was 
made Superintendent of Royal Works, but died of chairrin because he 
was not made painter to Charles II., as he had beeu to Philip IV. 
Some of his best works are in thci churches and convents of Madrid. 


He painted flowers, fish, and still-life, and on account of his fondness 
for reproducing the finny tribes, the Italians called him " II Spaynolo 
de f/li Pesci." 

Hersent, Louis, born at Paris, 1777. His portraits of eminent 
persons are numerous, and these, as well as his historical and poetical 
subjects, are seen in the richest French collections. He was a mem- 
ber of the Institute, of the Royal Acad. of Berlin, and an officer of 
the Legion of Honor. His wife, whose maiden name was Manduit, 
was also a good artist. Some of her works in the galleries of the 
Luxembourg and at Fontaine bleau. 

Heusch, Willem de, bor,n at Utrecht. Died 1712 (?). Pupil of 
Jan Both, he imitated him almost perfectly. The small figures in his 
landscape were usually supplied by other artists. His works are 
rare in public collections. There is one in the Louvre, one in the 
Vienna, and one in the Cassel Gall. He also executed thirteen etch- 
ings, which resemble the works of Both as much as his paintings do. 

Heusch, Jacob de, born at Utrecht (1657-1701). Nephew and 
pupil of the preceding, he was not his equal. One of his works is in 
the Vienna Gall. 

Heyden, Jan van der, born at Govinchem (1637-1712). His 
pictures are architectural, and represent well-known Dutch build- 
ings, palaces, churches, etc., or the canals of Dutch towns with 
houses on their borders. He finished his works with exquisite care. 
The figures were supplied by Van der Velde and other painters. 
Smith gives a list of 158 pictures by Van der Heyden, which is a 
large number when we consider his manner of finish. Many of his 
works are in England, but most large European collections have spec- 
imens of his painting, and all his views are well selected, warm in 
color, and admirable in arrangement. 

Highmore, Joseph, born in London (1692-1780). He was a 
man of large acquirements, and wrote an excellent work on Perspec- 
tive. He was more successful in portraits than in historical pictures. 
His picture of the poet Young is at All Souls College, Oxford. 

Hilliard, Nicholas, born at Exeter (1547-1619). He distingiii>lK-d 
himself as a miniature painter during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
and was also a favorite of King James I., who gave him an appoint- 
ment as drawer of small portraits and embosser of medals. 

Hilton, William, born at Lincoln (1786-1839). An English his- 
torical painter. Unfortunately he used some method of mixing his 
colors which is fast destroying his works. He gave much time to the 
study of anatomy, and represented such subjects as gave good oppor- 
tunity for the display of the human figure, such as the rapes of Proser- 
pine, Europa, Ganymede, etc. He had much taste in design, and his 
color was brilliant and harmonious. He became a member of the 
Royal Acad. in 1819, and keeper of the same in 1827. One of his 
best works is " Edith discovering the Body of Harold." It is in the 
Vernon Coll.. and i? perishing rapidly. 


Hire, Laurent de la, born at Paris (1606-1656). Painter of his- 
torical subjects. His works are in the Louvre, and (some of the 
best) in the eh. of the Carmelites at Paris. His pictures are star- 
tling in the brilliancy of their coloring, and he introduced fragments 
of fine architectural remains, large plants, and other objects, which 
added to their effect. His drawing of the figure was correct, and 
often graceful. 

Hobbema, Mindert Of the life of this celebrated painter scarcely 
more can be said than that he was living in 1669. He divides with 
Ruysdael the honor of being the best Dutch landscape painter. His 
works long remained unappreciated, but now sell for enormous sums, 
one having brought 4000. Many of his best works are in England 
and in private collections. The specimens seen in Continental gal- 
leries are ordinary, and he cannot be judged by them. One of the 
best is in the Berlin Mus. The National and Dulwich galleries have 
each one of his works. The figures in his pictures were often ex- 
ecuted by Adrian Van de Velde, Philip Wouvermans, and other 
distinguished artists. His color is warmer and more golden than 
Ruysdael's, and he is more fond of sunshine. His impasto is solid. 
His foliage is exquisite, and the representation of a variety of trees 
gives variety of tone. His single trees are less lofty and grand than 
Ruysdael's, but more individual. He often painted villages sur- 
rounded with trees, and water-mills sometimes make a prominent 
feature. He represented ruined castles rarely; wheat fields, mead- 
ows, and small pools more frequently. His foregrounds are very fine, 
and he was able to finish in detail without sacrificing general etl'cct. 

Hodges, William, born in London (1 744-1 797). Pupil of Wilson. 
He accompanied Captain Cook around the world, and lived some 
time in India. His pictures embrace views in many different coun- 
tries, and are well selected and picturesque. 

Hoeck, Jan van, born at Antwerp (1598-1651). After studying 
with Rubens he went to Rome ; he then painted much for Ferdinand 
II. at Vienna, and on his return to Antwerp was principal painter to 
the Archduke Leopold. His " Christ on the Cross," in the Cath. 
at Bruges, is one of the best pictures in Belgium. He painted both 
history and portraits, and was a good colorist and correct draughts- 

Hoecke, Robert van, born at Antwerp, 1609. He painted bat- 
tles, camps, troops, and military scenes. His pictures are in the Ber- 
lin and Vienna galleries. He drew well, understood perspective, and 
had a spirited touch. He also etched a set of plates. These- are 
slightly done, but are skilful and pleasing. 

Hoefnagel, Jooris, born at Antwerp (1545-1600). Pupil of Hans 
Bol, whom he much excelled. He travelled much, and made very 
numerous drawings in different countries. These comprise every 
possible variety of subject. He decorated manuscripts in the old 


manner. A Roman missal illuminated by him is in the Imperial Li- 
brary at Vienna; he labored on it eight years. He also illustrated a 
book with all kinds of animals, birds, and fishes. Ono of his single 
pieces is in the Library at Brussels. His works are in the spirit of 
his time, and void of interest in their design, but their execution and 
finish are wonderfully painstaking and skilful. 

Hoekgeest, G. or C. Nothing is known of the history of this 
artist. Two fine pictures of the interior of the new eh. at Delft, 
painted by him, are in the Mus. at the Hague. They are equal to 
the best art of his country. 

Hoet, Gerard, born at Bommel (1648-1733). He first assisted 
his father, who was a glass painter, then studied with Warnar Van 
Rysen. After various ups and downs, he settled in Utrecht, where 
he founded an academy of design, of which he was director. His 
pictures are very well esteemed, especially the cabinet sizes. His 
design is correct and his color agreeable. 

Hofland, Thomas Christopher, born in Nottinghamshire (1777- 
1843). An excellent landscape painter. He excelled in depicting 
stormy skies and seas. It is to be regretted that so few of his 
works remain. 

Hogarth, William, born in London (1697-1764). The name of 
this painter is first in the history of British art, and he ranks with 
the eminent masters of his class in all countries. He was as eminent 
as a satirist, as he was as an artist, for he presented the lessons to 
be drawn from the follies of his time, more powerfully with his brush 
than any writer could do with his pen, or any preacher with his ser- 
mons, even had he a thousand voices. In 1712 Hogarth was ap- 
prenticed to a silversmith, and in engraving armorial bearings., the 
grotesque creatures he copied assisted to strengthen his natural love 
and aptness for the ridiculous. After 1718 he was much occupied in 
engraving for the booksellers. In 1730 he married the daughter of 

o o O 

Sir James Thornhill, without that painter's consent. At that time 
he painted small yenre subjects and portraits. In the latter depart- 
ment, he was quite successful, but his patrons discovered what he 
well knew, that he was better fitted for something else. Soon after 
his marriage, he commenced his famous series of the " Harlot's Prog- 
ress." When some of these were shown to his father-in-law, he de- 
clared that a man who could paint such pictures, could maintain a 
wife who had no portion. They were soon fully reconciled to each 
other. The " Harlot's Progress," the " Rake's Progress," and " Mar- 
riage a la Mode " were painted from 1 734 to 1 744. The satire of these 
works is immense; the costumes are excellent, and the painting good. 
He managed his interiors well; he gave them breadth, and the furni- 
ture and other accessories were exactly and strikingly rendered with- 
out becoming too prominent. His works of this kind are almost 
numberless. No place in society, no phase of life escaped his brush. 



Lord Orford says, " It woyjd l>e suppressing the niorits of his heart to 
coupler him only as a promoter of laughter. I think I have shown 
that his views were more generous and extensive. Mirth colored his 
pictures, but benevolence designed them. He smiled like Soerates. 
that men might not be offended at his lectures, and might learn to 
laii'j;h at their own follies." In 1753 he published a hook called 
' The Analysis of Beauty." It is a matter for congratulation, that 
many of his works are in public galleries where all the world may see 
them, and that so many of his own plates exist, by means of which 
the lover of art can enjoy what the best engravings of his works by 

In the National Gall. 

other artists can never give. The following list comprises the largest 
part of his own eiiirravin^s : 

Portrait of himself, with two figures and two Cupids. 1 720. 

A print emblematical of the South Sea Bubble; IF. Hoijnrth, inv. 
et sculp. 17-_'l. 

Thirteen plates for Auhrc\ de la Motraye's Travels in 1723. 

Seven small prints for Apuleius* ' (Jolden .W." 1724. 

Fifteen Head-pieces for Beaver's " Military Punishments of the 

Burlesque on Kent's Altar-piece in S. Clement's. 1725. 

A. Masquerade invented for the use of ladies and gentlemen, bv the 
ingenious Mr. IIeide<'<rer. 172.~>. 


A just view of the British Stage. 1 725. 

Twelve prints for " Hudibras; " large set. 1 72f>. 

The small set (17) with Butler's head; this head is that of J. B. 
Monnoyer, the flower painter. 

Mary Tofts, the rabbit woman of Godalmin. 1726. 

Rich's triumphant entry into Covent Garden. 1728. 

Sarah Malcolm, executed in 1732 for murder; W. Hogarth, ad 
vtcuin pinxit et sculpsii. This portrait was painted two days before 
her execution. 

A Midnight Modern Conversation. 1 733. 

Southwark Fair. 1734. 

The Harlot's Progress; six plates. 1733 and 1734. 

The Rake's Progress; eight plates. 1735. 

The Sleepy Congregation. 1736. 

The Distressed Poet. 1736. 

The Lecture; datur vacuum. 1736. 

The four Times of the Day. 1738. 

Strolling Actresses in a Barn. 1 738. 

The Enraged Musician. 1741. 

Marriage a la Mode; engraved under the direction of Hogarth, 
by Scotin, Ravenet, and Baron. 1 745. 

Portrait of Martin Folkes, Esq. 1745. 

Simon, Lord Lovat; an etching. 1746. 

Garrick in the character of Richard III. ; engraved by Hogarth 
and Grignion. 1746. 

The Stage-coach, an Election Procession in the yard. 1747. 

Effects of Industry and Idleness; twelve plates. 1747. 

The Gate of Calais: " Oh the Roast Beef of Old England! " By 
Hogarth and Mosely. 

The March to Finchley; L. Sulivan, sc., W. Hogarth, dir. 1748. 

Portrait of Hogarth with a pug dog. 1749. 

The Stages of Cruelty; four prints. 1751. 

Paul before Felix; scratched in manner of Rembrandt. 1751. 

Moses brought to Pharaoh's Daughter; Hogarth and Sulivan. 

Columbus breaking the Egg. 1 755. 

Four prints of an Election; 1755; Hogarth, Grignion, La Cave> 
an:l Aveline. 

Portrait of Hogarth painting the Comic Muse. 1 758. 

The Cockpit. 1759. 

The Five Orders of Periwigs. 1761. 

Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism. 1762. 

The Times; two plates. 1762. 

John Wilkes, Esq.; drawn from life, and etched by Hogarth. 

The Bruiser; C. Churchill in the character of a Russian Hercules. 

The Good Samaritan. 


The Pool of Bethesda. 


The' Analysis of Beauty ; two plates. 

Hogenberg. This is the name of several engravers v.-ho flourished 
during the last half of the 16th century. Jt is l>elieve:l that one of 
them executed the first portrait that was engraved in England; but 
the honor is a matter of dispute between Remij;iiis and Francis 
Hogenberg. They all engrave 1 portraits and illustrations for books. 
The other names were John and Abraham. 

Holbein, Hans, called Old Holbein. There is very little known 
of this painter. In the Mus. at Augsburg, there is a picture dated 
14S9, inscribed Hans Holben, C. A.; attributed to a painter who was 
probably the grandfather of Hans Holbein, the Younger. This pic- 
ture has little interest as a work of art, and represents the Virgin, 
life-size, seated on a bank, holding the Child. Another work by 
this same master is dated 1499, and has some interesting faets con- 
nected with it. In 1484 Pope Innocent VIII. granted certain indul- 
gences to the nuns of S. Catherine, at Augsburg, providing that they 
should pay their devotions at the altars of the seven ancient basilicas 
of Rome. But he allowed that pictures of these churches should an- 
swer the same purpose as the churches themselves. The nuns there- 
fore, when they rebuilt their convent in 1496, ordered a series of 
these pictures which were to be so beneficial to them. Old Hans 
Holbein represented that of S. Maria Maggiore. The picture 
is of the average excellence of the German artists of the l.'nh cen- 
tury. The signature and date are on two bells; on the first is Hans 
Holba, the name being finished with in on the second, and the date 
1499. In the picture is a tomb-stone, on which is an II. Nothing 
whatever of circumstance or fact can be related with any certainty 
of this artist, and many authors have even doubted his existence. 

Holbein, Hans, the Father, born about 14.59, and probably the 
son of Michael Holbein, a leather dresser. There is a panel paintinir 
at Hampton Court, dated 1512, called "Holbein's Father and 
Mother," believed to represent this Hans Holbein the father, and 
his wife. In the register of taxes for Augsburg, the name of Hans 
Holbein, Maler, occurs eleven times between 1494 and If) Hi. The 
earliest known work by him is a "Madonna and Child with Angels." 
in the Moritz Capelle, at Xiirnberg. There are three of his pictures 
in the Augsburg Gall., representing the ' Basilica of the Vatican,' 1 
the "Trinity," and a large picture in three parts containing the 
" Transfiguration," with the " Feeding of the Four Thousand " on one 
side, and the " Casting out a Devil " on the other. His pictures are 
numerous in many churches and galleries, such as Munich, Frank- 
fort, Basle, and Sehleissheim. But in the Cath. of Augsburg, his 
ability is displayed at its best in the four works painted in 149;?, for 
the old Abbey of WeingarU-n, in Wiirtemberg. These have been 


restored and fitted up with rich, gilt Gothic carvings, and placed 
over four altars in the body of the Cath. He executed an immense 
number of pictures for churches and religious houses. When these 
houses were suppressed, his pictures were scattered, and his serial 
works are now separated. In one saloon of the Munich Pinakothek, 
there are sixteen works on panels, by this Holbein. The date of his 
death is not known. He was living in 1521, and in 1524 his name 
was registered among the deceased artists. 

Holbein, Sigmand, brother of the preceding, and also an artist. 
But one painting with his signature is known, although others are 
assigned to him. He was a bachelor, and Hans Holbein, the 
Younger, with his sisters, inherited his property. His will was 
dated in 1540. The time of his death is not known. 

Holbein, Ambrose. This artist was either the brother or half- 
brother of Hans Holbein, the Younger. He was admitted a member 
of the guild of painters at Basle in 1517, and it is supposed died 
soon after. Four pictures attributed to him are in the Mus. at 
Basle. A picture in the Belvedere Gall, is also ascribed to him, and 
upon some wood-cuts and drawings the monogram of an A. H. is 
believed to be his. 

y j-k ~r\ T Holbein, Hans, the Younger, 

I r~S |j| born in Augsburg, 1494 or. 1495; 

died in London, 1543. A drawing 

of the year 1509 is the earliest known work of this painter. He 
was instructed by his father and his reputed uncle, Hans Burgk- 
mair. By the time he was fifteen he -received independent com- 
missions. The Augsburg Gall, has four compositions which are his 
earliest known works, about 1510. In the same Gall, are pictures 
extending to 1516 in which his advance is remarkable. The precious 
picture of his father and mother, dated 1512, has already been 
referred to. The " Martyrdom of Sebastian," in the Pinakothek at 
Munich, a very interesting early production, could not have been 
painted later than 1516. It is a triptych five feet in height and 
seven in width. The " Execution of S. Sebastian" is the centre 
picture. The right wing represents " S. Barbara," and the left " S. 
Elizabeth of Hungary giving Drink to the Sick.'' This last is a fine 
picture and much superior to any work of Hans Holbein, the Father. 
In the Imhof Coll., in the Mus. at Berlin, are three volumes of 
the early drawings of this painter, executed from 1509 to 1516. 
For his early years they are just such an illustration as the Windsor 
portfolios are of his later time. About 1516 he removed to Basle. The 
works which have been ascribed to him in that city are innumerable. 
In truth, almost everything which was painted there has been, first 
or last, credited to him, and it is only at a comparatively recent thre 
that his works have been separated from the mass. In England, too, 
for a time, nearly every portrait of the reign of Henry VIII. ws 


attribute! to Holbein. In 1517 he was called to Lucerne to deeorate 
a house which was still in existence in 1824. The library of 
Lucerne has sketches of all the compositions painted there. He 
also executed works for the Augustines of Lucerne and for the. 
parish church in Altorf. He entered the guild of painters and 
took up the rights of citizenship at Basle, in loll*. It was in this 
year that Charles V. became Emperor of Germany, and that Hol- 
bein formed his friendship with Boniface Amerbach. Holbein's 
portrait of the latter, dated this year, is one of his very best : and 
his very remarkable picture, now at Lisbon in the Pal. of the 
King of Portugal, called the " Fountain of Life." was also painted 
in 1519. In 1521 Hans Holbein was commissioned by a council of 
Basle to decorate the new Rath-house or Town Hall. These works, 
which represented historical and Scriptural scenes, have been de- 
stroyed, and the Mus. of Basle possesses very insignificant fragments. 
The easel pictures which he painted at Basle are rare, and it is a 
reasonable supposition that at this time he was often employed as a 
house-decorator and a designer for stained glass and silver work ; 
indeed, designs for these various styles of work are preserved in the 
museum. His more prominent pictures of this time are Jacob 
Meier and his wife, 1516; " Adam and Eve," 1517; portrait of Dr. 
Amerbaeh. 1519; one of John Froben, the printer; one of the cele- 
brated Erasmus; a life-size picture of i4 Christ lying in the Tomb,'' 
1521; the very remarkable portraits of his wife and two children. 
1525 or 1526; and an exquisite portrait of himself, a drawing in 
body-color, painted when he was twenty-one. The years l.V.':! and 
1524 are not accounted for. He probably made many drawings for 
stained glass, and prepared drawings for wood-cuts. In the hall of 
designs, at Basle, there are ten sets of drawings for the " Passion of 
our Lord." His preparation for the " Dance of Death " must also 
have occupied much time. Among his friends at Basle, Froben. the 
printer, and the celebrated Erasmus deserve especial mention. The 
former employed him somewhat for book illustrations, and he made 
various portraits of both. That of Erasmus writing, at Hampton 
Court, was a fine work. The one of most reputation is at Longford 
Castle in Wiltshire. One at Windsor was painted in 1537, and it is 
said that in 1525, the year in which Luther married the nun, Cather- 
ine Bohra. Holbein painted both these remarkable characters. But 
this needs confirmation. The character of Holbein has been repre- 
sented in a most unfavorable light. That he was a drunkard, the 
number and quality of his works seem sufficiently to contradict. 
The prominent remaining charge against him \.~ his separation from 
his wife. He married Elizabeth Schmid. a widow, with one son 
named Franz. The picture called " Holbein's Wife and Childr -11." 
already mentioned, probably represents Franz, and Philip, the son of 
Holbein. The mother is a coarse-looking, unattractive, middl> 



woman. It is said that Holbein was driven from Basle by his wife's 
temper. He occasionally visited her, and probably contributed to 


Dresden Gall. 

her support at all times. The Meier Madonna, in the Dresden Gall., 
commonly considered the masterpiece of Holbein, is believed to 


have been painted a short time before he went to England. Hol- 
bein has been considered as the painter of the "Dance of Death," 
both at Basle and Berne. The true authors of these pictures are 
now known to have been Kluber and Nicholas Manuel, but it is 
believed that Holbein made a set of designs for engravings of this 
subject, which apjH-ar to have been first published at Lyons in 1538, 
although they must have been prepared much earlier. There were 
forty-one euts in all. His Old Testament euts appeared at the same 
time with the u Dance of Death." These are all assigned to the 
time when he was in Basle, on aecount of the leisure he is known to 
have had. Want of employment is the only reason Erasmus gave 
for his going to England. He arrived thereat the close of I."JL'<!, 
bearing a letter of introduetion from Erasmus to Sir Thomas More, 
who at once received him with kindness. The principal painter in 
England at that time was Luke Hornebolt, who persuaded Holbein 
to take up miniature painting. 1527 was the year in which Henry 
VUL fell in love with Anne Boleyn. This was the first year of 
Holbein's occupation in England, but he does not appear to have 
entered the King's service until after 1530. In the mean time he 
painted Sir Thomas More's family and friends, among whom were 
Archbishop Warham and Sir Henry Gilford, both fine and important 
pictures. In 1528 he painted Sir Thomas and John (Jodsalve, on 
the same panel, now at Dresden; and the astronomer Kratzer, sur- 
rounded by his instruments, now in the Louvre. It is not probable 
that Holbein ever painted Queen Catherine or Cardinal Wolsey. 
The pictures of More and his family are very numerous. The most 
imposing one of Sir Thomas is that formerly owned by Mr. Farrer. 
There is a story connected with one of these portraits of More 
which relates that on the day of the death of the ex-chancellor. 
after Henry VIII. had reproached Anne Boleyn, who had never for- 
given More for refusing to be present at her wedding, she looked at 
this picture and exclaimed, " Oh, me! the man seems to be still 
alive ! " and, seizing it, threw it into the street. Eventually it was 
taken to Rome and was in the Palazzo de* Crescenzi. Wornum says 
of this, "Though it may not be true, it is not a bad story." Hol- 
ism returned to Basle in 1530, and completed the frescoes in the 
Town House. This being done he returned to England. When or 
how he was first introduced to the King is not exactly known. The 
superb portrait of George < at Berlin, was painted in 1. ">:!:>. 
In Ruskin's description of this picture he calls it inexhaustible. 
For the merchants of the steel-yard Hollx-in executed two pictures 
called " Riches " and " Poverty." These were probably painted in 
1532, and pcrUhcd at Whitehall in 1G98: but in the British Mus. 
there is a drawing, considered the original of the kl Riches," and 
lx)th pictures are known by plates. In 1532 Holbein was summoned 
to Hasle by a council of the city. He received this communication, 


it is believed, when at Calais with the court on the occasion of the 
celebrated meeting called the Field of the Cloth of Gold. After 
1533 Holbein rarely dated his pictures, and there is no authentic 
portrait by him of Anne Boleyn or her daughter, the Princess Eliza- 
beth. To this year belongs the picture called the " Two Ambassa- 
dors," supposed to represent Sir Thomas Wyatt and some learned 
friend. They are standing by the side of a double table, one in a 
magnificent dress, the other in a doctor's cap and morning-gown. 
It is not his most refined picture, but the largest, and that on which 
he labored most. In 1536 the fine portrait of Sir Richard Southwell, 
in the Uffizi Gall., was painted. The portrait called Jane Seymour, 
in the Belvedere Gall, at Vienna, is one of the fine, small half- 
lengths that Holbein often executed. The picture of Mr. Morett, 
in the Dresden Gall., has until lately been attributed to Leonardo da 
Vinci. It is, in truth, one of the finest of Holbein's works. It is 
not known whom it represents. Thomas Morett was a distinguished 
jeweller who served Henry VIII., and was a friend of Holbein, who 
often worked con amore. The original drawing of this picture was 
discovered in 1860, and is now hung beside the picture. The first 
payment made to Holbein as in the service of the King occurred in 
1538. After this time Holbein painted many portraits of the Royal 
family. In the same year he was sent to Brussels for the purpose of 
painting a portrait of the Duchess of Milan, whom the King had 
been recommended to make his fourth wife. Her ladyship allowed 
him a sitting of three hours, in which he made a sketch which has 
been thought to be a small panel, with the head and hands of the 
Duchess, now at Windsor. According to the laws of Basle a citizen 
could not enter the service of a foreign sovereign without the con- 
sent of the council. In the autumn of 1538 he visited his home and 
obtained permission for two years longer residence in England. 
Great exertions were made in Basle to retain him there, but at 
length a document was made out permitting him to remain two years 
longer in England, upon the condition that at the end of that time 
he should settle in Basle, and should receive a pension for life of 
fifty florins a year. Just as the two years expired his uncle Sig- 
mund died and left him property in Berne, and this was taken pos- 
session of by Franz Schmid in behalf of his mother. After this 
time there was no motive for Holbein to return to Basle ; but the 
official document prepared and addressed by the council of that city 
to Henry VIII., is most complimentary to the artist, and such an 
one as could scarcely have been written for a man of immoral char- 
acter. The King became very fond of Holbein and treated him with 
much generosity. After 1537 he had a painting- room in the Pal. at 
Whitehall. In 1539 he was sent to the Duchy of Cleves to paint 
a portrait of Anne, daughter of the Duke, who was married to the 
King in 1540. It is believed that Holbein flattered this picture, for 


when the King came to see the lady he liked the picture much 
better than the original, from whom" he was divorced immediately 
after marriage. Walj>ole went so far ;is to say that ' Holbein, by 
practising the common flattery of his profession, was the immediate) 
cause of the destruction of that great subject (meaning Cromwell), 
and of the disgrace that fell on the Princess herself." The half- 
length picture of Anne, in the Louvre, is a homely face, but an 
agreeable one; and the fact of its beinir on parchment has induced 
many to believe that it is the original picture, taken by Holbein 
during the marriage negotiation. Among the other important pic- 
tures painted by Holbein are the portraits of the Duke of Nor- 
folk; Sir Anthony Denny ; and numerous pictures of Henry 
VIII. , and his family in groups, portraits, and miniatures. 'I here. 
also remain various drawings of ornamental designs, among which 
that for the Jane Seymour cut is important. One of his last works 
was the portraits of the barber-surgeons, which represents the King 
granting a new charter to that society. On the 7th of October, \:> t:>, 
Holbein hastily prepared his will, on account of the plague which was 
raging. He died between the 7th of October and the 29th of November 
of the same year, but of the circumstances of his death or burial noth- 
ing is known. There is an anecdote that at one time, when Holbein 
passed through Strasburg, he visited a distinguished painter without 
making himself known. He went next day when the artist was out, 
and painted a fly upon the picture on the easel. When the master 
returned he noticed the fly, and attempted to drive it away. He 
found he could not do so, and when, on inquiry, he learned who had 
been there, he sought Holbein all through the city ; but ho bad 
already left for England. When he was painting at Whitehall 
there came to his studio one day a nobleman who forced himself 
into the room, although the artist told him that he was enua'jvi] in 
painting the portrait of a lady for the King. Holbein was so aii'_ r rv 
that he seized the man and threw him down-stairs. Without waiting 
to see what had happened, he rushed to the Kin? and confessed what 
he had done. The King bade him wait in his apartment until he. 
learned more of the matter. Almost immediately the nobleman was 
brought in on a chair, much injured in body and temper. He com- 
plained bitterly to the Kin?, who made light of the matter, when 
the nobleman lost his temper and threatened to take the law into his 
own hands. This roused the anger of tho Kin?, who exclaimed, 
Now you have no longer to deal with Holbein, but with me, the 
King. Do you think this man is of so little consideration with us? 
I tell you, my lord, that out of seven peasants I can, if I please, any 
day make seven earls; but out of seven earls I could not make one 
such artist as Hans Hollx-in." The Karl besought his pardon, and 
the King warned him that if he attempted anv violence on the 
painter, cither himself or throu"h others, he would treat it as an 


offence against his own royal person. As an engraver on wood 
Holbein deserves especial notice. Before leaving Switzerland he 
was employed by the most celebrated publishers of his time in .Basle 
Zurich, Leyden, and Lycns. His wood-cuts of the " Dance of 
Death" are his most important works. When complete, there are 
fifty-three prints; but it is rare to find more than forty-six. They 
are small, upright pictures, surrounded by a Border. His Old Tes- 
tament prints numbered ninety, and the best impression of them was 
published in 1539 at Lyons, by the brothers Treschel. These two 
series have been often reproduced. That engraved by Hollar in 
1789 is finely executed. That by Dance, in 1833, is also excellent. 
Holbein also made wood-cuts for a catechism executed in 1548. This 
work is extraordinary and rare. It was republished at London in 1829. 
The " Pastime of the People, or the Chronicles of Divers Realms, and 
most especially of the Realm of England," printed first in 1529, was 
republished by Dibden in 1811. Very few copies exist. In an illus- 
tration of the Revelation of St. John, published by T. Wolff in 1523, 
twenty-one wood-cuts of the Apocalypse are attributed to Holbein. A 
celebrated wood-cut of an upright figure, under a decorated gate, called 
Erasmus of Rotterdam, has been more, recently printed; for the copper 
still exists. In the first and second impressions there were Latin 
inscriptions which have been omitted more recently. His " Moriae 
Encomium " has been frequently printed. It consists of plates after 
his humorous drawings, and is by no means among his best produc- 
tions. There are also many title-pages, symbolical alphabets, etc.; 
and the following portraits : 

Prince Henry Frederick; full length. 

Thomas Egerton, Viscount Brackley, Lord Chancellor. 

Sir John Hay ward, Kt., LL. D. 

Martin Billingsley, writing master. 

Giovanni Floris, Italian master to Anne of Denmark. 

Michael Drayton; prefixed to his works. 

Holland. See Dance. 

fc*rj}l Hollar, Wenceslaus, born at Prague (1607- 
-rVT) / Vv si 1677). This eminent engraver was the pupil 

VY7 , I_J6^J of Matthew Merian. In 1G36 the Earl of 
Arundel met Hollar in Cologne, and considered his talents so re- 
markable that he engaged his services, and took him to England, 
where he made many plates, a large number being from the pictures 
in the Arundel Coll. On the breaking out of the civil war of 1645, 
the Earl removed to Antwerp, and thither Hollar also went and con- 
tinued to engrave from the pictures of his patron. The Earl went to 
Italy, and Hollar worked for the booksellers, but his pay was so 
small that he ventured to return to England in 1652. Charles II. 
was restored at length, and he hoped for better days, but the plague 
broke out, and he was reduce.! to great miserv. He was afterwards 


sent by the king to make drawings of Tangier, but his pay was only 
100. He died in the depths of poverty; the bailiffs even went to 
take his bed, but he begged them to leave it until he eould die, which 
was not long. His prints number nearly 2400. They arc very much 
sought by eollectors and are very dear, especially some which are 
scarce. The prices given for these are enormous. His portraits and 
landscapes are very fine, as are also his costumes of women, furs, 
shells, insects, etc. 

Holloway, Thomas (1748-1827). An English engraver, princi- 
pally known for his engravings after the cartoons of Raphael. Their 
execution is very elaborate, but connoisseurs prefer the freer manner 
of Dorigny. He engraved much for books and magazines. 

Hondekoeter, Melchior, born at Utrecht (1636-1695). He was 
descended from a noble family, his great-grandfather beiii'j; Marquis 
of Waterloo. Giles Hondekoeter, his grandfather, and (lisbert, his 
father, were both artists. Melchior received his first instruction 
from his father, after whose death he studied with Jan 'Wee nix, his 
uncle. He painted birds and animals, alive and dead. His live 
birds are his best works, and are very excellent. His drawing is 
good, and he is true to life. It is said that he had a fine coek so well 
trained that he would keep any position his master wished, lonir 
enough to be painted. His pictures are in the Louvre, and all the 
lar_re German galleries. The Amsterdam Mus. has nine, and that 
of the Hague has four. 

Hondius, Abraham, born at Rotterdam (1638-1695). He lived 
many years in England. His favorite subjects were dogs. He ac- 
quired a good reputation, but his pictures are open to grave criti- 
cism. His drawing is incorrect and his color not pleasing. Ilis very 
rare etchings do him more honor as an artist than his pictures. 
There are ten of thc>e. 

Honthorst, Gerard, born at Utrecht (1592-1662). Pupil of 
Abraham Bloemaert. He went to Rome, and acquired the manner of 
Caravaggio. His pictures found favor in Rome and on account of 
his fondness for painting night scenes he was called Gherardo dalle 
Notti. After his return to Holland he opened a school which was 
well attended, and his reputation having reached Charles 1.. that 
king invited him to England. He only remained six months, but 
during that time painted several historical pictures. He was also hon- 
orably employed by the Kin<j of Denmark and the Prince of Oranire. 
In his later years he painted many portraits. His wonderful facility 
in the use of the brush enabled him to execute a large number of 
works, and these are seen at the Louvre, in Munich Gall., at the new 
Hotel de Ville of Amsterdam, Berlin Mus., etc. They embrace sub- 
jects from sacred and profane history, mythology, allegory, and genre 

Honthorst, Willem. Flourished in the middle of the 1 "th cen- 


tury. Brother of Gerard. Many of his portraits are in the Prussian 
royal residences, and resemble the works of his brother. 

Hoogh, Peter de. Nothing is known of the history of this painter. 
His works are dated from 1658 to 1G70. He painted interiors and 
conversations, and was remarkable for his effects of sunshine; in fact, 
he may be considered the painter of full, clear sunlight. He often 
represented two rooms, the figures being in the first, and the second 
full of sun ; even the dust in tho air can almost be seen. In this no 
other master approaches him. His impasto is excellent, and his touch 
very delicate. His out-of-door scenes arc usually in a court-yard or 
garden, and arc very picturesque. About 100 pictures are known by 
this master, and many of these are in private collections in England. 
The Louvre, Amsterdam, and Munich galleries have specimens, as 
have also the Van der Hoop Coll., at Amsterdam, and the Landauer 
Briiderhaus at Nuremberg. 

Hooghe, Romeyn de, born at the Hague about 1638. An en- 
graver of some merit. He left a considerable number of works, some 
of which are in good estimation. 

Hoogstraeten. There were three painters of this name. The 
father, Theodore or Dirk, painted landscapes and still-life. The sons, 
Samuel and John, painted a variety of subjects. Samuel was the 
most noted, and was born at Dort (1G27-167S). He painted genre 
subjects, marine views, animals, and still-life. His touch was deli- 
cate, his color clear and agreeable, and he painted with great care- 
fulness. The Vienna and Hague galleries have attractive works by 
this master. 

Hopfer, David, Jerome, and Lambert. Three engravers of 
Nuremberg who flourished about the middle of the 1 6th century. 
They signed their plates with a hop-blossom between the initials (for 
their name means hop-plant), and this was mistaken for a candle- 
stick by some, and they were called the Masters of the Candlestick. 
Their plates are stiff and of no great merit, but some of them are 
prized on account of their rarity. 

Hoppner, John, born in London (1759-1810). A fine colorist 
and portrait painter. He also painted a few fancy subjects, of which 
the " Sleeping Nymph " was one of the best. His state portraits 
were especially good, as he gave great richness to the robes, and man- 
aged them well. He loved to represent his lady sitters in rustic cos- 
tumes. His landscape backgrounds are fine, and he was accustomed 
to employ his leisure in making chalk sketches, which were very 

Horremans, John. There were two artists by this name, father 
and son. Both died in 1759. They painted similar subjects, con- 
versation pieces. The characters in the pictures of the. father were 
usually peasants, while those of the son were from the higher walks 
of life. Their works sometimes suggest a thought of Hogarth. They 


are not uncommon in England, and arc in the Antwerp Mus., and 
the Casscl and Dresden galleries. 

Hoskins, John. The name of a father and son, both miniaturists 
of the reign of Charles I. The works of the father are very ex- 
quisite, those of the son not as fine. The father used a monogram, 
the son the simple initials J. H. The father died 1664. 

Houbraken, Arnold, horn at Dort, 1660. He painted portraits 
and small historical subjects, and wrote a biographical account of the 
Dutch artists. lie also made some etchings, but is more celebrated 
as the father of the, succeeding artist, than for his pictures. 

Houbraken, Jacob, born at Dort, 1698. This eminent engrave.- 
especially excelled in portraits, of which he made a great number. 


His plates are not all of the same excellence, but some of them have 
not been surpassed. His drawing is correct, and his execution deli- 
cate, while his stroke is bold, and his color brilliant. 

Houdon, Jean Antoine, born at Versailles (1741-1828). At 
the age of eighteen, he gained the grand prize for sculpture, in the 
French Acad., and went to Rome, where he remained ten years. 
He was invited to America by Franklin, and executed the statue of 
Washington and the bust of Lafayette, for the Capitol at Richmond, 
Virginia. His statues of young girls were very much admired. For 
the use of the French Acad., he made two representations of the 
human frame without the skin, which showed great knowledge of 
anatomy. His principal works were a statue of "Morpheus;" a 
"Diana," for the Empress of Russia; statue of Voltaire, for the 
peristyle of the French theatre; busts of Rousseau, D'Alembert, 
Marshal Ney, Napoleon, Josephine, and others, and a statue of 

Houston, Richard. This engraver excelled in mezzotint, and in 
the chalk manner. He executed a large number of portraits and 
various other subjects, many of which are much esteemed. 

Howard, Henry, born in London (17G9-1847). A painter of 
portraits and fancy or historical subjects, which were all highly 
poetic. After studying in Italy, and visiting Vienna and Dresden, 
he sot'led in London. He became Professor of the Royal Acad. in 
1833, and delivered very excellent lectures there. Most of his fancy 
subjects are in private collections. 

Huber, John Rodolph, born at Basle (1668-1748). He studied 
in Italy, and became a painter of considerable merit. In 1696 he re- 
ceived the appointment of court painter to the Duke of Wlirtemberg. 
He painted some historical subjects and some ornamental pictures for 
the palace, but was chiefly employed on portraits, of which he painted 
so many that he was called the Tintoretto of Switzerland. 

Huchtenburgh, Joon Van, born at 

V"R VT~B IIaarlem ( 1C46 - 1733 )- He studied under 

Jan "Wyck, then went to Rome, and re- 
turning, stopped in Paris and received instructions from Van der 
Meulen. He painted landscapes, hunts, and battle-pieces. The 
latter were his best works. About 1708 he received commissions 
from Prince Eugene, and an excellent picture of that Prince on 
horseback is in the Hague Gall. Others are in the Louvre and 
Amsterdam Mus. His ckef-tToeuore, the " Siege of Namur," is in 
the Vienna Gall. He had good inventive powers, drew correctly, 
and had facility of execution, but his color was not equal to his other 
qualities. He also etched a great number of plates from his own de- 
signs, and those of Van der Meulen, which have considerable merit. 
He scraped a few plates in mezzotint, of which it is now difficult to 
obtain a good impression. 


Hudson, Thomas, born in Devonshire (1701-1779). A pupil of 
Richardson, and the master of Sir Joshua Reynolds, who so much 
eclipsed him, as to almost make us forget that Hudson was, after all. 
a verv good portrait painter, and in some respects invented tin- 
style which Reynolds and Gainsborough perfected. 

Huysmans, Cornells, born at Antwerp (1648-1727). Pupil of 
Artois, and sometimes called Huysmans of Mechlin, because he 
settled there. His landscapes are very excellent, and are prized in 
the large European galleries, where they may be seen. 

Huysmans, James, born at Antwerp (1656-1696). A good por- 
trait painter. He went to England in the reign of Charles II., and 
was much patronized. His portraits resemble those of Lcly. 

Huysum, Van. There were five painters of this name, a father 
and four sons; but of these, one alone merits special notice : Jan 
Van Huysum, born at Amsterdam (1G82-1 749). He excelled as a 
flower and fruit painter. In these pictures he introduced antique 
vases, ornamented with nymphs, amorini, etc., exquisitely finished. 
Sometimes also birds' nests with insects and dew-drops, all equally 
well done. His works are in many public and private collections, 
and are very valuable. He also left a large coll. of fine drawings. 


Ibbetson, Julius Caesar, born in Yorkshire; died 1817. A 
painter of landscapes. Some of his mountain views are his best 
works. His farm-house scenes are also good, and he succeeded par- 
ticularly well in pahiting pigs; and by some is thought to excel Mor- 
land in these animals. Ibbetson also painted a few small full-length 
portraits. Most of his works are of moderate size. 

Ictinus. This Grecian architect designed the temple of Athene, 
called the Parthenon, built upon the Acropolis of Athens, and the 
temple of Apollo Epicurius, near Phigalia. in Arcadia. lie was a 
contemporary of Pericles, and the Parthenon was finished 4:18 n. c. 
Ictinus was also the architect of the shrine at F.leusis, within which 
the mysteries were celebrated. All these buildings were of Doric 
architecture, and the latter was so planned as to accommodate a vast 
number of persons. 

Imbert, Joseph Gabriel, born at Marseilles (1606-1749). Pupil 
of Charles le Brun and Van der Meulen. At the age of thirty-four 
he became a Carthusian monk, and his best works were painted for 
his order; especially for his own monastery at Villeneiive d'Avignon. 
In the Carthusian ch., at Marseilles, there is an altar-piece by him, 
which has been much admired, and is esteemed his clu f-tF(Xuvre. 

Imola, Innoceuzo Francucci da, horn at Imola (1494-1549?). 
Pupil of Francia. He became an admirer and imitator of Raphael; 
indeed, he copied whole figures from the works of that master into 


his own. His works arc in many galleries. The most important are 
at Bologna, and in the Cath. of Faenza. 

Iiigham, C. C., born at Dublin, 1796. Before coming to America, 
at the age of twenty-one, he had gained a prize from the Dublin 
Acad. His pictures were finished with exquisite care, which some- 
times lessened their spirit and truthfulness . He was very industrious, 
and scarcely lost an hour of daylight. He was one of the founders 
of the present National Acad. of Design. 

Inman, Henry, born at Utica, N. Y. (1801-1846). Pupil of Jar- 
vis. He possessed a fine mind, and refined and scholarly tastes. As 
a friend he was much beloved, and as a man much admired. In his 
pictures he was somewhat unequal, and when we regard his genre 
subjects, we feel that he never did the best of wl ich he was capa- 
ble, and can but regret that he did not devote hirnssif to that class of 
pictures. His portraits were very much admired at one time, and 
his income was good; but his health failed, he met with some reverses, 
was absent in England for a time, and returned to find himself out 
of fashion, and his place filled by others. He painted portraits of 
various notable persons, some of which are in the Boston Athenaeum, 
Independence Hall, Philadelphia, City Hall, New York, and the 
Capitol at Albany. His genre pictures are in private collections and 
embrace a variety of subjects, such as the " Boyhood of Washington," 
the "Newsboy," the "Awaking of Rip Van Winkle," "Murnble- 
the-Peg," etc., etc. 

Iriarte, Ignacio de, born at Azcoitia, 1620; died at Seville, 1685. 
Pupil of the Elder Hcrrera, and the -friend of Murillo. He became 
the most celebrated landscape painter of Andalusia. Murillo was ac- 
customed to say that he painted by inspiration, and they sometimes 
engaged in joint works, Iriarte painting the background, and Mu- 
rillo the figures. At length they disagreed about a series of pictures 
of the Life of David. Each insisted that he should do his work last, 
and Murillo finally decided to paint all himself. The works of Iriarte 
are rare, and much esteemed. He has been called the Spanish 
Claude Lorraine, but his subjects were more akin to those of 
Salvator Rosa. He loved to paint the wilderness, wild glens, and 
tumbling mountain streams. The Royal Gall, at Madrid has three, 
and the National Mus. one of his pictures. The Louvre has two 
flower pieces, and a picture of " Jacob's Dream." At S. Petersburg, 
in the Hermitage, there is a landscape. 


Jamesons, George, born at Aberdeen (1586-1644). He was a 
fellow-pupil with Vandyck under Rubens, and has been called the 
Vandyck of Scotland. In 1633 Charles I. visited Edinburgh, and 
sat for his portrait to Jamesone, with whom he was so much pleased, 


that he presented him with a ring from his own finger. His best 
pictures are highly esteemed, and are executed with much delicacy. 

Janet, Francois. See Clouet. 

Jansen, Cornelius. Some writers say lie was born at Amsterdam, 
but according to Sandrart, London was his birthplace, and his par- 
ents were Flemish (1390-1G65). lie lived in England many years. 
and was very successful as a portrait painter. His feeling lor nature 
was refined, his color warm and tender, and his composition graceful. 
Many of his works are in the galleries of England. In 1618 he went 
to Holland, where he was constantly employed until his death. 
Many of his pictures are painted on board. 

Jansens, Abraham, born at Antwerp (1567-1631?). Pupil of 
Jan Snellinck; he also visited Italy. He somewhat resembled Ru- 
bens in style, but it has been proved that there is no foundation for 
the accounts which have been given of the enmity between these two 
masters, or of the dissipation of Jansens. The latter excelled in rep- 
resenting artificial lights, and some of his torchlight subjects are very 
fine. His works are seen in the churches of Flanders, and there are 
fine specimens in the Antwerp and Vienna galleries. 

Janssens, Victor Honorius, born at Brussels (1664-1739). This 
artist painted a variety of subjects, but is best known by his conver- 
sations, or collections of gallants and ladies, in the peculiar costumes 
of his time. He was a good colorist, and his rich dresses and dra- 
peries are very effective. It is a peculiarity of his work.-, that his 
figures have the appearance of being very tall. lie also executed 
several altar-pieces for the churches of Brussels and other cities. 

Jardin, Karel du, born at Amsterdam (1625-1678). The best 
pupil of Berchem, but more nearly resembling Paul Potter in style. 
He went when quite young to Rome, and became so fond of Italy 
that with the exception of eight years, he spent the remainder of his 
life there. His portraits are better than those of his master: his 
Scriptural and mythological subjects cannot be admired ; but his land- 
scapes with animals and figures are excellent. Many of his works 
are very highly finished, and Avorked up in the. smallest detaib. He 
represented a summer sky after a storm with remarkable skill, and 
indeed, the skies of his pictures form one of his chief points of ex- 
cellence. The number of his works is not lar<_re: 1 1.3 are mentioned 
by Smith. He lost much time in his devotion to pleasure. His 
works are best seen at the Louvre, the Hague, and in Amsterdam. 
There are also excellent specimens at Dresden. Munich, and Cassel, 
and England is rich in his paintings. Very lanre prices are paid for 
the pictures of Du Jardin. He also executed ,V_> etchings, which 
show the. hand of a master. These are not very rare, and represent 
landscapes and animals. 

Jarenus. This painter flourished late in the loth century, at 
Soest in Westphalia. There is a picture of his hi the Coll. of the 


Earl of Pembroke at Wilton House, and a large altar-piece by him 
is in the Berlin Mus. The centre of this is very confused, and rep- 
resents scenes from the Passion; each of the wings contains four 
scenes from the Life of Christ; those in the left wing are much the 
best, and resemble the works of Van Eyck. 

Jarvis, John Wesley, born at South Shields on the Tyne (1 780- 
1840). This artist was at one time a very prominent portrait painter 
in America, to which country he came when five years old. He 
was of a convivial disposition, witty, and an especially good story- 
teller. He did not study or apply himself to his profession with any 
system, and the pictures he left are very unequal in merit. He 
painted a great number, and they may be seen in all parts of the 
country. There are portraits by him in the City Hall in New York, 
and in the rooms of the New York Historical Society. He was an in- 
imitable story-teller, and the life of the circle in which he moved. 

Jeaurat, Edme, born at Paris about 1680. This eminent engraver 
especially excelled in representing the peculiar characteristics of the 
different painters whose works he engraved. 

C-r Jegher, Christopher, born about 1590. Rubens em- 

1 ployed him to make wood-cuts from some designs which 
Qo*=xf^. j ie intended to publish. After the death of the painter, 
J".i-her purchased the blocks and published them himself. 

Jervas, Charles, born in Ireland. Died 1739. Pupil of Sir God- 
trey Kneller and teacher of Pope, who flattered him in an essay. He 
was a portrait painter of no great merit, but was much employed. 
He also copied the works of the Italian masters. 

Joaues, Vicente de, called also Juan Bautista de Juanes. Born 
at Fuente de Higuera, 1523; died at Bocairente, 1579. This artist 
is scarcely known out of Spain, and there his works are in churches 
and convents. As recently as 1782 it was doubtful if any of his pic- 
tures were in the possession of laymen. His subjects were entirely 
religious, and he commenced his pictures with prayer and fasting. 
It is more than probable that he studied in Rome. He was a success- 
ful imitator of Raphael. He established a school of painting at 
Valencia, where he chiefly resided. It is related that the Virgin ap- 
peared to a Jesuit of Valencia and commanded him to have a pic- 
ture painted of her in the dress in which she appeared, which 
was a white robe and blue mantle. She was to be standing on a 
crescent; the mystic dove to float above her; her Son to crown her, 
while the Father was seen to lean from the clouds above all. Joanes 
was chosen to execute this miraculous commission, and although he 
fasted and prayed much, he could not succeed in realizing the ideal 
of the pious Jesuit; but at last his zeal and piety overcame all diffi- 
culties, and his picture was placed above the altar of the Immaculate 
Conception in the convent of the Jesuits. Artists praised it, and the 
monks believed in its miraculous powers. It was known as ' ' La Pu- 


risima." He was inventive, and his coloring was splendid, but his 
style was severe and stiff, like his character. Joanes especially ex- 
celled in painting the Saviour. He seemed to have conceived the 
very Christ of Scripture, the realization of the visions of S. John, or 
the poetry of Solomon. In these pictures majesty and grace. strength 
and love, were united. His best pictures of Christ represent Him as 
dispi-nsiiiii the types of his body and blood. He frequently introduced 
a cup, which was believed to have been that used by our Lord at his 
Last Supper. It was of agate, and adorned with gold and gems. 
This cup is known as the Holy Chalice of Valencia, where it is treas- 
ured in the Cath. A picture of this kind in the Mus. of Valencia is 
perhaps his best. This Mus. has other works of his, and others are 
in the Cath. of the same city, and in the Royal Gall, of Madrid. In 
the Queen of Spain's Gall, there is a series of six pictures by this 
master, illustrating the life of S. Stephen, and a " Last Supper." 
Another picture of the latter subject was painted for the ch. of S. 
Nicholas in Valencia, where it remains. It is one of his finest works 
and more round and harmonious in design and color than most of his 
pictures are. In portraits, Joanes excelled. Perhaps his finest one 
remaining is that of Don Luis de Castelvy, in the Royal Gall, of 
Madrid. Stirling says, " It might pass for a work of Raphael him- 
self." In the Mus. of Valencia is his S. Francis de Paula, and in 
the Cath. one of S. Thomas of Villanueva, and one of Archbishop 
Juan de Ribera; the former expressive of mildness, the latter of 
gravity and thought, and both of dignified superiority. 

Jode. This was the name of a family of Flemish engravers who 
flourished for a century from 15GO. Arnold de Jode was the latest, 
and was in London in 1666. Peter de Jode, the Younger, was the 
best engraver of them all, but the works of his father, Peter the 
Elder, are well esteemed, and some of them are scarce. 

Jongh, Lieve de, born near Rotterdam (161G-1697). His prin- 
cipal work was a " Company of Archers," for the Salle des Princes 
at Rotterdam. It is an excellent work, and may be compared with 
those of Van der Heist. 

Jordaens, Jacob, born at Antwerp (1593-1678). Pupil of Adam 
Van Noort at the same time with Rubens, lie became the follower 
and half assistant of the latter. He married early in life the 
daughter of Van Noort, and never visited Italy. He was a master 
of great power. He painted a variety of subjects. Many of his 
sacred pictures are in the churches of Flanders and Brabant, but 
they are not his best works. His best historical work is in the House 
of the Wood near the Hague, and represents scenes from the life of 
Prince Frederick Henry of Orange. His best works are popular 
subjects, which represent the customs of the common people. These 
are full of humor, and sometimes degenerate into vulgarity, but are 
well and powerfully painted. His pictures vary very much according 


as he was interested or not in his subject. His color was fine, his 
impasto somewhat unequal, but he excelled in depth of chiaro-scuro, 
and a " certain golden glow " in which he sometimes surpassed even 
Rubens. His pictures are numerous and are seen in all large Euro- 
pean galleries. 

Jouvenet, Jean, born at Rouen (1644-1717). One of the best 
French academic painters. He never visited Italy. His greatest 
work was a " Deposition from the Cross," now in the Louvre. He 
painted in oil and fresco. He executed many works for the princi- 
pal churches of Paris. At the time of his death, he had held the 
office of Rector of the Acad. of Painting, during ten years. He lost 
the use of his right hand in 1713, and his latest works were done with 
the left. His drawing was correct, and he had great facility of exe- 
cution, but his color cannot be praised. 

Julien, Pierre (1731-1804). French sculptor, and pupil of Guil- 
laume Coustou. He spent four years in Rome, where he was much 
admired and constantly employed. He was not admitted to the Royal 
Acad. until 1779. His statue of La Fontaine is considered his chef- 
d'oeuvre in that department of sculpture. His last work was a statue 
of Nicolas Poussin, executed for the Hall of the Institute. He made 
some very fine bas-reliefs for the castle of Rambouillet, and a statue 
of a woman bathing, which ranks very high among modern sculp- 

Juni, Juan de. Flourished from the middle to the last of the 1 6th 
centurv. Was the best sculptor in Spain at that time. Has some- 
times been thought a Fleming, but Benmidez believes him to have 
been a native of Castile. His style seems to prove that he studied in 
Italy. He hesitated at no dilh'culty of attitude, and represented 
power, energy, and strong emotions, which made his works a per- 
fect contrast to those of Berreguete. His works remind one of 
Michael Angelo, perhaps more than those of any other modern 
sculptor. His sculptures which represent the Life of our Lord, still 
exist in the Cath. of Osma. They were done by the order of the 
Bishop of Acosta, who is buried at Aranda de Duero, beneath a 
monument, also the work of Juni. The Mus. of Valladolid has the 
" Entombment of Christ," made in clay. It formerly adorned the 
chapel of the Franciscan convent. There is no mention of the name 
of Juni, later than 1586. 

Justus of Padua, as he is frequently called, was named Giusto di 
Gio. Menabuoi, and was born in Florence. He was made a citizen 
of Padua, where he had settled, in 1375, and died in 1400. Several 
different works are attributed to him, some of which arc in a very 
imperfect state. The National Gall, has a fine triptych signed by 
him, and dated 13C7. The chief subject is the "Coronation of the 
Virgin; " it is exquisitely finished in parts, especially the hands, and 
the figure of the Virgin is very graceful. He was not a pupil of 
Giotto, but mav be ranked among the best of the Giotteschi. 


Justus of Ghent. There are several works attributed to this old 
painter, but the only one positively known to be his, is ;i reproenta- 
tion of the " Last Supper ;> in S. Agatha, at Urbino. This was exe- 
cuted in 14G8-1474. Full accounts are preserved concerning this 
work in the registers of the convent. It is probable that Justus was 
employed on account of his knowledge of the use of oils, and not be- 
cause of superiority over such men as were living in Italy in his day. 
His manner was, however, good-, his composition was well arranged, 
bis bands and feet accurately drawn and fairly proportioned, and the 
figures of the Apostles are more refined than was usual in his time. 
The state of the picture scarcely warrants a judgment of his color, 
but altogether it may be safely said, that he well maintained the. 
reputation of Flemish art. 

Juvara, Filippo, born at Messina, 1685. Studied at Rome under 
Fontana. He was employed at Turin by the King of Sardinia, and 
at Lisbon by the King of Portugal. He also travelled in France and 
England. Philip V. invited him to Spain and employed him first at 
S. Ildefonso, and afterwards appointed him to rebuild the, Aleaxar, 
which had been burned in 1734. Juvara was engaged in construct- 
ing a colossal model of this edifice, when he died, in 173>. The 
model was finished by Sachetti, whom Juvara had recommended on 
his death-bed. This model may still be seen at Buenretiro. and is 
composed of enough timber to build an ordinary house. It was, in 
the end, rejected, and another plan made by Sachetti for the new 
palace, which is now the chief object to the eye of the stranger ap- 
proaching Madrid. 

Juvenel, Paul (1580-1643). A painter of interiors. He was em- 
ployed at Nuremburg, Vienna, and Presburg. 


KabeL See Cabel. 

Kager, Johann Mathiaa, born at Munich (1566-1031). He 
studied in Rome, and became an eminent painter. lie was much 
employed by the Duke of Bavaria, and some of his works are in the. 
churches of Munich. He removed to Augsburg, where he painted 
bis principal work, the u Last Judgment," in the Hall of the Senate. 
His pictures are known from enuraviugs by the Sadelers, Kilians, and 
other engravers. Kager also etched some plates from bis own de- 

Kalcar. See Calcar. 

Kalf, Willem, born at Amsterdam (1630-1603). A painter of 
still-life. He especially excelled in the representation of elegant 
vases and porcelain vessels. He sometimes painted kitchen pieces, 
with vegetables and cooking utensils as prominent features. The 
Louvre and the Amsterdam Mus. have one picture each by this 


Kauffman, Maria Angelica, born at Chur, in the Grisons (1742- 
1808). Daughter of Joseph Kauffman, also a painter; she received 
her first instruction from him. She was taken to Rome while still 
young, and had good opportunities for study there. She was very 
much admired for her beauty and musical talents, as well as for her 
pictures, and these last were in great demand. She went to England, 
where she had a most flattering reception and constant employment, 


and was made a member of the Royal Acad. She returned to Rome, 
where she died. Her husband was named Zucchi, and her marriage 
was unhappy. She first painted portraits, and later in life, historical 
subjects. Her pictures possess no striking merit, though many of 
them arc very agreeable ; neither have they glaring faults ; therefore 
she should have a middle rank, not meriting fully the extreme praise, 
or severe criticism, which have been bestowed on her. Her works 
are seen in many English collections, and in some of the large Conti- 
nental galleries. She also made etchings from her own designs, and 
after the works of other artists. They were executed with spirit and 

Kerkhove, Joseph Van der, born at Bruges (1GG9-1724). Pupil 
of the younger Quellinus. He resided some years in France, and on 
his return to Bruges received more commissions than he could exe- 
cute. His pictures may be seen in the churches of his native city, 
and at Ostend he painted the ceiling of the Town Hall. 

Kessel, Van. There were several artists of this name. One Jan 


(born 1626) painted his backgrounds very bright like Paul Brill, and 
his son Ferdinand (1660-1696) followed his style, but did not equal 
his father. Another Jan (died 1 708) painted in the manner of Jacob 
Ruysdacl with much power, but his works are scarce. There was 
also Nicholas (born 1684), who painted in the style of Teniers, and 
Theodore (born 1620), an engraver whose plates arc etched with 
freedom and spirit. 

Ketel, Cornelia, born at Gouda (1548-1602). A reputable por- 
trait painter. He went to England and painted Queen Eli/.abeth, 
and many other persons. He also painted the Company of Marks- 
men of Amsterdam, and other groups. 

Keuleii or Ceulen, Jansons Van. Said to have been born in 
England of Dutch parents. He was a good portrait painter of the 
time of Charles L, and it is probable that many portraits now in Eng- 
land, and attributed to Vandyck, were by Van Keulen. 

Keux. John Le, born in London (1783-1846). An eminent archi- 
tectural engraver. He executed plates for many fine works, among 
which are Neale's Westminster Abbey; Britten's Architectural An- 
tiquities, Cathedrals, etc.; and the first volume of Neale's Churches. 

Keyser, Theodor de. Flourished 1625-1660. Very little is 
known of him, but he left some good portraits, large and small. 
One of the latter is in the National Gall. An Archery Company is 
in the new Hotel de Ville at Amsterdam, and at the IIagiu< there is 
a fine work representing the " Burgomasters of Amsterdam Deliber- 
ating upon the Reception of Mary ilcMedieis," in 1638. 

Keyzer, Henry de. A portrait painter whose works are in the 
Amsterdam Mus. 

Kierings or Cierincx, James, born at Utrecht (1580-1646). A 
painter of landscapes in which Poelemburgh was accustomed to paint 
the figures. He went to England, and was employed by Charles I. 
to make views of his country houses. 

Kilian. Zani mentions twenty engravers of this name. Lucas 
Kilian was the first of a family of them who flourished from 1600 to 
1750. He was the pupil of Dominic Custos, and also studied in Italy. 
His son Wolfgang, and his grandsons Philip and Bartholomew, were 
also engravers; and another, named Wolfgang Philip, and still 
another, Philip Andrew, were of the same family. Lucas and Bar- 
tholomew were eminent, and their works are much admired. 

King, Charles B, born at Newport, Rhode Wand (1786-1862). 
This artist lived at Washington in the winter, and his studio con- 
tained many portraits which are valuable as likenesses rather than as 
works of art. This is especially true of some portraits of Indians. 
He was a lover of art, and donated M-veral thousand dollars and some 
pictures to Redwood Library, Newport, and left a sum of money, the 
interest of which is expended for musical instruction in the public 
schools of his native city. 


Boss, Augustus, born at Pless (1802-1865). Educated at Berlin. 
This sculptor executed a great number of busts, groups, figures, and 
bas-reliefs in stone, bronze, and plaster. He also copied the works 
of antiquity, and those of the sculptor Schinkel, after whose designs 
he made the reliefs for the gable ends of the ch. of S. Nicholas, in 
Potsdam. His first great work was the " Amazon Struggling with a 
Panther," now in the Berlin Mus. This established his reputation 
everywhere. His other important statues are those of Frederick the 
Great, Frederick William HI., and the group of " S. Michael and the 
Dragon." His works are much admired, but he sometimes sacrifices 
good taste to energy of action. 

KLlerck, Henry de, born at Brussels, 1570. Pupil of Martin de 
Vos. His pictures arc seen in some of the churches of Brussels, and 
throughout the Low Countries. They have considerable merit. 

Klomp, Albert Flourished 1602-1622. His landscapes are 
sometimes mistaken for those of Paul Potter. One of these is in the 
Brussels Gall. 

Kneller, Sir Godfrey, born at Liibeck (1646-1723). A rival of 
Lely in portraiture. He had the honor of painting eight crowned 
heads, and an almost innumerable number of other persons. He 
studied under Rembrandt, Bol, Carlo Maratti, and Bernini. His 
pictures are full of mannerism. There are two very distinct opinions 
of his excellence, some admiring him very much, and others criticis- 
ing him with great severity. He painted very rapidly and often 
prostrated his talent for the sake of gain, but his carefully finished 
works show what he might have done, had he regarded fame more 
and money less. His design was correct, and he was especially skil- 
ful in painting the hair. His groups of children are, perhaps, his 
best works, and some pictures in which he has represented his female 
sitters as Madonnas, have considerable merit. A monument to his 
memory was executed by Rysbrach, and placed in Westminster 

Knoller, Martin, born at Steinach in the Tyrol; died 1804. 
Pupil of Troger in Vienna, and Raphael Mengs at Rome. He be- 
came one of the best German historical painters. He worked in both 
oil and fresco. He excelled in depicting violent action. His color 
is best in his frescoes. His works are in the convent of Ettal and in 
that of Gries in the Tyrol; in the Town Hall of Munich and in the 
Gall, of that city; and in the Vienna Gall, there is a portrait of 
Joseph Rosa, a former director of that gallery. 

Kobell, Ferdinand, born at Manheim (1 740-1 799). A good land- 
scape painter and engraver. His etchings number more than 230. 

Kobell, "William, born at Manheim (1766-1834 ?). Son of the 
preceding. He also painted landscapes, and engraved. His etchings 
and aqua-tint engravings are much esteemed. 

Kobell, Franz, born at Manheim (1749-1822). Said to have ex- 


ecuted more than 10,000 pen sketches and drawings of landscapes 
and buildings. 

Kobell, Hendrik, horn at Rotterdam (1751-1782). A painter of 
marine subjects which were well esteemed. 

Kobell, Jan, born at Utrecht (1782-1814). A son of the preced- 
ing, and a good painter of animals. His pictures are much esteemed. 
He also left a few etchings and drawings. The latter are very valu- 

Kobell, Jan, Jr., born at Rotterdam (1800 ?-1838). Cousin of 
the preceding. A eattle and landscape painter. His paintings and 
drawings are very valuable. 

Koninck, or Coninck, David de, born at Antwerp (1636-1687). 
Pupil of Jan Fyt, and also a painter of hunts, animals, and kindred 
subjects. He was powerful in color, animated in conception, and 
masterly in touch. His works are rare. There are two excellent 
ones in the Amsterdam Mus. 

Koning, Salomon, born at Amsterdam ( 1 609-1 G 74 V). An imi- 
tator of the manner of Rembrandt. He so closely followed that mas- 
ter that his pictures were often mistaken for his, though there is an 
inferiority manifest to one experienced in judgment. Koning painted 
a variety of subjects, and his works are seen in some English gal- 
leries, and the Berlin Mus. He also etched nonie plates which are 
decidedly Rembrandtish in effect, and are executed with a very light 

Koningh, Philip de, born at Amsterdam (1619-1689). One of 
the best scholars of Rembrandt. He painted portraits and land- 
scapes. The latter are especially fine, and very valuable from their 
rarity and excellence. His finish and impasto are admirable; his 
color warm and clear, and the sense of distance which he gives is 
very fine. His works were adorned with figures by Lingellmch, and 
with animals by Dirk van Bergen. Some of his finest works are in 
private English collections. The Amsterdam, Hague, and Arem- 
berg galleries have specimens; the latter is a chef-d'ceucre. In the 
Painters' Gall, at Florence there is a fine portrait of himself. 

Krafft, Adam. An old sculptor of Nuremberg, believed to have 
been born there about 1430; he died at the Hospital of Sclnvabach 
in 1507. His early history is unknown. His first works in Nurem- 
berg art; the gable over the entrance hall of the Frauenkirche, 1642, 
and the Seven Stages (at which Christ fainted under the cross), on 
the way to the Johannis Cemetery. The first gives no promise of his 
later excellence, but the latter arc full of strong expression. The city 
of Nuremberg (especially the eh. of S. Sebald) is rich in the sculp- 
tures of Krafft. He had great power of conception, and while there. 
was a certain stoutness to his figures which was coarse, lie gave a 
touching expression to the tare, and sometimes reached a depth of 
feeling amounting to inspiration. That he could well represent the 



ordinary events of life is seen in the relief of the " Public Scales," in 
which the weigher stands observing the beam. Beneath it is written, 
" To thyself as to others." Another man adds a weight to one scale, 
and the merchant who is to be taxed puts his hand reluctantly into 
his money bag. A " Burial of Christ," in a chapel of the above- 
named cemetery, is said to have been his latest work, and executed in 
1507. From 1496 to 1500 he was employed upon the Stone Sacra- 
mentsgehause for the ch. of S. Lawrence. This is one of his most 
artistic works, and is 62 feet in height. The lower structure is sup- 
ported by the kneeling figures of Krafft and two of his associates. A 
slender Gothic pyramid rises from this, adorned with bas-reliefs and 


statuettes. He was very industrious, and used his left hand as readily 
as his right. He was accustomed to spend his holidays in drawing 
with Peter Vischer, whose works, together with his own, render Xu- 
remberg a place of great interest. 

Krug or Krugen, Lucas, called the " master of 
the pitcher " from his mark of the letters L. K. with 
a pitcher between them. His plates are very rare, 
and very good for the time in which he worked? 
about 1516. 

Kupetzky, Johann, born in Upper Hungary (1666-1740). He 
studied with the Swiss painter Klaus, but a long residence in Italy- 
had great effect on his style. He painted historical subjects and 
portraits, and the latter became very popular in Vienna; they are, 


however, somewhat affected in design. Few of his works are seen 
in public galleries. There are specimens in those of Vienna and 
Berlin. He was painter to the Emperor Joseph I., and M as invited 
to England by George II., but declined to go on account of his 


Laer, Pieter van, born at Laaren (1613-1675). He went to 
Rome while still young, and was called there Bamboccio, on account 
of his singular form. lie remained sixteen years in Rome, and was 
the friend of Claude and the Poussins. He painted all sorts of sub- 
jects, but more especially peasants with their cattle, lie also repre- 
sented peculiar effects of light and shade, such as moonlight on one 
si ]. and a torch-light on the other. His drawing was good, and the 
hands and feet sometimes finished with great delicacy. His color is 
at times clear, but many of his pictures are dark and smoky. His 
works are rare. They may be seen in the Louvre. Dresden, Vienna. 
and Cassel galleries. Those in the latter collection are fine speci- 
mens. Van Laer also etched twenty plates, mostly of animals; they 
are well executed, but his horses are badly drawn. 

Lafond, Charles Nicholas Raphael, born at Paris, 1 727. Pupil 
of Regnault. He is well considered among modern French artists. 
His works are numerous, and are seen in both public and private, 
collections. His subjects are various; poetical, Scriptural, and his- 

Lafosse, Charles dela, born at Paris (1636-1 71G). Pupil of Le 
Brun. .He distinguished himself by his works at the Invalides." 
He went to England, where he was well received ami employed. His 
easel pictures arc superior to his decorative works. lie was Chancel- 
lor of the French Acad. at the time of his death. 

Lagre'nee, Louis Jean Francois, born at Paris (1724-1805). Pu- 
pil of Carl Vanloo. He obtained a prize and was sent to Rome with 
a pension, when quite young. After his return to Paris his reputa- 
tion caused him to be appointed director of the Acad. of S. Peters- 
burg. In 1781 he was made director of the French school at Home, 
and there executed his best works, most of which have been en- 
graved. His subjects arc from sacred and profane history, and from 
the ancient poets. Napoleon gave him the cross of the Legion of 
Honor, and at the time of his death he was Professor-Rector of the 
School of Fine Arts, and honorary conservator and administrator of 
the Museum. 

Laguerre, Louis, born in Paris (1663-1721). Pupil of Le Brun. 
He went to England and assisted Verrio. They painted many halls 
and staircases. Pope mentions both these artists thus : 
" Where sprawl the saints of Verrio and Laguerre." 


Lairesse, Gerard de, born at Liege (1640-1711). He has been 
called the Poussin of Belgium, and he was indeed an imitator of 
Niccolo Poussin, but he imitated him from a distance. His pictures 
arc frequently cold in color, and when warm they are heavy. His 
execution is careful; his heads are in imitation of the antique profile, 
and somewhat monotonous; his figures are affected and frequently 
too short. He was most unsuccessful in Biblical subjects. His works 
may be seen in the Louvre, Berlin, and Cassel galleries. He etched 
a large number of plates from his own designs, with spirit and free- 
dom, and his lights are so arranged that the eye is immediately fixed 
on the principal figure. 

Lambert, George (1710-1775). An English landscape painter. 
Some of his pictures were painted in conjunction with Hogarth. 
Some of his landscapes are small, brilliant in color, and the trees are 
agitated by the wind. 

Lana, Ludovico, born at Modena (1597-1G46). He painted many 
religious subjects. His female figures are fine, and his landscape 
backgrounds very good. His works are best studied in his native 

Lancret, Nicholas, born at Paris (1690-1743). An imitator of 
Watteau in his choice of subjects. His peasants courting, his women 
and children, are all well done, and his landscapes are pleasing. His 
interiors arc well managed, and the accessories not too prominent. 
His handling is more broad and free than that of most painters of 
this class of pictures. 

Landini, Taddeo. The sculptor of the Fontana della Tartarughe, 
in Rome, executed in 1585. 

Lanfranco, Gio., born at Parma (1581-1647). One of the latest 
noticeable pupils of the Carracci. His best works were cupola paint- 
ings, and of these those of S. Andrea della Valle in Rome and the 
Tesoro in Naples are the best. His greatest merit is in his color; 
he is a mere machinist, introducing abrupt lights and shades, unnec- 
essary foreshortenings, faces without expression, and groups arranged 
entirely according to precepts rather than nature. And yet he was 
one of the best of the painters of this class. When his subject al- 
lowed a merely naturalistic conception, he succeeded best. Among 
his finest works are " S. Louis feeding the Poor," in the Acad. of 
Venice, and the " Liberation of S. Peter," in the Colonna Pal. at 
Rome. His " S. Cecilia," in the Barberini Pal., is one of his worst 
productions. He also executed a number of etchings in a masterly 

Lanini, Bernardino, born at Vercelli (about 1508-1578). Pupil 
of Gaudenzio Ferrari and an imitator of Correggio. His chief 
excellence was in his delicate chiaro-scuro. His best works were his 
frescoes, and of these may be mentioned the Sibyls and other works 
in the Cath. of Novara. One of his pictures is in the National Gall., 
London. He was much employed at Milan. 


Lapo. Arnolfo (1232-1300). A Florentine architect. His re- 
maining works attest his skill. Among them are the Cath. of S.Ma- 
ria del Fiore at Florence; the marble tribune in S. Paolo at Rome, 
ami the tomb of Card. Bruges in S. Doraenico at Orvieto. 

Largilliere, Nicholas, born in Paris (1656-1746). Pupil of An- 
toine Goubeau. He painted a variety of subjects. He was received 
into the French Acad. on account of his portrait of Charles le Brun, 
which was engraved by Edelinck. He went twice to England, and 
was for some time the assistant of Sir Peter Lely. He often painted 
landscapes, animals, and still-life, and used these subjects as ac ivo- 
ries to his figure pictures. 

Lasinio, H Conte Cavaliere Carlo, born at Trevigi, 1757. An 
excellent modern engraver. He made many engravings for books, 
illustrating the works of the old painters, such as " L'Etruria Pittrice," 
the " Remains of the Campo Santo at Pisa," and the " Storia della 
Pittura Italiana." 

Lasiie, Michael (1595-1667). This engraver was one of the first 
of his country (France), who distinguished themselves as engravers. 
His works are numerous. 

Lastman, Pieter, born at Haerlem (1562-1649). He studied in 
Rome, became famous, and was summoned to Copenhagen to deco- 
rate a church. His best points were vigorous color and great knowl- 
edge of chiaro-scuro. Rembrandt was once his pupil. He executed 
some etchings from his own designs, which are now rare. 

Launitz, Edward von der (1797-1869). Disciple of Thorwald- 
sen. He was an earnest student of the antique, which conduced t 
the formation of his noble style. The Guttenburg monument at 
Frankfort is his most important work, and is one